A1 road (Great Britain)
The A1 is the longest numbered road in the UK, at 410 miles. It connects London, the capital of England, with Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, it passes through or near North London, Welwyn Garden City, Baldock, Letchworth Garden City, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark-on-Trent, Doncaster, Ripon, Durham, Gateshead, Newcastle upon Tyne and Berwick-upon-Tweed. It was designated by the Ministry of Transport in 1921, for much of its route it followed various branches of the historic Great North Road, the main deviation being between Boroughbridge and Darlington; the course of the A1 has changed where towns or villages have been bypassed, where new alignments have taken a different route. Several sections of the route have been upgraded to motorway standard and designated A1. Between the M25 and the A696 the road has been designated as part of the unsigned Euroroute E15 from Inverness to Algeciras; the A1 is the latest in a series of routes north from London to York and beyond. It was designated in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport under the Great Britain road numbering scheme.
The earliest documented northern routes are the roads created by the Romans during the period from AD 43 to AD 410, which consisted of several itinera recorded in the Antonine Itinerary. A combination of these were used by the Anglo-Saxons as the route from London to York, together became known as Ermine Street. Ermine Street became known as the Old North Road. Part of this route in London is followed by the current A10. By the 12th century, because of flooding and damage by traffic, an alternative route out of London was found through Muswell Hill, became part of the Great North Road. A turnpike road, New North Road and Canonbury Road, was constructed in 1812 linking the start of the Old North Road around Shoreditch with the Great North Road at Highbury Corner. While the route of the A1 outside London follows the Great North Road route used by mail coaches between London and Edinburgh, within London the coaching route is only followed through Islington. Bypasses were built around Barnet and Hatfield in 1927, but it was not until c.1954 that they were renumbered A1.
In the 1930s bypasses were added around Chester-le-Street and Durham and the Ferryhill Cut was dug. In 1960 Stamford and Doncaster were bypassed, as were Retford in 1961 and St Neots in 1971. Baldock was bypassed in July 1967. During the early 1970s plans to widen the A1 along Archway Road in London were abandoned after considerable opposition and four public inquiries during which road protesters disrupted proceedings; the scheme was dropped in 1990. The Hatfield cut-and-cover was opened in 1986. A proposal to upgrade the whole of the A1 to motorway status was investigated by the Government in 1989 but was dropped in 1995, along with many other schemes, in response to road protests against other road schemes; the inns on the road, many of which still survive, were staging posts on the coach routes, providing accommodation, stabling for the horses and replacement mounts. Few of the surviving coaching inns can be seen while driving on the A1, because the modern route now bypasses the towns with the inns.
The A1 runs from New Change in the City of London at St. Paul's Cathedral to the centre of Edinburgh; the road skirts the remains of Sherwood Forest, passes Catterick Garrison. It shares its London terminus in the City area of Central London, it runs out of London via St. Martin's Le Grand and Aldersgate Street, through Islington, up Holloway Road, through Highgate, Potters Bar, Welwyn, Baldock, Sandy and St Neots. Continuing north, the A1 runs on modern bypasses around Stamford, Newark-on-Trent, Bawtry, Knottingley, Wetherby, Boroughbridge, Scotch Corner, Newton Aycliffe and Chester-le-Street, past the Angel of the North sculpture and the Metrocentre in Gateshead, through the western suburbs of Newcastle upon Tyne, Alnwick, Berwick-upon-Tweed, into Scotland at Marshall Meadows, past Haddington and Musselburgh before arriving in Edinburgh at the East End of Princes Street near Waverley Station, at the junction of the A7, A8 and A900 roads. Scotch Corner, in North Yorkshire, marks the point where before the M6 was built the traffic for Glasgow and the west of Scotland diverged from that for Edinburgh.
