Bunka Fashion College
Bunka Fashion College is a Japanese Vocational education school specializing in the teaching of fashion design and related disciplines. It is headquartered in Shinjuku and has more than 70 branches throughout Japan; the College was founded in 1919 by Isaburo Namiki as a small dressmaking school for girls called Namiki Dressmaking School, at a time when European-style clothing for women was still considered modern and was only available for affluent families. In 1936, the name of the school became Bunka Fashion College, it began publishing So-en, Japan's first fashion magazine; the Bunka Fashion College went through three major eras: First it taught people and families and to make clothes. Alumni of the school include: Tsumori Chisato Misha Janette H. Naoto Takeo Kikuchi Asami Kiyokawa Yoshiyuki Konishi Mariko Mori Nigo Naomi Nishida Peeco Sebastiano Serafini Tomoe Shinohara Kenzō Takada Jun Takahashi Junya Watanabe Yohji Yamamoto Hiromichi Ochiai Soshi Otsuki Shingo Sato Bunka has programs focusing on Fashion Design, Fashion Technology, Fashion Marketing and Distribution, Fashion Accessories and Textiles.
In 2012, Bunka Gakuen University, the neighboring institute of higher education linked with the college, opened a Masters level course in Fashion Studies aimed at foreign students. This course is called the Global Fashion Concentration and is taught in English; every year, new mannequins are created that reflect the average measurements of the students of that year, in an effort to work on realistic physical figures. All students are required how human bodies move; the Bunka school values the Kaizen in its education. One Master program is held in English. Students must pass a Japanese language proficiency test, part-time jobs are not allowed. Bunka has over 70 branches around Japan, but its main campus is in the western part of Tokyo's Shinjuku neighborhood; the main building is 21 stories tall, includes facilities such as a library, costume museum, a resource center. The main campus is about an 8-minute walk from JR Shinjuku Station and about a 3-minute walk from the #6 exit of the Toei Shinjuku subway station.
#2 Best Fashion School of 2015 by Business of Fashion 2013: #7 in top 50 fashion schools in the world according to Fashionista Official website General courses Business of Fashion's 2nd overall Fashion school
Fashion design is the art of applying design and natural beauty to clothing and its accessories. It is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklaces; because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, designers must at times anticipate changes to consumer tastes. Designers interpret them for their audience, their specific designs are used by manufacturers. This is the essence of a designer’s role. Fashion designers attempt to design clothes, they consider, to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn, they work within a wide range of materials, colors and styles. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are sought for special occasions such as evening wear or party dresses; some clothes are made for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring.
Today, most clothing is designed for the mass market casual and every-day wear are called ready to wear. Fashion designers may work full-time for one fashion house, as'in-house designers', which owns the designs, or they work alone or as part of a team. Freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers; the garments bear the buyer's label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels; some fashion designers design for individual clients. Other high-end fashion designers cater to high-end fashion department stores; these designers create original garments, as well as those. Most fashion designers, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men's, women's, children's fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a'name' as their brand such as Abercrombie & Fitch, Justice, or Juicy are to be designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a design director. Fashion designers work in different ways.
Some sketch their ideas on paper. When a designer is satisfied with the fit of the toile, he or she will consult a professional pattern maker who makes the finished, working version of the pattern out of card or via a computerized system. A sample garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit. Fashion design is considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth, the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created. Before the former draper set up his maison couture in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by anonymous seamstresses, high fashion descended from that worn at royal courts. Worth's success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done; the term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him. While all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created after 1858 is considered as fashion design.
It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments. The images were shown to clients, much cheaper than producing an actual sample garment in the workroom. If the client liked their design, they ordered it and the resulting garment made money for the house. Thus, the tradition of designers sketching out garment designs instead of presenting completed garments on models to customers began as an economy; the garments produced by clothing manufacturers fall into three main categories, although these may be split up into additional, more specific categories Until the 1950s, fashion clothing was predominately designed and manufactured on a made-to-measure or haute couture basis, with each garment being created for a specific client. A couture garment is made to order for an individual customer, is made from high-quality, expensive fabric, sewn with extreme attention to detail and finish using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Look and fit take priority over the cost of materials and the time it takes to make.
