Library of Michigan
The Library of Michigan is a state-run library and historical center located in Lansing, Michigan, created to provide one perpetual state institution to collect and preserve Michigan publications, conduct reference and research, support libraries statewide. Under the Michigan Department of History and Libraries state agency and, as of 2009, under the Michigan Department of Education, the library is Michigan’s official state library agency. A notable side-project of the Library of Michigan is the Michigan eLibrary, one of the first online libraries on the Internet. MeL provides full-text articles, Michigan history materials, evaluated web sites to residents of the state of Michigan. In 2003, the Library of Michigan Board of Trustees elected as chair Elaine Didier, dean of Oakland University's Kresge Library and professor at Oakland University. In 1828, a territorial library was created containing laws and government documents for use by the territorial council, William B. Hunt was appointed the territorial librarian.
Nine years the former territorial library became the state library, Governor Stevens T. Mason appointed Oren Marsh as the first state librarian. In 1879, the state library moved to the new State Capitol in Lansing, it was a two-story room on the second and third floor in the west wing. The space is now the Speaker's Library on the second floor and the House Appropriations Committee room on the third floor. A fire in the State Office Building where the library was housed in 1951 destroyed 20,000 books and damaged 30,000 more. Public Act 540 of 1982 created the Library of Michigan and transferred control of the library from the Department of Education to the Legislative Council. Three years the Library of Michigan Foundation, which secures funds to support the library’s priority programs and projects, was established. In 1988, the Michigan Library and Historical Center opened, tripling the Library of Michigan’s space and merging its full collection of books in one place for the first time since the 1951 fire.
In 2001, the library was moved to the new Department of History and Libraries. After that department's abolition in 2009, the library was moved back to the Department of Education; the Library of Michigan at 5 stories contains over 3.2 million different items that take up over 27 miles of shelves. Opened in 1989, the Library of Michigan building contains one of the ten largest genealogical collections in the United States. Another feature is a Michigan collection containing legal materials. Other features of the library and historical center include the Michigan Historical Museum, the Archives of Michigan, newspapers on microfilm from papers all over the state; the State Law Library moved to the building in the summer of 2007. MichiCard Official website Michigan eLibrary homepage
Experiments and Observations on Electricity
Experiments and Observations on Electricity is a mid-eighteenth century book consisting of letters from Benjamin Franklin. These letters concerned Franklin's discoveries about the behavior of electricity based on experimentation and scientific studies; the book came in pamphlet form for the first three English editions. The last two editions were in a book volume with a book spine. There were eleven European editions of the book: five English editions, three French editions, a German and Latin edition; the publication was well received worldwide. It was considered America's most important scientific book of the eighteenth century; the book came about through the activities of scientists at the Royal Society of London. Franklin sent letters to members of the Society about his experiments on electricity and the observations he had made. Most of these letters went to Peter Collinson; some of these were read at the society's meetings. There was much interest shown, so some of them were sent to a printer to be published in a magazine.
Public interest in Franklin's letters about electricity led the Society to gather together many of the letters to Collinson from Franklin over a two-year period and send them to the printer for publication. This first collection of letters was published in a ninety-page pamphlet in 1751, it was soon followed by other parts that were "Supplemental" to the existing edition and a "New" publication was sold from the total of all the "Parts" produced. Each edition expanded by additional Franklin letters being added, it became a 496-page volume by 1769. The book inspired others to follow in Franklin's footsteps to do further in-depth research on electricity. Franklin was first attracted to the study of electricity when he saw the showman Archibald Spencer do magic demonstrations in Boston and in Philadelphia, he purchased Spencer's equipment and used it for his electricity experiments after these demonstrations were completed. He referred to Spencer as Dr. Spence from Scotland. In 1746, at the age of forty years, Franklin began turning over the affairs of his printing company to his business partner David Hall, went into semi-retirement so he could carry out research on electricity.
Peter Collinson – a wealthy Quaker cloth merchant, a Fellow of the Royal Society and one of the founders of the Society of Antiquaries of London – donated a Leyden jar battery, a glass tube, an account of new German experiments in electricity to the Library Company of Philadelphia. The account described. Franklin first experimented with static electricity in the middle of 1747, referring to it as "these new wonders." In conducting his initial electrical research, Franklin made use of the unique battery and glass tube provided by Collinson. Thomas Penn, son of William Penn, made an electrostatic machine that supplemented Collinson's equipment. To these Franklin added an electrostatic generating machine of his own design, more efficient than the one given to him by Penn, it was convenient because it was constructed with a handle, like that of a common grindstone, turned by the operator. The simple mechanical machine mechanism spun an axle that had mounted on it a glass sphere that rubbed on a cloth pad.