As well as a hotel there have been a variety of sites for the transport café, now subsumed as a motorway services. Most of the English section of the A1 is a series of alternating sections of primary route, dual carriageway and motorway. From Newcastle upon Tyne to Edinburgh it is a trunk road with alternating sections of dual and single carriageway; the table below summarises the road as non-motorway sections. The non-motorway sections do not have junction numbers. A 13-mile section of the road in North Yorkshire, from Walshford to Dishforth, was upgraded to motorway standard in 1995. Neolithic remains and a Roman fort were discovered. A 13-mile section of the road from Alconbury to Peterborough was upgraded to motorway standard at a cost of £128 million, which opened in 1998 requiring moving the memorial to Napoleonic prisoners buried at Norman Cross. A number of sections between Newcastle and Edinburgh were dualled between 1999 and 2004, including a 1.9-mile section from Spott Wood to Oswald Dean in 1999, 1.2-mile sections from Bowerhouse to Spott Road and from Howburn to Houndwood in 2002–200
City of Leeds
The City of Leeds is a local government district of West Yorkshire, governed by Leeds City Council, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough. The metropolitan district includes the administrative centre Leeds and the ten towns of Farsley, Guiseley, Morley, Pudsey, Rothwell and Yeadon, it has a population of 784,800, making it technically the second largest city in England by population behind Birmingham. The current city boundaries were set on 1 April 1974 by the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, as part a reform of local government in England; the city is a merger of eleven former local government districts. For its first 12 years the city had a two-tier system of local government. Since the Local Government Act 1985 Leeds City Council has been a unitary authority, serving as the sole executive and legislative body responsible for local policy, setting council tax, allocating budget in the city, is a member of the Leeds City Region Partnership; the City of Leeds is divided into a single unparished area.
The Borough of Leeds was created in 1207, when Maurice Paynel, lord of the manor, granted a charter covering a small area adjacent to a crossing of the River Aire, between the old settlement centred on Leeds Parish Church to the east and the manor house and mills to the west. In 1626 a charter was granted by Charles I; the parish and borough included the chapelries of Chapel Allerton, Beeston, Farnley, Headingley cum Burley, Hunslet, Leeds and Wortley. The borough was located in the West Riding of Yorkshire and gained city status in 1893; when a county council was formed for the riding in 1889, Leeds was excluded from its area of responsibility and formed a county borough. The borough made a significant number of territorial expansions, expanding from 21,593 acres in 1911 to 40,612 acres in 1961. A review of local government arrangements completed in 1969 proposed the creation of a new large district centred on Leeds, occupying 317,000 acres and including 840,000 people; the proposed area was reduced in a 1971 white paper.
The final proposal reduced the area further and following the enactment of the Local Government Act 1972, the county borough was abolished on 1 April 1974 and its former area was combined with that of the municipal boroughs of Morley and Pudsey. The new district gained both city status, as had been held by the county borough; the district and its settlements are situated in the eastern foothills of the Pennines astride the River Aire whose valley, the Aire Gap, provides a road and rail corridor that facilitates communications with cities to the west of the Pennines. The district extends 15 miles from east to west and 13 miles from north to south; the highest point, at 1,115 feet, is at its north western extremity on the eastern slopes of Rombalds Moor, better known as Ilkley Moor, on the boundary with the City of Bradford. The lowest points are at around 33 feet, in the east: where River Wharfe crosses the boundary with North Yorkshire south of Thorp Arch Trading Estate and where the River Aire meets the North Yorkshire boundary near Fairburn Ings.
To the north and east Leeds is bordered by North Yorkshire: Harrogate district to the north and Selby district to the east. The remaining borders are with other districts of West Yorkshire: Wakefield to the south, Kirklees to the south west, Bradford to the west. Leeds City Council is the local authority of the district; the council is composed of three for each of the city's wards. Elections are held three years out on the first Thursday of May. One third of the councillors are elected, in each election. 2004 saw all seats up for election due to boundary changes. It is run by a Labour administration. Before the 2011 election, the council had been under no overall control since 2004; the Chief Executive of Leeds City Council is Tom Riordan while the Leader of the Council is Councillor Judith Blake of the Labour Party. As a metropolitan county, West Yorkshire does not have a county council, so Leeds City Council is the primary provider of local government services; the district forms the Humber region of England.
Most of the district is an unparished area, comprising Leeds itself, Garforth and the area of the former urban district of Aireborough. In the unparished area there is no lower tier of government. Outside the unparished area there are 31 civil parishes, represented by parish councils; these form the lowest tier of local government and absorb
North Eastern Railway (United Kingdom)
The North Eastern Railway was an English railway company. It was incorporated in 1854 by the combination of several existing railway companies, it was amalgamated with other railways to form the London and North Eastern Railway at the Grouping in 1923. Its main line survives to the present day as part of the East Coast Main Line between London and Edinburgh. Unlike many other pre-Grouping companies the NER had a compact territory, in which it had a near monopoly; that district extended through Yorkshire, County Durham and Northumberland, with outposts in Westmorland and Cumberland. The only company penetrating its territory was the Hull & Barnsley, which it absorbed shortly before the main grouping; the NER's main line formed the middle link on the Anglo-Scottish "East Coast Main Line" between London and Edinburgh, joining the Great Northern Railway near Doncaster and the North British Railway at Berwick-upon-Tweed. Although a Northern English railway, the NER had a short length of line in Scotland, in Roxburghshire, with stations at Carham and Sprouston on the Tweedmouth-Kelso route, was a joint owner of the Forth railway bridge and its approach lines.
The NER was the only English railway to run trains into Scotland, over the Berwick-Edinburgh main line as well as on the Tweedmouth-Kelso branch. The total length of line owned was 4,990 miles and the company's share capital was £82 million; the headquarters were at York and the works at Darlington, Gateshead and elsewhere. Befitting the successor to the Stockton & Darlington Railway, the NER had a reputation for innovation, it was a pioneer in electrification. In its final days it began the collection that became the Railway Museum at York, now the National Railway Museum. In 1913 the company achieved a total revenue of £11,315,130 with working expenses of £7,220,784. Constituent companies of the NER are listed in chronological order under the year of amalgamation, their constituent companies are indented under the parent company with the year of amalgamation in parenthesis. If a company changed its name, the earlier names and dates are listed after the name; the information for this section is drawn from Appendix E in Tomlinson.
1854 York and Berwick Railway was York and Newcastle Railway and Newcastle and Darlington Junction Railway Durham Junction Railway Brandling Junction Railway Durham and Sunderland Railway Pontop and South Shields Railway Stanhope and Tyne Railway Newcastle and Berwick Railway Newcastle and North Shields Railway Great North of England Railway York and North Midland Railway Leeds and Selby Railway Whitby and Pickering Railway East and West Yorkshire Junction Railway Leeds Northern Railway was Leeds and Thirsk Railway Malton and Driffield Railway1857 Deerness Valley Railway Hartlepool Dock and Railway1858 North Yorkshire and Cleveland Railway1859 Bedale and Leyburn Railway1862 the "N. E. R. Foss Island BR" railway line, which appears on the 1860 Ordnance Survey map near Elmfield College Hull and Holderness Railway Newcastle and Carlisle Railway Blaydon and Hebburn Railway 1863 Stockton and Darlington Railway Darlington and Barnard Castle Railway Middlesbrough and Guisborough Railway Middlesbrough and Redcar Railway Wear Valley Railway Bishop Auckland and Weardale Railway Eden Valley Railway Frosterley and Stanhope Railway South Durham and Lancashire Union Railway 1865 Cleveland Railway West Hartlepool Harbour and Railway Clarence Railway Stockton and Hartlepool Railway 1866 Hull and Hornsea Railway1870 West Durham Railway1872 Hull and Selby Railway1874 Blyth and Tyne Railway 1876 Hexham and Allendale Railway Leeds and Pontefract Junction Railway1882 Tees Valley Railway1883 Hylton and Monkwearmouth Railway Scotswood and Wylam Railway1889 Whitby and Middlesbrough Union Railway1893 Wear Valley Extension Railway1898 Scarborough & Whitby Railway1900 Cawood and Selby Light Railway1914 Scarborough and West Riding Junction Railway1922 Hull and Barnsley Railway 1853 Hartlepool West Harbour and Dock1857 Hartlepool Dock and Railway1893 Hull Dock Company Having inherited the country's first great barrel-vault roofed station, Newcastle Central, from its constituent the York Newcastle & Berwick railway, the NER during the next half century built a finer set of grand principal stations than any other British railway company, with examples at Alnwick, Gateshead East, Stockton, Darlington Bank Top and Hull Paragon.
The four largest, at Newcastle, Darlington and Hull survive in transport use. Alnwick is still extant but in non-transport use since 1991 as a second-hand book warehouse, the others having been demolished during the 1950s/60s state-owned railway era, two following Second World War blitz damage. York station was the hub of the system, the headquarters of the line was located here; the basis for the present station was opened on 25 June 1877. Until the advent of modern signalling, the 295-lever box was the largest manually worked signal box in Britain. Newcastle station, opened on 29 August 1850, became the largest on the NER. Other principal stations were located at Sunderland and Hull; the station at Leed
Northern (train operating company)
Northern is a train operating company in Northern England. A subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains, it began operating the Northern franchise on 1 April 2016 and inherited units from the previous operator Northern Rail. Central to franchise commitments will be the introduction of 101 new-built units – the Class 195 and 331; these will be the first new-build trains for the Northern franchise since the introduction of the Class 333 in 2000 and the new rolling stock will enable all 102 Pacer trains in service with Northern to be retired by the end of 2019. Additionally, it is planned that a franchise sub-brand, known as Northern Connect, will provide inter-urban services between major cities and towns in Northern England, as well as serving a number of major commuting stations; however since the franchise began in April 2016, it has been beset by falling punctuality, poor customer service, regular industrial action by staff and delays in introducing new rolling stock due to issues encountered during testing.
Despite passenger growth at the vast majority of train operating companies in the United Kingdom and the Northern franchise operating more services, the number of passengers carried since the franchise commenced in 2016 has declined and has been attributed to worsening performance. The franchise will run to 2025 with an option for an additional year, dependent on performance. In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced that Abellio and Govia had been shortlisted to bid for the next Northern franchise; the franchise was awarded to Arriva in December 2015. In May 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority launched an investigation into the transport department's decision to award the Northern network to Arriva. Arriva operated the CrossCountry franchise and owned many bus companies in the Northern trains operating area in which'a significant overlap occurs without competition from other service providers.'In April 2018, a penalty fare scheme under the Railways Regulations 2018 commenced to encourage passengers to purchase a ticket before boarding trains.
Although this scheme is not wholly enforced across the Northern network, passengers are liable to paying a £20 penalty fare if they are deemed to have travelled without a valid ticket and had the ability to purchase a ticket prior to boarding the train at the station of origin. Customers who need to purchase a ticket at the station of origin with cash may do so by collecting a'Promise to Pay' notice prior to boarding from a ticket machine as these are not capable of accepting cash; these notices can be exchanged with the on-board conductor or with a member of railway staff at the destination station for a paid ticket. Section 6 of the Railways Regulations 2018 covers a number of scenarios that prohibit penalty fares being issued such'no facilities in operation for the sale of a travel ticket for that passenger’s journey'; the franchise was criticised for implementing a new timetable in May 2018 which resulted in widespread delays and cancellations. Network Rail and Northern announced an independent inquiry to learn lessons and identify route alterations in readiness for the next timetable change in December 2018.
In an attempt to counter operational problems, Northern implemented an emergency timetable on 4 June 2018 – it stemmed some delays and cancellations but was still problematic compared with performance before the timetable change. Punctuality was bad in the North West due to the delay in the Blackpool-Preston electrification scheme and the number of trains per hour through Manchester increased with more services utilising the Ordsall Chord which became operational in December 2017. Network Rail only informed train operating companies in January 2018 that the electrification scheme would be delayed until November – Northern had planned for the scheme to be complete as scheduled by May and had trained drivers to operate new routes with electric rolling stock. An alternative timetable had to be drafted up and many train drivers were not sufficiently trained to drive the existing diesel rolling stock which resulted in widespread cancellations. Furthermore, the additional services through the Manchester corridor resulted in increased congestion and which had a knock-on effect.
Performance statistics published by the Office of Rail and Road in October 2018 showed that from April to June 2018, the franchise recorded the lowest PPM – measured by train service departing within 5 minutes of its scheduled time – of any quarter since punctuality records began on the Northern franchise in 2009. Performance towards the latter half of the 2018 continued to be poor with many passengers protesting and the network beset by a reduced service on Saturdays due to industrial action. In October 2018 it was announced that Manchester Oxford Road station, the busiest station managed by Northern with over 8 million passengers, was the most delayed station in the United Kingdom in 2018 – this was attributed to the chaos following the May 2018 timetable. Between 14 October and 10 November 2018, Northern recorded the worst monthly performance on record with more trains late than on time. Less than 40% of services arrived on time and only 71.9% departed within 5 minutes of the scheduled departure time.
By November 2018, Arriva were re-evaluating their future involvement in the franchise due to a combination of declining passenger numbers as a result of the chaotic May 2018 timetable change and increasing compensation claims as a result of falling punctuality. Both have pushed the franchise into a loss-making entity and face a £282 million government subsidy shortfall, due to be passed onto the franchise. Since the franchise commenced in April 2016 and despite an increase
Leeds railway station
Leeds railway station is the mainline railway station serving the city centre of Leeds in West Yorkshire, England. It is the third-busiest railway station in the UK outside London, it is located on New Station Street to the south of City Square, at the bottom of Park Row, behind the landmark Queens Hotel. It is one of 20 stations managed by Network Rail. Leeds is an important hub on the British rail network; the station is the terminus of the Leeds branch of the East Coast Main Line and is an important stop on the Cross Country Route between Scotland, the Midlands and South West England connecting to major cities such as Birmingham, Edinburgh, Nottingham, Bristol, Exeter and Penzance. There are regular inter-city services to major destinations throughout Northern England including Manchester, Liverpool and Sheffield, it is the terminus for trains running on the scenic Settle to Carlisle Line. Future expansion will link the station to the proposed High Speed 2 network. Leeds is a major hub for local and regional destinations across Yorkshire such as to York, Hull and Sheffield.
The station lies at the heart of the Metro commuter network for West Yorkshire providing services to Bradford, Dewsbury and Halifax. With over 31 million passenger entries and exits between April 2017 and March 2018, Leeds is the busiest railway station in the North of England and the third-busiest railway station in the United Kingdom outside London, after Birmingham New Street and Glasgow Central; the railway station is situated on a hill falling from the south of the city to the River Aire and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal basin. Much of it is supported on Victorian brick-vaulted arches situated just off Neville Street which contain a centre consisting of cafés, restaurants and exhibition spaces called Granary Wharf, known locally as the Dark Arches; the railway station has 17 platforms, making it the largest by number of platforms in England outside London. There are six through platforms. Most platforms are subdivided into i.e. 1a, 1b, 1c etc.. All together including the numbers, there are 47 platforms.
Retail facilities in the station include coffee shops, fast food outlets, a bar, newsagents and supermarkets. A British Transport Police station on New Station Street houses officers who police the West Yorkshire railway stations. Leeds railway station retained manned ticket barriers through the 1990s until 2008 when they were replaced by automatic barriers by Northern to reduce congestion around the barriers at peak times. PlatformsPlatform usage varies depending on operational circumstances but is generally: 1–5 – Bay platforms used by MetroTrain services operated by Northern, towards Harrogate, Bradford Forster Square and Skipton. 6, 8 – 6 is a Bay Platform used for terminating London North Eastern Railway services from London, 8 is a through platform used for London North Eastern Railway services which both terminate and continue onward to Bradford and Skipton, as well as the early morning LNER departure to Aberdeen. 8, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16 – through platforms. CrossCountry services heading north to York and beyond depart from Platforms 8, 9 or 11.
Platforms 15 and 16 are used by north/east and south/westbound TransPennine Express services to Hull, York and Middlesbrough and Huddersfield, Manchester Airport and Liverpool Lime Street. 7, 14 – Bay platforms used for local Northern services running north/east from Leeds. 10, 13, 17 – Bay platforms used for local and regional services running south/west to Manchester Victoria and Huddersfield, alongside southbound services towards Wakefield, Meadowhall and Nottingham. Leeds Interchange, located at the New Station Street exit, provides onward transport connections from the station. There are five bus stands serving Arriva and Yorkshire Tiger routes 4, 5, 16, 16A, 19, 19A, 40, 85, 87, 90, 757, 870 and DalesBus services. A 24-hour taxi rank operates at the interchange. Further bus stops are located on Neville Street below the railway station, as well as around City Square outside the railway station. Infirmary Street and Boar Lane Bus Points are a short walk for more bus connections. Leeds Interchange hosts one of the UK's first cycle hubs that allows a number of cycling services including repair and rental.
The facility opened in summer 2010 and is designed to encourage visitors and commuters into Leeds to continue their journey from the railway station by bike. Its design is based on the Dutch cyclepoint concept; the railways arrived in Leeds in 1834. It had a terminus at Marsh Lane east of the city centre. In 1840, the North Midland Railway constructed its line from Derby via Rotherham to a terminus at Hunslet Lane to the south, it was extended to a more centrally located terminus at Wellington Street in 1846, known as Wellington Station. Another railway station, Leeds Central, was opened in 1854 by the Manchester and Leeds Railway and the London and North Western Railway, or LNWR; the railway station became owned jointly by the LNWR and the North Eastern Railway, but other companies had powers to run trains there, including the Great Northern Railway and the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. In 1869 New Station opened as a joint enterprise by the North Eastern Railway, it connected the former Leeds and Selby Railway Line to the
Church Fenton railway station
Church Fenton railway station serves Church Fenton in North Yorkshire, England. It is on the former York and North Midland Railway main line from York to Normanton, just under 10.75 miles from York. The Y&NMR opened the first part of its route through the village on 29 May 1839, completing it the following year. On completion of a branch from there to Harrogate via Wetherby and Tadcaster by the Y&NM in 1848 a new station on a different site gave it new importance and within two years it had become a calling point on the new East Coast Main Line from York to London with the opening of a line from Burton Salmon to Knottingley. Further development of the station occurred in 1869, when a 5-mile link was opened by the North Eastern Railway from there to Micklefield on the former Leeds and Selby Railway to create a new main line between Leeds and York; the NER had been looking to shorten the previous, indirect route between the two cities via Castleford for some time prior to this, but plans to build a line via Tadcaster had come to nothing and so this alternative route was chosen.
The existing line from here to York was subsequently quadrupled to handle the increased levels of traffic and the station altered, with the addition of extra platforms and connections between the two pairs of lines. The station lost its ECML status in 1871 when the new direct line from York to Doncaster via Selby was opened, but trains from London to Harrogate continued to call and yet another addition to the list of routes serving the station came in 1879 when the Swinton and Knottingley Joint Railway line via Pontefract Baghill and Ferrybridge was opened. In connection with the quadrupling of the lines the present station was opened in 1904 south of the second station. Today the station remains busy though the Harrogate line fell victim to the Beeching Axe in January 1964 and passenger trains towards Castleford ended six years later; the Leeds to York Line carries a frequent passenger service whilst the line towards Sherburn, Milford Junction and thence to Knottingley and Pontefract carries large quantities of freight.
However, only certain trains on the Northern operated Leeds to York, Dearne Valley and Hull to York routes call at the station's four platforms due to the small size of the village it serves. The station is covered by a long-line automatic P. A system to provide real-time train running details. Passenger information screens are installed, but it is unstaffed and travellers must buy their tickets in advance or on the train. Access to all four platforms is via footbridge, so there is no step-free access to any of the platforms; the former booking office at street level is now in private commercial use as a restaurant, but the platform level buildings were all demolished by 1990. The service levels at the station were increased at the summer 2018 timetable change and modified again in December 2018 - trains on the York to Leeds line now call hourly each way throughout the day, whilst many York to Hull trains stop. Most Leeds-bound services continue through to Preston via Bradford Interchange and run express to Leeds.
