1987 Australian federal election
Federal elections were held in Australia on 11 July 1987, following the granting of a double dissolution on 5 June by the Governor-General Sir Ninian Stephen. All 148 seats in the House of Representatives as well as all 76 seats in the Senate were up for election; the incumbent Australian Labor Party, led by Prime Minister Bob Hawke, defeated the opposition Liberal Party of Australia, led by John Howard and the National Party of Australia led by Ian Sinclair. Future opposition leader John Hewson entered parliament at this election; the Hawke Government had been in power since the general election of 1983, had been re-elected in the snap election of 1984, although with a decreased majority. Hawke, in partnership with Treasurer Paul Keating, had pursued an ambitiously reformist agenda over the course of his time in office, which included floating the Australian dollar, reducing tariffs on imports and reforming the tax system. However, the government's popularity dropped throughout the course of its 1984-87 term due to a series of blunders such as its failed'tax summit', declining terms of trade, which Treasurer Keating argued threatened to reduce Australia to the status of a banana republic unless tough measures were taken to correct the balance of trade.
Meanwhile, for much of the 1984-87 term, the opposition Liberal-National coalition led in the polls, leading to speculation that it could regain office in 1987. However, both coalition parties were wracked by infighting throughout the parliament. In September 1985, Andrew Peacock, who had led the party to a surprising rebound in the 1984 general election, was replaced as leader of the Liberal party by the Deputy Leader and Shadow Treasurer John Howard, after a botched effort to remove the latter from the Deputy Leadership and replace him with Queenslander John Moore, resulting in Peacock's resignation. Nonetheless, the party remained divided, as Howard was seen by some Liberals as being too far to the right, these opponents of the Howard policy agenda rallied to Peacock, sacked from the shadow ministry in March 1987, following unfortunate remarks regarding Howard by Peacock to Victorian state opposition leader Jeff Kennett in an infamous car phone conversation. Moreover and National Party leader Ian Sinclair faced challenges from the right as well as the left of the coalition, in the form of Queensland premier Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen.
Premier since 1968, Bjelke-Petersen was a hardline conservative who aggressively opposed the "socialist" Hawke Labor government, believed that he could transfer the style of politics that had served him so well in his native Queensland to the federal stage. Following a decisive electoral victory in Queensland in 1986, the so-called Joh for Canberra campaign began in earnest, supported by much of the Queensland business establishment, with Bjelke-Petersen announcing that he intended to run for the Prime Ministership on 1 January 1987. At the end of February 1987, the Queensland National Party decided to withdraw its twelve federal members of parliament from the Coalition, demanded that federal National Party leader Ian Sinclair withdraw because of "basic differences in taxation and other philosophies and policies" between the Liberal and National parties. Within the Queensland National Party, the party president Sir Robert Sparkes enforced support for Bjelke-Petersen, making practical opposition within the Queensland ranks unlikely.
The Coalition formally split in early May, with the National Party voting to break the federal coalition, Ian Sinclair looking impotent and unable to ensure the loyalty of National Party members. However, it was at this point that Bob Sparkes reneged on his loyalty to Bjelke-Petersen and withdrew from the campaign. With his pool of supporters decreasing, the likelihood of an effective challenge to the federal Coalition from Bjelke-Petersen began to collapse; when the election was called on 27 May, Bjelke-Petersen was in the United States, decided to withdraw from his bid for federal power. However, the federal coalition had been broken, Howard's credibility as a challenger to the Hawke government had been damaged; the 1987 federal election was called 6 months early by Prime Minister Hawke to capitalise on the aforementioned disunity in the opposition. The nominal trigger for the double dissolution was the rejection of legislation for the Australia Card by the Senate, but it did not figure prominently in the campaign, Labor Senate Leader John Button burst into laughter when referring to it in his speech announcing the election.