The glass sphere bulb generated'electric fire', transferred through conductors to a Leyden jar capacitor that held the electric charge, used for experimentation. Franklin formed a research core team that consisted of Ebenezer Kinnersley, Thomas Hopkinson, Philip Syng and developed the first scientific research laboratory in America, he recorded this observation. In this process he showed that anyone could repeat and prove these results themselves of the electrical principle if they did the experiment he detailed. Franklin spent much time studying this new field of electricity, from 1747 through 1750 sent many letters to Collinson on his findings; the book consists of a collection of these letters. The book came in pamphlet form for the first three editions; the last two editions were a book volume with hard covers. Franklin's letters explained the observations he made from them, he sent these to Collinson to show that the equipment – put into the hands of the group of men associated with Library Company of Philadelphia – was being put to good use.
William Watson, a scientist specializing in the study of electricity, theorized that electricity was attracted to conductors that were pointed. Watson received in 1746 from Dr. John Mitchell a lengthy Franklin letter on theories about thunderstorms and pointed conductors as related to electricity, he read part of the letter to fellow members of the Royal Society of London on November 9, 1749. A week he finished the reading. On December 4 Watson received another similar Franklin letter dated April 29, 1749, from Collinson and read it to the Society on December 21, 1749. Over the next two years Collinson had transmitted to the Society more of Franklin's letters he had received describing electrical experiments done by Franklin and his team of experimenters. Many talked about the tendency of an electrical discharge to be attracted to a pointed conductor, grounded - the basics to his lightning rod invention to protect wooden buildings such as houses and churches. Watson turned over some of these Franklin letters to the local publisher Edward Cave, who had them printed in The Gentleman's Magazine in 1750.
In April 1751 Cave printed in a publication more of the letters Collinson had received and they included corrections added by Franklin. This publication was titled and Observations on El
Interlibrary loan is a service whereby a patron of one library can borrow books, DVDs, etc. and/or receive photocopies of documents that are owned by another library. The user makes a request with their home library; the lending library sets a due date and overdue fees of the material borrowed. Although books and journal articles are the most requested items, some libraries will lend audio recordings, video recordings, sheet music, microforms of all kinds. In some cases, nominal fees accompany the interlibrary loan services; the term document delivery may be used for a related service, namely the supply of journal articles and other copies on a personalized basis, whether these come from other libraries or direct from the publishers. The end user is responsible for any fees, such as costs for postage or photocopying. Commercial document delivery services will borrow on behalf of any customer willing to pay for their rates. Interlibrary loan, or resource sharing, has two operations: lending. A borrowing library sends an owning library a request to borrow, photocopy, or scan materials, needed by their patron.
The owning library fills the request by sending materials to the borrowing library or supply a reason for why the request cannot be filled. If the item is sent, the borrowing library notifies the patron. Interlibrary loan and resource sharing have a variety of systems and workflows based on the scale of service, regional networks, library systems. Processes are automated by computer systems such as VDX based on ISO ILL standards 10161 and 10160. Two major systems are used heavily: ILLiad developed by Atlas Systems and Worldshare Management System by OCLC. In 2017, OCLC announced a new interlibrary loan management system called Tipasa, built on the OCLC WorldShare technology platform, is the first cloud-based interlibrary loan management system. Loan requests between branch libraries in the same local library system are filled promptly, while loan requests between library systems may take weeks to complete. However, if an item is rare, fragile, or exceptionally valuable, the owning library is under no obligation to release it for interlibrary loan.
Some collections and volumes bound journals and one-of-a-kind manuscripts, are non-circulating, meaning that they may not be borrowed. Books may be delivered by courier service. Photocopies may be scanned and delivered electronically. Urgent requests are placed. Public libraries do not offer urgent service. Interlibrary loan provides users with access to articles from journals that their library does not have in its collection or is subscribed to. In the United States, most libraries follow guidelines established by the Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted works, which established that libraries should pay publishers' fees if more than 5 ILL requests are filled from within the past 5 years from a specific publication; this guideline is referred to in United States Libraries as the "Rule of Five." In addition, many journal or database licenses specify whether a library can or cannot supply journal articles via ILL, with many libraries taking an approach to negotiate for ILL to be allowed in licenses.
When licensed to send articles via Interlibrary Loan, having examined the need to pay copyright fees for articles, article processing has become automated in Interlibrary Loan. In the early 1990s the Research Library Group created and released Ariel, a software that made communicating both photocopies and native digital articles more efficient. In the early 2000s Atlas Systems, creators of the ILLiad software system, created Odyssey, which allowed for direct communication of articles between libraries, direct sending of articles to library patrons. Although Odyssey usage and features increased OCLC realized an important need among its member libraries, created Article Exchange, a cloud-based secure article sharing platform that automatically deletes articles after a specified number of downloads and/or a number of days; as many libraries shifted their journal subscriptions to digital, citation information became much more available with tools such as Google Scholar, Interlibrary Loan of articles has become a large part of Interlibrary Loan services.