Due to the high cost of each garment, haute couture makes little direct profit for the fashion houses, but is important for prestige and publicity. Ready-to-wear, or prêt-à-porter, clothes are a cross between haute mass market, they are not made for individual customers, but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. Clothes are made in small quantities to guarantee exclusivity, so they are rather expensive. Ready-to-wear collections are presented by fashion houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week; this occurs twice a year. The main seasons of Fashion Week include: spring/summer, fall/winter, resort and bridal. Half-way garments are an alternative to "off-the-peg", or prêt-à-porter fashion. Half-way garments are intentionally unfinished pieces of clothing that encourages co-design between the "primary designer" of the garment, what would be considered, the passive "cons
Carnation (TV series)
Carnation is a Japanese television drama that aired in the Asadora slot on NHK from 3 October 2011 to 31 March 2012. It is the 85th Asadora, it is based on the life of the fashion designer Ayako Koshino in Osaka. Ayako was the mother of the internationally famous designers Hiroko Koshino, Junko Koshino, Michiko Koshino; the story begins in 1924 when Itoko Ohara is a free-spirited 11-year-old girl. The eldest daughter of Zensaku, who runs a small kimono fabric shop, Chiyo, who left her rich family to elope with Zensaku, Itoko loves the Danjiri Matsuri, but is upset that girls are not allowed to participate, she finds a substitute in dressmaking after she sees Western dresses for the first time when visiting her grandparents in Kobe. After proceeding to girl's middle school, she gets her first glimpse of a sewing machine and becomes obsessed with working that device. Pressing her stern and obstinate father, who objects to Western clothing, she convinces him to let her leave school to pursue her dream.
But she has to overcome many hurdles along the way, which she does through her persistence and indefatigable nature. She first works at a shop that gets fired when times get hard, she convinces a sewing machine saleswoman to teach her Western dressmaking, succeeds in designing and creating the uniforms of a Shinsaibashi department store, but Zensaku still makes her work at a series of establishments after he complains of her lack of business acumen. At first a tailor shop and a fabric store, Itoko increases business through hard work and innovation. Convinced that his daughter has grown and that kimono fabric is a dying business, Zensaku retires and hands the business over to Itoko, who opens her own Western dressmaking shop in 1934. Masaru Kawamoto, Itoko's co-worker at the tailors, proposes marriage and enters the Ohara family as a mukoyōshi; the two have three daughters while running a successful business making Western-style clothes for men and women. But their world is profoundly changed by Japan's pursuit of war.
Their neighbors Taizō Yasuoka and his younger brother Kansuke die in battle. Zensaku is badly burned in a fire at home and dies. Itoko's former schoolmate Natsu, who ran a high-class ryōtei, has to sell it when business goes bad and flees town to escape her debtors. Masaru is drafted and sadly dies of an illness at the front shortly before the war ends. After the war, Itoko is able to rebound rather and assists others in recovering as well, she helps Yaeko, Taizō's widow, resume her hair permanent business, when she discovers that Natsu had become a prostitute for American servicemen, she convinces Tamae, Taizō's mother, to save Natsu by hiring her. Itoko joins the local fabric meets a young tailor from Nagasaki named Ryūichi Suo. Through various circumstances, the two come to work together and fall in love—even though Suo has a wife and children. Resolving to solve the situation, Itoko supports Suo in opening his own shop and never sees him again; as time passes, Itoko's three daughters begin to decide on their careers.
Yūko, the eldest wants to go to an art college, but when Itoko challenges her on whether she wants to be an artist, she decides to attend a fashion design school in Tokyo instead. Naoko, who always seems to be fighting with Yūko, decides to go to the same school, much to Yūko's consternation—and becomes the first to be successful by winning a major award. Yūko returns to Kishiwada after graduating to help her mother, but Naoko stays in Tokyo to open her own boutique; when it begins to flounder due to Naoko's abrasive personality, the gentler Yūko travels to Tokyo, despite being married and with a daughter, to help out. Meanwhile, the youngest, who seems furthest removed from the clothing world, gives up a promising tennis career to learn dressmaking under her mother. Itoko, starts to feel her age as fashions change from Dior to Louis Vitton to miniskirts, contemplates handing over the business to Yūko, but Kishiwada is too small for Yūko. Satoko, whom Itoko thinks of giving the shop to next, decides to go to London to try her design skills.