Caught off guard by the early election, the opposition ran into difficulties when the funding for its flagship tax cut proposals was revealed to have been miscalculated by some $900 million, a mistake brought up by the Labor party and conceded by Howard. Furthermore, although the Joh for Canberra push had been abandoned, the resulting schism between the Nationals and Liberals led to several three-cornered contests and the National Party ran independent Senate tickets in every state except New South Wales. Labor therefore chose to campaign on the disunity amongst the opposition parties, contrasting it with the relative unity of purpose of the Labor Government. However, aside from these issues, the 1987 campaign failed to generate great excitement on the part of the electorate, the opposition was viewed as unlikely to be able to remove the Labor party from power; this was a view strengthened by much of the polling during the campaign, which showed Labor with a com
Paul John Keating is a former Australian politician who served as the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1991 to 1996 as leader of the Labor Party. He had earlier served as Treasurer in the Hawke Government from 1983 to 1991. Keating was born in Sydney, left school at the age of 14, he joined the Labor Party at a young age, serving a term as state president of Young Labor and working as a research assistant for a trade union. Keating was elected to the House of Representatives at the age of 25, winning the Division of Blaxland at the 1969 federal election, he served as Minister for Northern Australia for three weeks in the dying days of the Whitlam Government. After Labor lost power in 1975, Keating held senior portfolios in the shadow ministries of Whitlam, Bill Hayden, Bob Hawke, he came to be seen as the leader of the Labor Right faction in New South Wales, developed a reputation as a talented parliamentary performer. After Labor won the 1983 election, Keating became one of the most influential figures in the new government.
As Treasurer, he oversaw the introduction of a large number of reforms intended to liberalise and strengthen the Australian economy. These included the Prices and Incomes Accord, the float of the Australian dollar, the elimination of tariffs, the deregulation of the financial sector, reform of the taxation system; the relationship between Hawke and Keating began to deteriorate, in 1988 they secretly agreed that Hawke would retire after the next election. Keating was elected deputy Labor leader in 1990. In June 1991, he unsuccessfully challenged for the leadership, believing that Hawke had reneged on their earlier agreement, he resigned from cabinet, but mounted a second challenge six months and emerged victorious. Keating became prime minister in the midst of the early 1990s recession, which as Treasurer he had famously described as "the recession we had to have". After a long run of poor polling, Labor was expected to lose the 1993 election, but fought a strong campaign and managed to increase its majority.
The Keating Government focused on economic issues in its first term, introducing compulsory superannuation, creating an infrastructure development program, initiating the privatisation of Qantas and the Commonwealth Bank. In years, Keating's agenda centred more on social and cultural matters, he participated in the "history wars", helped make republicanism and indigenous rights the subject of national debates. His government established the Republic Advisory Committee and enshrined native title in statute law. At the 1996 election, Labor suffered a landslide defeat to John Howard's Liberal–National Coalition. Keating's personal approval rating had reached low levels in his second term, with opponents portraying him as elitist and out of touch, he left parliament after the election, but in retirement has remained active as a political commentator, defending his government's legacy. Since leaving office, Keating has received consistent praise for his role in modernising the economy during his period as Treasurer.
Evaluations of his overall prime ministership have been more mixed. Keating was born at St Margaret's Hospital in Darlinghurst, New South Wales, on 18 January 1944, he was the first of four children born to Matthew John Keating. His father worked as a boilermaker for the New South Wales Government Railways. All of Keating's grandparents were born in Australia. On his father's side, he was descended from Irish immigrants born in Galway and Tipperary. On his mother's side, he was of Irish descent, his maternal grandfather Fred Chapman was the son of two convicts, John Chapman and Sarah Gallagher, transported for theft in the 1830s. Keating grew up in a working-class suburb in western Sydney, his siblings include a company director and businesswoman. Leaving De La Salle College—now known as LaSalle Catholic College—at the age of 14, Keating left high school and decided not to pursue higher education, instead worked as a pay clerk at the Sydney County Council, he worked as research assistant for a trade union, having joined the Labor Party as soon as he was eligible.
In 1966, he became president of NSW Young Labor. In the 1960s, Keating managed a rock band, "The Ramrods". Through his contacts in the unions and the NSW Young Labor Council, Keating met future senior Labor figures such as Laurie Brereton, Graham Richardson and Bob Carr, he developed a friendship with former New South Wales Premier Jack Lang. In 1971, he succeeded in having Lang re-admitted to the Labor Party. Keating gained the Labor endorsement for the seat of Blaxland in the western suburbs of Sydney, was elected to the House of Representatives in 1969 when he was 25 years old. Keating was a backbencher for most of the Whitlam government, although he was appointed Minister for Northern Australia in October 1975, serving until the government was controversially dismissed by Governor-General John Kerr the following month. After Labor's defeat in the December 1975 election, Keating was added to the Opposition frontbench, his portfolios included agriculture and Energy, National Development, Northern Australia and Energy and Treasury.