In 1886 Joseph C. Rowell, Librarian at the University of California, sought permission to begin Interlibrary Loan. In 1894 Rowell initiated U. C. Berkeley's first program of interlibrary lending, with the California State Library as partner; that year Rowell expanded the invitation for a group of libraries, such as NUCMC. Librarians filled out a standardized form and sent it by postal mail to a library that owned a copy; this procedure is still used by the few libraries that are not members of an electronic interlibrary loan network. In 1994, the Reference and User Services Association of the ALA formed an ALA Interlibrary Loan Code for the United States, which sought to establish resource sharing as a core service and to provide guidelines for libraries; the RUSA section on Resource Sharing has engaged in initiatives to expand resource sharing, including the Rethinking Resource Sharing Init
Institute of Museum and Library Services
The Institute of Museum and Library Services is an independent agency of the United States federal government established in 1996. It is the main source of federal support for libraries and museums within the United States, having the mission to "create strong libraries and museums that connect people with information and ideas." IMLS "works at the national level and in coordination with state and local organizations to sustain heritage and knowledge. Their vision is "a democratic society where communities and individuals thrive with broad public access to knowledge, cultural heritage, lifelong learning." In fiscal year 2015, IMLS had a budget of $228 million. In addition to its other responsibilities, the IMLS annually awards the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest award given for community service by libraries and museums. IMLS is located at 955 L’Enfant Plaza North, SW, Suite 4000, Washington, D. C. 20024-2135. IMLS was established by the Museum and Library Services Act on September 30, 1996, which includes the Library Services and Technology Act and the Museum Services Act.
This act was reauthorized in 2003 and again in 2010. The law combined the Institute of Museum Services, in existence since 1976, the Library Programs Office, part of the Department of Education since 1956. Lawmakers at that time saw “great potential in an Institute, focused on the combined roles that libraries and museums play in our community life.”As amended, MLSA authorizes IMLS to promote improvements in library services. MLSA authorizes IMLS to carry out and publish analyses of the impact of museum and library services; the act comes up for reauthorization every 5 years. Adjustment to the act have been made over time. In April 2014, Representative Paul Ryan recommended that the federal government not fund MLSA and "shift the federal agency’s responsibilities to the private sector in his 2015 fiscal year budget resolution" such as "funded at the state and local level and augmented by charitable contributions from the private sector". Following a proposal by President George W. Bush, the activities of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science was consolidated under IMLS, along with some of the activities of the National Center for Education Statistics, in order to create a unified body for federal support of library and information policy.
The consolidation took effect in early 2008. When Congress passed the Library Services and Technology Act in 1996, it moved library responsibilities out of the Department of Education and created the IMLS as new agency; the act stipulated that the agency maintain a rotating directorship starting with the former director of the Institute of Museum Services for a four-year term. In the fifth year, the directorship would pass to a representative from the field of library and information science. Diane Frankel Prior to leading the agency through its transition to include federal library as well as museum programs, Frankel served as director of the Institute of Museum Services. Robert S. Martin Preceding his position at IMLS, Martin was a professor and interim director of the School of Library and Information Studies at Texas Woman's University, he served as Director and Librarian of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission. He articulated the convergence of new media in lifelong learning at the beginning of the millennium.
Anne-Imelda Radice Previously served as chief of staff for the U. S. Department of Education and as curator in the Office of the Architect of the Capitol, she earned a bachelor's degree from Wheaton College in Massachusetts. C.. D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Susan H. Hildreth Began her career as a branch librarian at the Edison Township Library in New Jersey, where she was president of the Public Library Association, she has been the city librarian in Seattle and state librarian of California. In addition, Hildreth was deputy director of San Francisco Public Library. Dr. Kathryn K. Matthew A scientist with a 30-year museum career, Matthew’s experience includes curation, collections management, research roles at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia and Cranbrook Institute of Science, her experience includes fundraising and marketing roles at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, the Virginia Museum of Natural History, The Nature Conservancy, the Historic Charleston Foundation, The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis.
She was executive director of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. STEM – Libraries and museums are improving learning in science, technology and math, a national priority for US competitiveness. Preservation and Care of Content and Collections – Libraries and museums care for collections that connect us to history, art and the natural world; the national initiative, Connecting to Collections, is an initiative to raise public awareness of the importance of caring for our treasures, to underscore the
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol