Bronx High School of Science
The Bronx High School of Science is a public magnet, specialized high school in Bronx, New York, United States. It is operated by the New York City Department of Education. Admission to Bronx Science involves passing the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test; each November, about 30,000 eighth and ninth graders take the 3-hour test for admittance to eight of the nine specialized high schools. The test is competitive, with only 900 of the 30,000 applicants being accepted to Bronx Science each year. Founded in 1938 in the Bronx in New York City, Bronx Science is now situated in an educational area known as the Educational Mile in Bedford Park, a neighborhood in the northwest portion of the Bronx; the exam administered to students in the 8th grade was taken by more than 20,000 students every year as of 1999. Although known for its focus on mathematics and science, Bronx Science emphasizes the humanities and social sciences and continually attracts students with a wide variety of interests beyond math and science.
Its alumni have received eight Pulitzer Prizes. The Bronx High School of Science is referred to as Bronx Science, just Science, it was called Science High and its founder, Morris Meister, is said to have called the school as "The High School of Science." Bronx Science was founded in 1938 as a specialized science and math high school for boys, by resolution of the Board of Education of the City of New York, with Morris Meister as the first principal of the school. They were given use of an antiquated Gothic-gargoyled edifice located at Creston Avenue and 184th Street, in the Fordham Road-Grand Concourse area of the Bronx; the building, built in 1918 for Evander Childs High School, had been successively occupied by Walton High School and by an annex of DeWitt Clinton High School. The initial faculty were composed in part by a contingent from Stuyvesant High School. Principal Meister put his imprint on the school from its formation, for example selecting as school colors "green to represent chlorophyll and gold the sun, both of which are essential to the chain of life."
Bronx Science started with about 150 ninth year students and 250 tenth year students, the remaining facilities of the building being used by DeWitt Clinton. As more boys began to attend Science, the Clinton contingent was returned to its own main building. During their joint occupation, which lasted for 2 years until 1940, the two schools had separate teaching staff and classes, but the same supervision and administration. In 1946, as a result of the efforts of Meister, the faculty, the Parents Association, the school became co-ed, giving girls of New York equal opportunity to pursue a quality education in a specialized high school denied to them; this expansion to co-education preceded its rivals Stuyvesant and Brooklyn Tech by more than two decades. In 1958, after 20 years as principal of the school, Morris Meister resigned to become the first president of the newly organized Bronx Community College. Mr. Meister selected a teacher, Alexander Taffel, to succeed him as principal. From the beginning, the Parents Association and Principal Morris Meister campaigned for a new building.
After twenty years, but under Principal Taffel, plans were completed for a new $8 million building, designed by the architectural firm of Emery Roth and Sons. The new building would be on 205th Street near Bedford Park Boulevard, in a predominantly institutional area, between DeWitt Clinton High School and its large football field on one side, Harris Field and Hunter College on the other. On March 3, 1959, students and faculty occupied the new building for the first time, solving the problem of how to move the books from the old library to the new in typical Bronx Science manner: on Friday afternoon each student took home five library books from the old building, on Monday returned them to the new one, they entered a school equipped with modern classrooms and technical studio areas. The main lobby entrance featured a 63-foot, Venetian glass mosaic mural overhead, depicting major figures from the history of science such as Marie Curie and Charles Darwin under the protective hands of a God-like figure representing knowledge, with this quote from John Dewey: "Every great advance in science has issued from a new audacity of imagination."
The mural is an original work by Frank J. Reilly entitled Humanities Protecting Biology, Chemistry. Legions of students over the years, bemoaning the lack of swimming facilities, have sarcastically referred to the mural as "the Science swimming pool", perpetuating the idea – apocryphal – that a choice was made to fund a mural rather than a pool in the new building; the move was not without incident. In the first spring of the move, rumors swept the school that various Bronx youth street gangs were coming to the school, that the Fordham Baldies would shave the hair of Science students; this never happened. Another incident did happen that spring: The first time Science girls appeared on the outdoor physical education field in gym clothes, some students from the neighboring, all-male DeWitt Clinton High School charged the separation fence between their field and the Science field; the fence held. When Bronx Science celebrated its silver anniversary in June 1963, President John F. Kennedy hailed it as "a significant and pathfinding example of a special program devoted to the development of the student gifted in science and mathematics."
The President had selected one of its graduates, Harold Brown, of the class of 1943, fo
Apple Watch is a line of smartwatches designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It incorporates fitness tracking and health-oriented capabilities with integration with iOS and other Apple products and services. Apple Watch relies on a wireless connection to an iPhone to perform many of its default functions such as calling and texting. However, Wi-Fi chips in all Apple Watch models allow the smartwatch to have limited connectivity features away from the phone anywhere a Wi-Fi network is available. Series 3 LTE Apple Watches are able to be used without needing to be connected to an iPhone, though an iPhone is still required to set up the device. Most Apple Watches that are produced require an iPhone 5s or with iOS 11; the Apple Watch was released on April 24, 2015 and became the best-selling wearable device with 4.2 million sold in the second quarter of the 2015 fiscal year. The second generation of Apple Watches were released in two tiers in September 2016: the Apple Watch Series 1 and Apple Watch Series 2, while the first generation was discontinued.
The Apple Watch Series 3 was released on September 22, 2017 alongside the discontinuation of the Apple Watch Series 2. The Apple Watch Series 4 was announced on September 12, 2018, with the Apple Watch Series 1 no longer being produced; the goal of the Apple Watch was to enhance the uses of an iPhone while providing the user with some additional new features. Kevin Lynch was hired by Apple to make wearable technology for the wrist, he said: "People are looking at the screen so much. People want that level of engagement, but how do we provide it in a way that's a little more human, a little more in the moment when you’re with somebody?" Apple's development process was held much under wraps until a Wired article revealed how some internal design decisions were made. Rumors surrounded an Apple-developed wearable device back as far as 2011, which conceptualized the device as a variation of the iPod that would curve around the user's wrist, feature Siri integration. On February 10, 2013, both The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was beginning to develop an iOS-based smartwatch with a curved display.
On February 12, 2013, Bloomberg reported that Apple's smartwatch project was "beyond the experimentation phase in its development", had a team of at least 100 designers working on the project. Further reports in March 2013 indicated that Apple planned to release the device by the end of the year. In July 2013, Financial Times reported that Apple had begun hiring more employees to work on the smartwatch, that it was targeting a possible retail release in late 2014. In April 2014, Apple CEO Tim Cook told The Wall Street Journal that the company was planning to launch new product categories that year, but did not reveal any specifics. In June 2014, Reuters reported that production was expected to begin in July for a release in October. On September 9, 2014, during a press event where the iPhone 6 was presented, the new product was introduced by Tim Cook as "the next chapter in Apple's story" with a video that focused on its design and the various combinations of bands and case styles that would be available to the consumers.
After the reveal video, the auditorium was filled with prolonged applause and a standing ovation as Tim Cook reappeared onstage wearing an Apple Watch. Cook explained that Apple Watch was "a precise timepiece, a new intimate way to communicate from your wrist, a comprehensive health and fitness device."In comparison to other Apple products and competing smartwatches, marketing of Apple Watch focused more on advertising the device as a fashion accessory. Apple focused upon its health and fitness-oriented features, competing against dedicated activity trackers, with watchOS 3, expanded on them with fitness tracking for wheelchair users, social sharing in the Activity app, a Breathe app to encourage mindfulness. Pre-orders for the Apple Watch began on April 10, 2015, with the official release on April 24; the device was not branded as "iWatch" due to trademark conflicts in certain territories. In July 2015, Probendi sued Apple Inc. for trademark infringement, arguing that through keyword advertising on the Google search engine, it caused advertising for the Apple Watch to appear on search results pages when users searched for the trademarked term "iWatch".