A limited service is provided to Sheffield via the Dearne Valley line. Sundays now see an hourly service to Leeds and York, plus two trains to and from Sheffield and three to Hull. Most Leeds services continue to Blackpool North. Body, G. PSL Field Guides - Railways of the Eastern Region Volume 2, Patrick Stephens Ltd, Wellingborough, ISBN 1-85260-072-1 Train times and station information for Church Fenton railway station from National Rail
The Airedale line is one of the rail services in the West Yorkshire Metro area centred on West Yorkshire in northern England. The service is operated on the route connecting Leeds and Bradford with Skipton; some services along the line continue to Carlisle. The route covered by the service was part of the Midland Railway. According to SELRAP, the Airedale line is the most used passenger route outside the South East of England; the first section, between Leeds and Bradford, was opened by the Leeds and Bradford Railway on 1 July 1846. A number of the intermediate stations were closed in March 1965, however the line and its major stations remained open; some of the closed stations, such as Saltaire, were re-opened during the 1980s. In 1994 under Regional Railways, the line was electrified at 25 kV AC overhead between Leeds and Skipton, new British Rail Class 333 trains were introduced in the early 2000s. Investment in the line has seen passenger numbers grow, now overcrowding on trains is a problem.
New stock and longer trains are to be introduced by the new Northern Rail franchisee Arriva Rail North by December 2018 to tackle this issue. The route is described below; the line included a number of stations which are now closed: Leeds – the station was named Leeds to differentiate it from the other main line stations in the city, belonging to the North Eastern Railway Holbeck Armley Canal Road Kirkstall Kirkstall Forge Newlay and Horsforth Calverley and Rodley Location of Apperley Junction for the Wharfedale line Apperley Bridge & Rawdon – closed in 1965. The main line, opened from here to Skipton by the Leeds and Bradford Extension Railway in 1847, continues: Saltaire Location of Bingley tunnel Bingley Crossflatts Thwaites Keighley Location of the Worth Valley Branch junction to Oxenhope; the branch is now the Worth Valley Railway heritage line. Steeton & Silsden Kildwick and Crosshills Cononley Skipton. Trains of the Leeds–Morecambe line and Settle–Carlisle line run along the Airedale line from Leeds.
The line is operated by Northern. The fare structure is as follows: Zone 1 Leeds railway station Zone 2 Kirkstall Forge Zone 3 Apperley Bridge to Crossflatts. Shipley is served by the Leeds–Bradford line and the Wharfedale line Zone 4 Keighley Zone 5 Steeton & Silsden Zone 7 Cononley to Skipton Recent Network Rail reports have looked at ways of increasing capacity on the line; because of the difficulty of lengthening platforms at Shipley, it will be hard to introduce longer trains as is being proposed on the neighbouring Wharfedale line. It is therefore proposed to run more trains per hour between Leeds and Keighley, with a new platform at Keighley to accommodate this. New stations were opened at Apperley Bridge in December 2015 and Kirkstall Forge in June 2016London North Eastern Railway operate a small number of daily services on the line, between Skipton/Bradford and London King's Cross; these are operated by InterCity 225's. East Coast, Virgin Trains East Coast's predecessor, wanted to run more frequent services from December 2009 but to do so the line would need more capacity.
A recent report by Modern Railways claimed that a solid hourly service would operate on the line as far as Long Preston, but would serve Carlisle and Lancaster alternately. It may become a freight artery to improve capacity on the West Coast Main Line. Network Rail's own latest plans involve new signalling and other improvements for the sections of the line beyond Skipton. Carlisle services will be increased to a basic two-hour pattern with extra services to'fill in the gaps' at peak times during the day to give a 1 train/h frequency. Lancaster services will be made more frequent, however it has been suggested they will be terminated at Skipton in future, rather than continuing through to Leeds as at present. All of these plans are still dependent on getting enough government funding. Interactive route map