His parliamentary style was that of an aggressive debater. In 1981, he was elected president of the New South Wales Labor Party, thus becoming the leader o
Australian Workers' Union
The Australian Workers Union is one of Australia's largest and oldest trade unions. It traces its origins to unions founded in the pastoral and mining industries in the 1880s and has 100,000 members, it has exercised an influence on the Australian trade union movement and on the Australian Labor Party throughout its history. The AWU is the most powerful union in the Labor Right faction of the Australian Labor Party; the AWU is a national union made up of state and industry-based branches. Each AWU member belongs to one of nine industry-based branches; every four years AWU members elect branch and national officials: National President, the National Secretary, the National Assistant Secretary. They elect the National Executive and the Branch Executives which act as the Board of Directors for the union; the AWU's rules are registered with Fair Work Australia and its internal elections are conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission. The AWU is affiliated with the Australian Labor Party, Australian Council of Trade Unions, the International Metalworkers' Federation, the International Union of Foodworkers and the International Transport Workers Federation.
The current AWU National President is Bill Ludwig, the National Secretary is Daniel Walton. The AWU grew from a number of earlier unions, notably the Australasian Shearers' Union, founded by William Spence, Alexander Poynton, brother Charles Poynton, David Temple in Creswick, Victoria in 1886; this union joined with shearers' unions in Bourke and Wagga in New South Wales to form the Amalgamated Shearers Union of Australia in 1887. In 1894 this union amalgamated with the General Labourers Union, which had formed in 1891, to form the Australian Workers' Union; the Queensland Shearers Union, formed in 1887, the Queensland Workers Union merged in 1891 to form the Amalgamated Workers Union of Queensland. In 1904 the AWUQ amalgamated with the AWU, to form a union with a combined membership of 34,000; the AWU absorbed a number of other unions in the pastoral and timber industries notably the Amalgamated Workers Association of Queensland in 1913, the Federated Mining Employees Association of Australia in 1917.
Since these industries were the principal sources of Australia's wealth in the 19th century, the AWU soon became Australia's largest and most powerful union. The defeat of the great 1891 shearers' strike and the 1890 Maritime strike led the AWU to reject direct action, it has been a force for moderation in the Australian union movement since, it was a firm opponent of the Industrial Workers of the World, the Communist Party of Australia, NSW Premier Jack Lang and other radical forces in the Australian labour movement. For many years Communists were banned from AWU membership. In the 1930s the Communist Party launched a rival Pastoral Workers Industrial Union, but this failed to break the AWU's grip on its membership; the Northern Territory branch of the AWU was a central faction in the most recent worker's rebellion in Australia, the Darwin Rebellion in 1912 - 1918. When the trade unions formed the Australian Labor Party following the defeat of the 1890s strikes, the AWU became a powerful influence in the party in Queensland and Western Australia, to a lesser extent in the other states.
Labor state governments were influenced by AWU leaders such as Edward Grayndler, Tom Dougherty and NSW AWU Secretary Charlie Oliver. Labor was in government in Queensland from 1915 to 1929 and from 1932 to 1957, the AWU was able to exert considerable political influence through long-serving premiers such as William Forgan Smith and Ned Hanlon; the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901 led to the establishment of the Australian Arbitration system. The AWU supported arbitration as a mechanism of resolving industrial disputes without resorting to strike action; the Pastoral Industry Award, negotiated by the AWU, was the first federal award granted by the Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration. The AWU maintained its registration under state industrial systems and continues to participate in many state awards. During the years since federation that the Australian industrial relations system has been dominated by the Court and its successors, the Conciliation and Arbitration Commission and the Australian Industrial Relations Commission, the AWU and its members were among that system's principal beneficiaries.
The AWU remains a strong advocate of arbitration in the union movement. The AWU was not affiliated with the Australian Council of Trade Unions for many years, preferring to maintain its independent relationship with the arbitration system. With the shift in employment from the pastoral industries to the urban manufacturing and service sectors, the AWU's political influence and power declined as the pastoral areas became less significant in terms of employee numbers; this shift led to many rural electorate areas that were influenced by the AWU and workers falling to the conservative side of politics and in particular the National Party. The split in the Queensland ALP in 1957, which resulted in Labor being in opposition for 32 years, deprived the AWU of its greatest area of influence, although it remained influential in the long-serving New South Wales Labor governments. In 1993 the AWU amalgamated with the Federation of Industrial Manufacturing and Engineering Employees to form the AWU-FIMEE Amalgamated Union.
In 1995 the union reverted to using the name Australian Workers' Union. In recent years the AWU has sought to modernise and to broaden its membership beyond its declining traditio
1965 South Australian state election
State elections were held in South Australia on 6 March 1965. All 39 seats in the South Australian House of Assembly were up for election; the incumbent Liberal and Country League led by Premier of South Australia Thomas Playford IV, in power since 1938, was defeated by the Australian Labor Party led by Leader of the Opposition Frank Walsh. Though Labor won the 1944, 1953 and 1962 elections on the two-party vote against Thomas Playford IV and the Liberal and Country League, the electoral rural overweighting known as the Playmander since 1936 consisted of rural districts enjoying a 2-to-1 advantage in the state parliament; the seat system was changed from multi-member to single-member. Labor's statewide two-party at the 1965 election remained unchanged at 54.3 percent winning for the first and only time during the 32-year Playmander, with just a two-seat majority government. Labor won the seats of metropolitan Glenelg and rural Barossa at the 1965 election, after winning the seats of rural Chaffey and metropolitan Unley at the 1962 election.
At the 1968 election, Labor still won a 53.2 percent two-party vote, however the LCL won the seats of rural Murray and rural Chaffey, forming a one-seat minority government with independent Tom Stott. If just 21 LCL votes were Labor votes in Murray in 1968, Labor would have formed majority government; the LCL won only three metropolitan seats in 1965 and 1968 – Burnside and marginally Torrens. The most populous metropolitan seats had as much as 5-10 times the number of voters than the least populous rural seats, despite two thirds of the population located in the metropolitan area − at the 1968 election the rural seat of Frome had 4,500 formal votes, while the metropolitan seat of Enfield had 42,000 formal votes; the 1965 election saw the Australian Labor Party in government for the first time since 1933. Frank Walsh, Leader of the Opposition since 1960, became Premier. Despite the fact that Labor won a still-record 55 percent primary vote and a landslide 54.3 percent two-party vote, the Labor government only held a thin two-seat majority.
The two-party vote was unchanged from the previous election where the LCL retained government, but a change of government occurred at this election due to the efficacy of Labor choosing to campaign near in marginal LCL seats. Walsh’s term as Premier was marked by increased spending on public education and the implementation of far-reaching social welfare and Aboriginal Affairs legislation, although many of these changes were spearheaded by the liberal Don Dunstan, the conservative Walsh may well have opposed some of these moves. Walsh was never comfortable dealing with the media television, his ascension to the job of Premier only exacerbated these problems. A master of malapropisms, Walsh had journalists, Hansard reporters, political ally and foe alike bewildered by his statements. To give but one example, Walsh once said in parliament "In this manner, Mr Speaker, the government has acted as if this were a diseased estate. It's not sufficiently elasticated... The government is suffering from a complete lack of apathy in the case."
His unease with the media was seen in stark contrast to Dunstan, his Attorney-General, who would prove to be a media relations master throughout his terms as Premier. Walsh's awkwardness with the media was further highlighted after 1966, when Playford retired as Opposition Leader and was succeeded by 37-year-old Steele Hall. Hall was not only younger, but more liberal than Playford. A sagging economy and poor polling figures combined with Hall's advent to convince local Labor heavyweights that Labor could not win the next election with Walsh as Premier. Things came to a head in early 1967, when South Australian Labor power-broker Clyde Cameron publicly thanked Walsh for making the noble decision to retire to make way for a younger person; this was news to Walsh. After digging in his heels, Walsh announced his retirement two weeks but not before attempting to manoeuvre his protégé Des Corcoran into the Premiership ahead of Dunstan. For the first time, since 1910 to 1912, there were no by-elections necessary during the term of the parliament.
Dunstan led Labor into the 1968 election. Although Labor won 53.2 percent of the two-party vote, it lost two seats, resulting in a hung parliament with 19 seats for both parties. Lone crossbench independent MP Tom Stott held the balance of power, announced confidence and supply support for an LCL minority government, installing Hall as premier though the LCL had only won 46.8 percent of the two-party vote. Stott became Speaker of the South Australian House of Assembly. Dunstan spearheaded a public outcry which led Hall to scrap the Playmander soon after taking office; the primary vote figures were from contested seats, while the state-wide two-party-preferred vote figures were estimated from all seats. Rural overweighting known as the Playmander resulted in LCL lower house minority and majority governments for decades. Upper house elections since 1941 have held 16 LCL and 4 ALP; the electoral districts were drawn to favour regional areas with a 2:1 bias in place. In the 2006 election, metro Adelaide held 35 metro districts representing 1.1 million people, with 12 rural districts representing 0.4 million people.
In the 1965 election, 13 metro districts represented 0.7 million people and 26 rural districts represented 0.4 million people. Results of the South Australian state election, 1965 Members of the South Australian Ho
Robert James Lee Hawke, is an Australian former politician, the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia and the Leader of the Labor Party from 1983 to 1991. He is the longest-serving Labor Party Prime Minister. Hawke was moved to Western Australia as a child, he attended the University of Western Australia and went on to Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar. In 1956, Hawke joined the Australian Council of Trade Unions as a research officer. Having risen to become responsible for wage arbitration, he was elected ACTU President in 1969, where he achieved a high public profile. After a decade in that role, Hawke announced his intention to enter politics, was elected to the House of Representatives as the Labor MP for Wills. Three years he led Labor to a landslide victory at the 1983 election and was sworn in as Prime Minister, he led Labor to victory three more times, in 1984, 1987 and 1990, making him the most electorally successful Labor Leader. The Hawke Government created Medicare and Landcare, brokered the Prices and Incomes Accord, established APEC, floated the Australian dollar, deregulated the financial sector, introduced the Family Assistance Scheme, announced "Advance Australia Fair" as the official national anthem, initiated superannuation pension schemes for all workers and oversaw passage of the Australia Act that removed all remaining jurisdiction by the United Kingdom from Australia.
Hawke was replaced by his deputy Paul Keating at the end of 1991. Hawke remains Labor's longest-serving Prime Minister, Australia's third-longest-serving Prime Minister, at the age of 89 years, 123 days, Hawke is the oldest living former Australian Prime Minister. Hawke is the only Australian Prime Minister to be born in South Australia, the only one raised and educated in Western Australia. Hawke was born in Bordertown, South Australia, the second child of Arthur Hawke, a Congregationalist minister, his wife Edith Emily, a schoolteacher, his uncle, was the Labor Premier of Western Australia between 1953 and 1959, was a close friend of Prime Minister John Curtin, in many ways Bob Hawke's role model. Hawke's elder brother Neil, seven years his senior, died at the age of seventeen after contracting meningitis, for which there was no cure at the time. Ellie Hawke subsequently developed an messianic belief in her son's destiny, this contributed to Hawke's supreme self-confidence throughout his career.
At the age of fifteen, he presciently boasted to friends that he would one day become the Prime Minister of Australia. At the age of seventeen, the same age that his brother Neil had died, Hawke had a serious accident while riding his Panther motorcycle that left him in a critical condition for several days; this near-death experience acted as his catalyst, driving him to make the most of his talents and not let his abilities go to waste. He joined the Labor Party in 1947 at the age of eighteen. Hawke was educated at Perth Modern School and the University of Western Australia, graduating in 1952 with a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws, he was president of the university's guild during the same year. The following year, Hawke won a Rhodes Scholarship to attend University College, where he undertook a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy and Economics, he soon found he was covering much the same ground as he did in his education at the University of Western Australia, transferred to a Bachelor of Letters.
He wrote his thesis on wage-fixing in Australia and presented it in January 1956. His academic achievements were complemented by setting a new world record for beer drinking. In his memoirs, Hawke suggested that this single feat may have contributed to his political success more than any other, by endearing him to an electorate with a strong beer culture. In 1956, Hawke accepted a scholarship to undertake doctoral studies in the area of arbitration law in the law department at the Australian National University in Canberra. Soon after his arrival at ANU, Hawke became the students' representative on the University Council. A year Hawke was recommended to the President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions to become a research officer, replacing Harold Souter who had become ACTU Secretary; the recommendation was made by Hawke's mentor at ANU, H. P. Brown, who for a number of years had assisted the ACTU in national wage cases. Hawke decided to abandon his doctoral studies and accept the offer, moving to Melbourne with his wife Hazel.
Not long after Hawke began work at the ACTU, he became responsible for the presentation of its annual case for higher wages to the national wages tribunal, the Conciliation and Arbitration Commission. He was first appointed as an ACTU advocate in 1959; the 1958 case, under previous advocate R. L. Eggleston, had yielded only a five-shilling increase; the 1959 case found for a fifteen-shilling increase, was regarded as a personal triumph for Hawke. He went on to attain such success and prominence in his role as an ACTU advocate that, in 1969, he was encouraged to run for the position of ACTU President, despite the fact that he had never held elected office in a trade union, he was elected ACTU President in 1969 on a modernising platform by the narrow margin of 399 to 350, with the support of the left of the union movement, including some associated with the Communist Party. He credited Ray Gietzelt, General Secretary of the FMWU, as the single most significant union figure in helping him achieve this outcome.
Hawke declared publicly that "socialist is not a word I would use to desc
The Marist Brothers of the Schools known as the Marist Brothers, is an international community of Catholic Religious Institute of Brothers. In 1817, St. Marcellin Champagnat, a priest from France, founded the Marist Brothers, with the goal of educating young people those most neglected. While most of the Brothers minister in school settings, others work with young people in parishes, religious retreats and spiritual accompaniment, at-risk youth settings, young adult ministry and overseas missions. St. Marcellin Champagnat decided to start an institute of consecrated brothers in the Marist tradition, building schools for the underprivileged where they might learn to become "Good Christians and Good people"; the decision was inspired by an event, when as a parish priest he was called to administer the last rites to a dying boy named Jean Baptiste Montagne. Trying to lead the boy through his last moments in prayer, Marcellin was struck by the fact that the young man had no gauge of Christianity or prayer.
From that moment, Champagnat decided to start training brothers to meet the faith needs of the young people of France. On January 2, 1817, the 23-year-old Jean Marie Granjon and Jean Baptist Audras, fourteen and a half years of age, moved into the small house that Fr. Champagnat had rented for them in La Valla and which became the first Marist Brothers community, their day consisted of prayer and study. Marcellin taught them reading and writing, he looked after their formation as religious educators. Other young men joined the undertaking, among them Gabriel Rivat who, as Brother François, would become the Brothers' first Superior General; as a Marist priest, Champagnat had a particular affinity for the Blessed Virgin Mary, so upon conception of the idea of Marist Brothers, Champagnat chose to call his brothers Petits Frères de Marie, emphasising the meekness and humbleness he wished them to pursue, seeking their consecration to her as an exemplar of fidelity to Christ. In 1863, 23 years after Champagnat's death, the Marist Brothers institute received the approbation of the Holy See, whereupon the order received the title of Fratres Maristae a Scholis, hence the post-nominal letters of FMS.
They received a particular mandate to follow the Marist Fathers to the Pacific and administer to the new colonies of the Pacific nations and Australia. This harkens back to a Marist legend about Champagnat. A favourite maxim of St. Marcellin was that he wanted "to make Jesus known and loved" throughout the world, to demonstrate he would run a needle through an apple as an example of how he wanted the message of "Ad Jesum per Mariam" or "To Jesus through Mary" to cross the globe; the end of the needle came out in what would be the equivalent of the Pacific in relation to France where he inserted the needle, so thus the Marist Brothers have a well-recognised presence throughout the Pacific, but in Australia and New Zealand. The Marist Brothers are involved in educational work throughout the world and now conduct primary and secondary schools, industrial schools and retreat houses in 79 countries on five continents: Europe, The Americas and Oceania. From their roots in Lyons, the Brothers today have spread across the globe.
Over their 200-year history, Marist Brothers have had ministries in over 100 different nations. Presently there are 3,500 brothers in 79 countries on 5 continents, working directly and sharing their mission and spirituality with more than 40,000 lay Marists, together educating close to 500,000 children and young people; the international Marist brotherhood is led by a Superior General Br. Br. Ernesto Sánchez, F. M. S. Together with the Vicar General and a General Council, it is his job to guide the growth and administration of the various ministries of the Brothers across the globe, from the General House in Rome; the Marist Brothers are divided into two main administrative units, either "provinces" or "districts", depending on size. Provinces are led by a Provincial, whose job it is to oversee and make deliberations on behalf of the Superior General for the Province he leads. There are presently 5 districts. Depending on the extent of ministries within a certain country, there may be multiple provinces within the one country.
For example, Brazil has three provinces and two districts and Australia has two, as does Mexico. Mission Ad Gentes Marist District of Asia Province of East Asia; these schools are part of this province: Maris Stella High School in Singapore, SMJK Sam Tet in Ipoh, Malaysia, Catholic High School, Malaysia in Petaling Jaya, Catholic High School in Melaka, Notre Dame of Cotabato, Notre Dame of Kidapawan College, Marist School in Marikina City, Notre Dame of Marbel University and Notre Dame of Dadiangas University, Philippines and St. Francis Xavier's College and St. Francis Xavier's School in Hong Kong Province of South Asia. Notable school: Maris Stella College in Negombo; the Marist Brothers' first international missionary mandate was to the Pacific, where they accompanied Marist Fathers in evangelizing and education ministries. Today, Marist brothers own and run many technical colleges in the Central and Western Pacific, educating young men in nations ravaged by war. Marist Brothers arrived in Australia in 1872, where they opened their
Australian House of Representatives
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the upper house being the Senate. Its composition and powers are established in Chapter I of the Constitution of Australia; the term of members of the House of Representatives is a maximum of three years from the date of the first sitting of the House, but on only one occasion since Federation has the maximum term been reached. The House is always dissolved earlier alone but sometimes in a double dissolution of both Houses. Elections for members of the House of Representatives are held in conjunction with those for the Senate. A member of the House may be referred to as a "Member of Parliament", while a member of the Senate is referred to as a "Senator"; the government of the day and by extension the Prime Minister must achieve and maintain the confidence of this House in order to gain and remain in power. The House of Representatives consists of 150 members, elected by and representing single member districts known as electoral divisions.
The number of members is not fixed but can vary with boundary changes resulting from electoral redistributions, which are required on a regular basis. The most recent overall increase in the size of the House, which came into effect at the 1984 election, increased the number of members from 125 to 148, it reduced to 147 at the 1993 election, returned to 148 at the 1996 election, has been 150 since the 2001 election, will increase to 151 at the 2019 Australian federal election. Each division elects one member using full-preference Instant-runoff voting; this was put in place after the 1918 Swan by-election, which Labor unexpectedly won with the largest primary vote and the help of vote splitting in the conservative parties. The Nationalist government of the time changed the lower house voting system from first-past-the-post to full-preference preferential voting, effective from the 1919 general election; this system has remained in place since, allowing the Coalition parties to safely contest the same seats.
The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act of 1900 established the House of Representatives as part of the new system of dominion government in newly federated Australia. The House is presided over by the Speaker. Members of the House are elected from single member electorates. One vote, one value legislation requires all electorates to have the same number of voters with a maximum 10% variation. However, the baseline quota for the number of voters in an electorate is determined by the number of voters in the state in which that electorate is found; the electorates of the smallest states and territories have more variation in the number of voters in their electorates, with larger seats like Fenner containing more than double the electors of smaller seats like Lingiari. Meanwhile, all the states except Tasmania have electorates within the same 10% tolerance, with most electorates holding 85,000 to 105,000 voters. Federal electorates have their boundaries redrawn or redistributed whenever a state or territory has its number of seats adjusted, if electorates are not matched by population size or if seven years have passed since the most recent redistribution.
Voting is by the'preferential system' known as instant-runoff voting. A full allocation of preferences is required for a vote to be considered formal; this allows for a calculation of the two-party-preferred vote. Under Section 24 of the Constitution, each state is entitled to members based on a population quota determined from the "latest statistics of the Commonwealth." These statistics arise from the census conducted under the auspices of section 51. Until its repeal by the 1967 referendum, section 127 prohibited the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations as including the Indigenous peoples could alter the distribution of seats between the states to the benefit of states with larger Aboriginal populations. Section 127, along with section 25 and the race power, have been described as racism built into Australia's constitutional DNA, modifications to prevent lawful race-based discrimination have been proposed; the parliamentary entitlement of a state or territory is established by the Electoral Commissioner dividing the number of the people of the Commonwealth by twice the number of Senators.
This is known as the "Nexus Provision". The reasons for this are twofold, to maintain a constant influence for the smaller states and to maintain a constant balance of the two Houses in case of a joint sitting after a double dissolution; the population of each state and territory is divided by this quota to determine the number of members to which each state and territory is entitled. Under the Australian Constitution all original states are guaranteed at least five members; the Federal Parliament itself has decided that the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory should have at least one member each. According to the Constitution, the powers of both Houses are nearly equal, with the consent of both Houses needed to pass legislation; the difference relates to taxation legislation. In practice, by convention, the person who can control a majority of votes in the lower house is invited by the Governor-General to form the Government. In practice that means that the leader of the party with a majority of members in the House becomes the Prime Minister, who can nominate other elected members of the government party in both the House and the Senate to become ministe