The Apple Watch was not available at the Apple Store. Beginning on April 10, 2015, customers could make appointments for demonstrations and fitting, but the device was not in-stock for walk-in purchases and had to be reserved and ordered online. CNET felt that this distribution model was designed to prevent Apple Store locations from having long line-ups due to the high demand. Selected Apple Watch models were available in limited quantities at luxury boutiques and authorized Apple resellers. On June 4, 2015, Apple announced that it did plan to stock Apple Watch models at its retail locations. On August 24, 2015, Best Buy announced that it would begin stocking Apple Watch at its retail stores by the end of September. Both T-Mobile US and Sprint announced plans to offer Apple Watch through its retail stores. On September 9, 2015, Apple launched a new subset of Apple Watch
Breaking Bad is an American neo-western crime drama television series created and produced by Vince Gilligan. The show aired on AMC for five seasons, from January 20, 2008 to September 29, 2013. Set and filmed in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the series tells the story of Walter White, a struggling and depressed high school chemistry teacher, diagnosed with lung cancer. Together with his former student Jesse Pinkman, White turns to a life of crime by producing and selling crystallized methamphetamine to secure his family's financial future before he dies, while navigating the dangers of the criminal world; the title comes from the Southern colloquialism "breaking bad", meaning to "raise hell" or turn to a life of crime. Walter's family consists of son Walter, Jr. and daughter Holly. The show features Skyler's sister Marie Schrader and her husband Hank, a DEA agent. Walter hires lawyer Saul Goodman, who connects him with private investigator and fixer Mike Ehrmantraut and in turn Mike's employer, drug kingpin Gus Fring.
The final season introduces the characters Lydia Rodarte-Quayle. Breaking Bad is regarded as one of the greatest television series of all time. By the time the series finale aired, it was among the most-watched cable shows on American television; the show received numerous awards, including 16 Primetime Emmy Awards, eight Satellite Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, two Peabody Awards, two Critics' Choice Awards and four Television Critics Association Awards. For his leading performance, Cranston won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series four times, while Aaron Paul won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series three times. In 2013, Breaking Bad entered the Guinness World Records as the most critically acclaimed show of all time. A spin-off prequel series, Better Call Saul, starring Bob Odenkirk and Jonathan Banks, debuted on February 8, 2015, on AMC. In November 2018, a spin-off film was announced to be in development. Set in Albuquerque, New Mexico between 2008 and 2010, Breaking Bad follows Walter White as he is transformed from a meek high school science teacher who wants to provide for his family after learning he has terminal cancer into a ruthless player in the local methamphetamine drug trade.
Making only small batches of meth with his former student Jesse Pinkman and Jesse expand to make larger batches of a special blue meth, pure and creates high demand. Walter takes on the name "Heisenberg" to mask his identity; because of his drug-related activities, Walt finds himself at odds with his family, the Drug Enforcement Administration through his brother-in-law Hank Schrader, the local gangs, the Mexican drug cartels and their regional distributors, putting his life at risk. Breaking Bad was created by Vince Gilligan, who spent several years writing the Fox series The X-Files. Gilligan wanted to create a series. "Television is good at keeping its characters in a self-imposed stasis so that shows can go on for years or decades," he said. "When I realized this, the logical next step was to think, how can I do a show in which the fundamental drive is toward change?" He added. The show title is a Southern colloquialism meaning, among other things, "raising hell", was chosen by Gilligan to describe Walter's transformation.
According to Time entertainment editor Lily Rothman, the term has a broader meaning and is an old phrase which "connotes more violence than'raising hell' does... he words possess a wide variety of nuances: to'break bad' can mean to'go wild', to'defy authority', break the law, to be verbally'combative, belligerent, or threatening' or, followed by the preposition'on','to dominate or humiliate'."The concept emerged as Gilligan talked with his fellow writer Thomas Schnauz regarding their current unemployment and joked that the solution was for them to put a "meth lab in the back of an RV and around the country cooking meth and making money". While still pitching the show to studios, Gilligan was discouraged when he learned of the existing series Weeds and its similarities to the premise of Breaking Bad. While his producers convinced him that the show was different enough to still be successful, he stated that he would not have gone forward with the idea had he known about Weeds earlier; the network ordered nine episodes for the first season, but the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike limited the production to seven episodes.
The initial versions of the script were set in Riverside, but at the suggestion of Sony, Albuquerque was chosen for the production's location due to the favorable financial conditions offered by the state of New Mexico. Once Gilligan recognized that this would mean "we'd always have to be avoiding the Sandia Mountains" in shots directed toward the east, the story setting was changed to the actual production location, it was shot on 35 mm film, with digital cameras employed as needed for additional angles, point of view shots and time-lapse photography. Breaking Bad cost $3 million per episode to produce, higher than the average cost for a basic cable program. Before the series finale, Gilligan said that it was difficult to write for Walter White because the character was so dark and morally questionable: "I'm going to miss the show when it's
History of Apple Inc.
