International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, passports, tamper-evident labels, security tapes, product authentication, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards. The main goal of security printing is to prevent tampering, or counterfeiting. More many of the techniques used to protect these high-value documents have become more available to commercial printers whether they are using the more traditional offset and flexographic presses or the newer digital platforms. Businesses are protecting their lesser-value documents such as transcripts and prescription pads by incorporating some of the features listed below to ensure that they cannot be forged or that alteration of the data cannot occur undetected. A number of technical methods are used in the security printing industry. Security printing is most done on security paper, but it can occur on plastic materials. Most banknotes are made of heavy paper always from cotton fibres for strength and durability, in some cases linen or speciality coloured or forensic fibres are added to give the paper added individuality and protect against counterfeiting.
Some countries, including Canada, Romania, New Zealand, Singapore, United Kingdom and Australia, produce polymer banknotes, to improve longevity and allow the inclusion of a small transparent window as a security feature, difficult to reproduce using common counterfeiting techniques. A watermark is a recognizable image or pattern in paper that appears lighter or darker than surrounding paper when viewed with a light from behind the paper, due to paper density variations. A watermark is made by impressing a water coated metal stamp or dandy roll onto the paper during manufacturing. Watermarks were first introduced in Bologna, Italy in 1282. Watermarks can be made on polymer currency, for example, Australia has its coat of arms watermarked on all its plastic bills. Printed with white ink, simulated watermarks have a different reflectance than the base paper and can be seen at an angle; because the ink is white, it can not be scanned. Intaglio is a printing technique. Copper or zinc plates are used, the incisions are created by etching or engraving the image, but one may use mezzotint.
In printing, the surface is covered in ink, rubbed vigorously with tarlatan cloth or newspaper to remove the ink from the surface, leaving it in the incisions. A damp piece of paper is placed on top, the plate and paper are run through a printing press that, through pressure, transfers the ink to the paper; the sharp printing obtained from the intaglio process is hard to imitate by other means. Intaglio allows for the creation of latent images which are only visible when the document is viewed at a shallow angle. A guilloché is an ornamental pattern formed of two or more curved bands that interlace to repeat a circular design, they are made with a geometric lathe. This involves the use of small text, is most used on currency and bank checks; the text is small enough to be indiscernible to the naked eye. Cheques, for example, use microprint as the signature line. Color changing inks are made from mica. Color changing inks colored magnetizable inks are prepared by including chromatic pigments of high color strength.
The magnetic pigments’ strong inherent color reduces the spectrum of achievable shades. Pigments should be used at high concentrations to ensure that sufficient magnetizable material is applied in thin offset coats; some magnetic pigment are best suited for colored magnetizable inks due to their lower blackness. Homogenous magnetization is obtained on pigment made of spherical particles. Best results are achieved when remanence and coercive field strength are low and the saturating magnetization is high. Magnetic pigments are used in ribbon inks for coding and reading; the pigment is dispersed in a binder system or a wax compound and applied either by pressing or by hot melt to a carrier film. When pearlescent pigments are viewed at different angles the angle of the light as it's perceived makes the color appear to change as the magnetic fields within the particles shift direction. A hologram may be embedded either via hot-stamping foil, wherein an thin layer of only a few micrometers of depth is bonded into the paper or a plastic substrate by means of a hot-melt adhesive and heat from a metal die, or it may be directly embossed as holographic paper, or onto the laminate of a card itself.
When incorporated with a custom design pattern or logo, hologram hot stamping foils become security foils that protect credit cards, bank notes and value documents from counterfeiting. Holograms help in curtailing forging, duplication of products hence are essential for security purposes. Once stamped on a product, they can not be forged, enhancing the product at the same time. From a security perspective, if stamped, a hologram is a superior security device as it is impossible to remove from its substrate. Metal threads and foils, from simple iridescent features to foil color copying to foils with additional optically variable effects are used. There are two kinds of security threads. One is a thin aluminum coated and de-metalized polyester film thread with microprinting, embedded in the security paper as banknote or pa
Microphotographs are photographs shrunk to microscopic scale. Microphotography is the art of making such images. Applications of microphotography include espionage such as in the Hollow Nickel Case, where they are known as microfilm. Using the daguerreotype process, John Benjamin Dancer was one of the first to produce microphotographs, in 1839, he achieved a reduction ratio of 160:1. Dancer perfected his reduction procedures with Frederick Scott Archer’s wet collodion process, developed in 1850–51, but he dismissed his decades-long work on microphotographs as a personal hobby, did not document his procedures; the idea that microphotography could be no more than a novelty was an opinion shared by the 1858 Dictionary of Photography, which called the process "somewhat trifling and childish."Novelty viewing devices such as Stanhopes were once a popular way to carry and view microphotographs. An important application of microphotography is in microforms. Microprinting
Preservation (library and archival science)
In library and archival science, preservation is a set of activities aimed at prolonging the life of a record while making as few changes as possible. Relevant metadata, enhancement of cultural value, improvement of access are important aspects of preservation work. Actions taken to influence record creators prior to selection and acquisition must be avoided for proper preservation. Preservation, in this definition, is practiced in a library or an archive by a librarian, archivist, or other professional when they perceive a record is in need of care. Preservation should be distinguished from conservation-restoration of cultural heritage, which refers to the treatment and repair of individual items to slow the process of decay, or restore them to a usable state. Conservation is used interchangeably with preservation outside the professional literature. Collections care is the general preventive care of a collection as a whole; this can include activities such as security, environmental monitoring, preservation surveys and more specialized activities such as mass deacidification.