The years pass and Itoko's daughters are solid successes in the fashion world. Yūko's daughter Rika, had become a rebellious youth who flees her mother to stay with Itoko. Through her grandmother's love, she finds herself and begins working for her mother. Itoko helps others as well. Succumbing to the pleas of a son of an old friend, she designs some clothing for the elderly, is such a success she starts her own brand of clothing that makes her more famous. Doing a fashion show at a hospital, she runs into Natsu for the first time in decades, meets the daughter of Suo. Working everyday into her nineties, renovating her home, she collapses in March 2006 and dies in the hospital at the age of 92; the many she helped gather at her home and watch the Danjiri Festival from the window—while Yōko tells her sisters that a TV network wants to do an asadora of their mother's life. Machiko Ono as Itoko Ohara, the heroine modeled after Ayako Koshino Mari Natsuki as Itoko Ohara as an old woman Akari Ninomiya as Itoko Ohara as a child, as well as Naoko Ohara as a child Kaoru Kobayashi as Zensaku Ohara, her father Yumi Asou as Chiyo Ohara, her mother Akira Takarada as Seizaburō Matsuzaka, her grandfather Yukiyo Toake as Sadako Matsuzaka, her grandmother Terue Shōji as Haru Ohara, her other grandmother Miyu Yagyū as Shizuko Ohara, her younger sister Tarō Suruga as Masaru Kawamoto, her husband Chiharu Niiyama as Yūko Ohara, Itok
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
NHK is Japan's national public broadcasting organization. NHK, which has always been known by this romanized acronym in Japanese, is a publicly owned corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee. NHK operates two terrestrial television channels, four satellite television channels, three radio networks. NHK provides an international broadcasting service, known as NHK World-Japan. NHK World-Japan is composed of NHK World TV, NHK World Premium, the shortwave radio service Radio Japan. World Radio Japan makes some of its programs available on the Internet. NHK is an independent corporation chartered by the Japanese Broadcasting Act and funded by license fees. NHK World broadcasting is funded by the Japanese government; the annual budget of NHK is subject to approval by the Diet of Japan. The Diet appoints the 12-member Board of Governors that oversees NHK. NHK is managed on a full-time basis by an Executive Board consisting of a President, Vice President and seven to ten Managing Directors who oversee the areas of NHK operations.
The Executive Board reports to the Board of Governors. NHK is funded by reception fees, a system analogous to the license fee used in some English-speaking countries; the Broadcast Law which governs NHK's funding stipulates any television equipped to receive NHK is required to pay. The fee is standardized, with discounts for office workers and students who commute, as well a general discount for residents of Okinawa prefecture. For viewers making annual payments by credit card with no other special discounts, the reception fee is 13,600 yen per year for terrestrial reception only, 24,090 yen per year for both terrestrial and broadcast satellite reception. However, the Broadcast Law lists no punitive actions for nonpayment; this incident sparked debate over the fairness of the fee system. In 2006, the NHK opted to take legal action against those most flagrantly in violation of the law. NHK General TV broadcasts a variety of programming; the following are noteworthy: NHK offers local and world news reports.
NHK News 7 airs daily and is broadcast bilingually with both Japanese and English audio tracks on NHK General TV and NHK's international channels TV Japan and NHK World Premium. The flagship news program News Watch 9 is bilingual and airs on NHK General TV and the international channels and NHK World Premium. World news is aired on NHK BS 1 with Catch! Sekai no Jiten in the morning and International News Report at night, with the latter airing on NHK World Premium. News on NHK BS 1 is aired at 50 minutes past the hour except during live sport events. NHK offers news for the deaf, regional news and children's news. Newsline is an English-language newscast designed for foreign airs on NHK World. In his book Broadcasting politics in Japan:NHK and television news, ES Krauss states:'In the 1960s and 1970s, external critics of NHK news were complaining about the strict neutrality, the lack of criticism of government, the'self-regulation in covering events'. Krauss claims that little had changed by the 1990s.
After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 NHK was criticised for underplaying the dangers from radioactive contamination. Under the Broadcast Act, NHK is under the obligation to broadcast early warning emergency reporting in times of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis, their national network of seismometers in cooperation with the Japan Meteorological Agency makes NHK capable of delivering the news in just 2–3 minutes after the quake. They broadcast air attack warnings in the event of war, using the J-Alert system. All warnings are broadcast in five languages: English, Mandarin and Portuguese, as well as Japanese; the warnings were broadcast in these languages during tsunami. NHK broadcasts sumo wrestling, baseball games, Olympic Games, soccer games, a range of other sports; the NHK Symphony Orchestra, financially sponsored by NHK, was the Japanese Symphony Orchestra. Its website details the orchestra's history and ongoing concert programme. Since 1953, NHK has broadcast the Kōhaku Uta Gassen song contest on New Year's Eve, ending shortly before Midnight.
A sentimental morning show, a weekly jidaigeki and a year-long show, the ‘‘Taiga drama’’, spearhead the network’s fiction offerings. NHK is making efforts at broadcasting dramas made in foreign countries as "Overseas Drama"; the longest running children's show in Japan, Okaasan to Issho, still airs to this day on NHK-ETV. NHK's earliest forerunner was the Tokyo Broadcasting Station founded in 1924 under the leadership of Count Gotō Shinpei. Tokyo Broadcasting Station, along with separate organizations in Osaka and Nagoya, began radio broadcasts in 1925; the three stations merged under the first incarnation of NHK in August 1926. NHK was modelled on the BBC of the United Kingdom, the merger and reorganisation was carried out under the auspices of the pre-war Ministry of Communications. NHK's second radio network began in 1931, the third radio network began in 1937. NHK began shortwave br