Apple Inc. Apple Computer, Inc. is a multinational corporation that creates consumer electronics, personal computers and computer software, is a digital distributor of media content. The company has a chain of retail stores known as Apple Stores. Apple's core product lines are the iPhone smartphone, iPad tablet computer, iPod portable media players, Macintosh computer line. Founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak created Apple Computer on April 1, 1976, incorporated the company on January 3, 1977, in Cupertino, California. For more than three decades, Apple Computer was predominantly a manufacturer of personal computers, including the Apple II, Power Mac lines, but it faced rocky sales and low market share during the 1990s. Jobs, ousted from the company in 1985, returned to Apple in 1996 after his company NeXT was bought by Apple; the following year he became the company's interim CEO, which became permanent. Jobs subsequently instilled a new corporate philosophy of recognizable products and simple design, starting with the original iMac in 1998.
With the introduction of the successful iPod music player in 2001 and iTunes Music Store in 2003, Apple established itself as a leader in the consumer electronics and media sales industries, leading it to drop "Computer" from the company's name in 2007. The company is now known for its iOS range of smart phone, media player, tablet computer products that began with the iPhone, followed by the iPod Touch and iPad; as of 30 June 2015, Apple was the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization, with an estimated value of US$1 trillion as of August 2, 2018. Apple's worldwide annual revenue in 2010 totaled US$65 billion, growing to US$127.8 billion in 2011 and $156 billion in 2012. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had withdrawn from Reed College and UC Berkeley by 1975. Wozniak designed a video terminal. Alex Kamradt sold a small number of them through his firm. Aside from their interest in up-to-date technology, the impetus for Jobs and Wozniak referred to collectively as "the two Steves", seems to have had another source.
In his essay From Satori to Silicon Valley, cultural historian Theodore Roszak made the point that the Apple Computer emerged from within the West Coast counterculture and the need to produce print-outs, letter labels, databases. Roszak offers a bit of background on the development of the two Steves' prototype models. In 1975, Wozniak started attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club. New microcomputers such as the Altair 8800 and the IMSAI inspired him to build a microprocessor into his video terminal and have a complete computer. At the time the only microcomputer CPUs available were the $179 Intel 8080, the $170 Motorola 6800. Wozniak preferred the 6800. So he watched, learned, designed computers on paper, waiting for the day he could afford a CPU; when MOS Technology released its $20 6502 chip in 1976, Wozniak wrote a version of BASIC for it began to design a computer for it to run on. The 6502 was designed by the same people who designed the 6800, as many in Silicon Valley left employers to form their own companies.
Wozniak's earlier 6800 paper-computer needed only minor changes to run on the new chip. Wozniak took it to Homebrew Computer Club meetings to show it off. At the meeting, Wozniak met his old friend Jobs, interested in the commercial potential of the small hobby machines; the two Steves had been friends for some time, having met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. They began their partnership when Wozniak, a talented, self-educated electronics engineer, began constructing boxes which enabled one to make long-distance phone calls at no cost, sold several hundred models. Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a computer machine and selling it. Jobs approached a local computer store, The Byte Shop, who said they would be interested in the machine, but only if it came assembled; the owner, Paul Terrell, went further, saying he would order 50 of the machines and pay US $500 each on delivery. Jobs took the purchase order that he had been given from the Byte Shop to Cramer Electronics, a national electronic parts distributor, ordered the components he needed to assemble the Apple I Computer.
The local credit manager asked Jobs how he was going to pay for the parts and he replied, "I have this purchase order from the Byte Shop chain of computer stores for 50 of my computers and the payment terms are COD. If you give me the parts on a net 30-day terms I can build and deliver the computers in that time frame, collect my money from Terrell at the Byte Shop and pay you."The credit manager called Paul Terrell, attending an IEEE computer conference at Asilomar in Pacific Grove, verified the validity of the purchase order. Amazed at the tenacity of Jobs, Terrell assured the credit manager if the computers showed up in his stores, Jobs would be paid and would have more than enough money to pay for the parts order; the two Steves and their small crew spent day and night building and testing the computers, delivered to Terrell on time to pay his suppliers and have a tidy profit left over for their celebration and next order. Steve Jobs had found a way to finance his soon-to-be multimillion-dollar company without giving away one share of stock or ownership.
The machine had only a few notable features. One was the use of a TV as the display system, whereas
University at Buffalo
The State University of New York at Buffalo is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, United States. It is referred to as the University at Buffalo or SUNY Buffalo and was known as the University of Buffalo, it is the de facto flagship campus of the State University of New York system, with the largest enrollment, largest endowment and research funding as a comprehensive university center in the SUNY system. The university was founded in 1846 as a private medical college, but in 1962 merged with the SUNY system; as of Fall 2018, the university enrolls 31,508 students in 13 colleges, making it the largest public university in New York. In addition to the College of Arts and Sciences, the university houses the largest state-operated medical school, dental school, education school, business school, engineering school, pharmacy school, features the only state law school and urban planning school in the state of New York; the university offers over 100 bachelor's, 205 master's, 84 doctoral, 10 professional areas of study.
According to the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, the University at Buffalo is a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity. In 1989, UB was elected to the Association of American Universities. UB's alumni and faculty have included a prime minister, Nobel laureates, Pulitzer Prize winners, three billionaires, Academy Award winners, Emmy Award winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars. U. S. President Millard Fillmore was one of the school's principal founders and served as the school's first chancellor. In the Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education 2017 inaugural ranking, UB was ranked as the No. 1 public university in New York and No. 28 in the United States. Buffalo has placed in the top cluster of U. S. public research universities and among the overall top 30 research universities according to the Center for Measuring University Performance and was ranked as the 38th best value for in-state students and the 27th best value for out-of-state students in the 2012 Kiplinger rankings of best value of national universities.
U. S. News and World Report's 2019 edition of America's Best Colleges ranked UB 89th on their list of best national universities and 38th among public universities. City leaders of Buffalo sought to establish a university in the city from the earliest days of Buffalo. A "University of Western New York" was begun at Buffalo under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church and property was purchased at North Street and College, on the north side of the Allentown district; this university was chartered by the state on April 8, 1836. However, the project collapsed and no classes were offered, only the layout of College Street remains; the University of Buffalo was founded on May 11, 1846, as a private medical school to train the doctors for the communities of Buffalo, Niagara Falls, surrounding villages. Future U. S. President Millard Fillmore a lawyer who had served in the United States House of Representatives, was one of the principal founders. James Platt White was instrumental in obtaining a charter for the university from the state legislature in 1846.
He taught the first class of 89 men in obstetrics. State Assemblyman Nathan K. Hall was "particularly active in procuring the charter"; the doors first opened to students in 1847 and after associating with a hospital for teaching purposes, the first class of students graduated the medical school in July 1847. Fillmore served as the school's first chancellor, a position he held until 1874 as he served in other capacities during that time, including Comptroller of New York, U. S. Vice President, President. Fillmore's name now graces the continuing education school Millard Fillmore College on the South campus as well as the Millard Fillmore Academic Center, an academic and administrative services building at the core of the residential Joseph Ellicott Complex, on the North Campus; the university did not have its own facilities, early lectures were given at an old post office on Seneca and Washington streets in Buffalo. The first building specially built for the university was a stone structure at the corner of Main and Virginia streets, built in 1849–50, through donations, public subscription, a state grant.
There were continuous expansions to the college medical programs, including a separate pharmacy division, now The School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. In 1887, a law school was organized in Buffalo, which became associated with Niagara University just to the north of Buffalo. After four years, in 1891, the law school was acquired by the University of Buffalo as the University of Buffalo Law School, which had a downtown Buffalo facility. In the first few years of the 20th century, the University began planning for a comprehensive undergraduate college to complete the basic structure of a university, in 1909 the University acquired the Erie County Almshouse grounds from the county of Erie, which became the University of Buffalo's initial campus; the establishment may have been influenced by the 1910 Flexner Report which criticized the preparation of the medical students at the university. With that additional space, in 1915, the University of Buffalo formed the College of Arts and Sciences, creating an undergraduate division in addition to its prior educational work in the licensed professional fields.
In 1916, Grace Millard Knox pledged $500,000 for the establishment of a "department of liberal arts and sciences in the University of Buffalo", at the time still a private institution. The initial gift of $100,000 was for the purchase of what would become Townsend Hall and the remainder was to
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o
Outline of Apple Inc.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Apple Inc.: Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products are the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad, its best-known software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media browser. As of March 2014, Apple has 425 retail stores in 16 countries, an online store. Macintosh – a family of personal computers designed and marketed by Apple. IMac – this line of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers has been Apple's primary consumer desktop offering since its introduction in 1998. IMac Pro – Similar in design to the iMac, but with a workstation-class Intel Xeon W processor and higher memory and graphics options. MacBook family – Macintosh notebook computers that merged the PowerBook and iBook lines during Apple's transition to Intel processors. MacBook – line of ultraportable Macintosh notebook computer introduced in March 2015.
MacBook Air – line of ultraportable Macintosh notebook computers introduced in January 2008. MacBook Pro – line of Macintosh portable computers introduced in January 2006, it replaced the PowerBook G4. Mac Mini – small form factor desktop computer. Mac Pro – Workstation-class hardware specifications based on Intel Xeon microprocessors. Commercially successful families of Apple computers from the 20th century include the Apple II series, Compact Macintosh, Macintosh II, Macintosh LC, Macintosh Performa, Macintosh Quadra, Power Macintosh, PowerBook. IOS – mobile operating system for the iPhone and iPod Touch, extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPad, Apple TV, Apple Watch. Called "iPhone OS". Apple TV – A digital media receiver, it is a small form factor network appliance designed to play digital content originating from the iTunes Store, YouTube, MobileMe, MLB.tv, NBA League Pass, NHL GameCenter, or any macOS or Windows computer running iTunes onto an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television.
Apple Watch. In size and weight, it falls between laptop computers. IPad – the first iPad released with a 9.7-inch display, a lithium-ion polymer battery that lasts up to 10 hours, a dual core Apple A4 processor, no cameras. Started the whole tablet marketplace of portable computing devices. IPad 2 – second generation iPad, with a lithium-ion polymer battery that lasts up to 10 hours, a dual core Apple A5 processor and VGA front-facing and 720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling. IPad – third generation iPad, it adds a Retina Display, the new Apple A5X chip with integrated quad-core graphics processor, a 5-megapixel camera, full HD 1080p video recording, voice dictation, 4G LTE. iPad – fourth generation iPad. Keeping the Retina Display, with a new Apple A6X chip with integrated a quad-core graphics processor, a 5 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p HD video front camera, with improved 4G LTE connectivity. IPad Air – fifth generation iPad.
Lighter and smaller dimensions, following the design of the iPad Mini keeping the Retina Display, using a new 64-bit Apple A7 chip featured in the iPhone 5S and 2nd generation iPad Mini, with integrated a quad-core graphics processor, retaining a 5 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p HD video front camera, improved 4G LTE connectivity. IPad Air 2 – sixth generation iPad. Thinner than the iPad Air, same design as the iPad Air and keeping the Retina Display, using a new 64-bit Apple A8X chip with integrated octa-core graphics processor, an 8 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p HD video front camera. New addition include the Touch ID sensor compatible with Apple Pay. iPad Mini – smaller screen version of the larger iPad, same line of tablet computers specialized for audio-visual media including books, movies, games and web content. In size and weight, it falls between laptop computers. IPad Mini – first smaller generation iPad with non-Retina 7.9-inch display.
Uses older Apple A5 chip with integrated a dual-core graphics processor, a 5 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p video front camera, with improved 4G LTE connectivity. IPad Mini – second generation with Retina Display keeping 7.9-inch display. Uses same Apple A7 chip with integrated a dual-core graphics processor as iPhone 5S and the larger iPad Air, retains same 5 MP camera, with further improved 4G LTE connectivity. IPad Mini – third generation with Retina Display keeping 7.9-inch display. Uses same Apple A7 chip with integrated a dual-core graphics processor as previous iPad Mini, new addition include the Touch ID sensor compatible with Apple Pay. iPad Mini 4 – fourth generation with Retina Display keeping 7.9-inch display, with anti-glare coating. Uses the 64-bit Apple A8 chip and Apple M8 motion co-processor. IPad Pro - larger screen version of the smaller iPad, same line of tablet computers specia