Conservation is the treatment and repair of individual items to slow decay or restore them to a usable state. Conservation is used interchangeably with preservation outside the professional literature. Digital preservation is the maintenance of digitally stored information; some means of digital preservation include refreshing, migration and emulation. This should not be confused with digitization, a process of creating digital information which must itself be preserved digitally. Disaster preparedness is the practice of arranging for the necessary resources and planning the best course of action to prevent or minimize damage to a collection in the event of a disaster of any level of magnitude, whether natural or man-made. Reformatting is the practice of creating copies of an object in another type of data-storage device. Reformatting processes include digitization. Books - Sizing & Leather Binding Ephemera and Realia Paper - Acid-free paper, Japanese tissue, Mummy paper, Paper splitting, & Print permanence Parchment - Parchment repair & Preservation of Illuminated Manuscripts Moving image - Film preservation & Video recording Sound recording - Preservation of magnetic audiotape Oral history preservation Language Preservation Visual material - Color photography § Preservation issues & Architectural reprography, a variety of technologies and media used to make multiple copies of original drawings or records created by architects, engineers and related professionals.
Optical media preservation Ink A new concept, has been hailed as a way to preserve historical items for future use. "Digitizing refers to the process of converting analog materials into digital form."For manuscripts, digitization is achieved through scanning an item and saving it to a digital format. For example, the Google Book Search program has partnered with over forty libraries around the world to digitize books; the goal of this library partnership project is to "make it easier for people to find relevant books – books they wouldn't find any other way such as those that are out of print – while respecting authors' and publishers' copyrights."Although digitization seems to be a promising area for future preservation, there are problems. The main problems are that digital space costs money, formats change, backwards compatibility is not guaranteed. Higher-quality images take a longer time to scan, but are more valuable for future use. Fragile items are more difficult or more expensive to scan, which creates a selection problem for preservationists.
Other problems include scan quality, redundancy of digitized books among different libraries, copyright law. However, many of these problems are being solved through educational initiatives. Educational programs are tailoring themselves to fit preservation needs and help new students understand preservation practices. Programs teaching graduate students about digital librarianship are important. Groups such as the Digital Preservation Network strive to ensure that "the complete scholarly record is preserved for future generations"; the Library of Congress maintains a Sustainability of Digital Formats web site that educates institutions on various aspects of preservation: most notably, on 200 digital format types and which are most to last into the future. Digital Preservation is another name for digitization, is the term more used in archival courses; the main goal of digital preservation is to guarantee that people will have access to the digitally preserved materials long into the future. When practicing preservation one has several factors to consider to properly preserve a record: 1) the environment the record is store in, 2) the criteria to determine when preservation is necessary, 3) what standard practices will be laid down for preservation in an individual institution, 4) research and testing, 5) vendor services needed for preservation.
Environmental controls are necessary to facilitate the preservation of organic materials and are important to monitor in rare and special collections. Key environmental factors to watch include temperature, relative humidity, pests and light exposure. In general, the lower the temperature is, the better it is for the collection. However, since books and other materials are housed in areas with people, a compromise must be struck to accommodate human comfort. A reasonable temperature to accomplish both goals is 65-68˚F however, if possible and photography collections should be kept in a segr
Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents either films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage and printing. Microform images are reduced to about one twenty-fifth of the original document size. For special purposes, greater optical reductions may be used. All microform images may be provided as positives or negatives, more the latter. Three formats are common: microfilm and aperture cards. Microcards known as "microopaques" a format no longer produced, were similar to microfiche, but printed on cardboard rather than photographic film. Using the daguerreotype process, John Benjamin Dancer was one of the first to produce microphotographs, in 1839, he achieved a reduction ratio of 160:1. Dancer perfected his reduction procedures with Frederick Scott Archer's wet collodion process, developed in 1850–51, but he dismissed his decades-long work on microphotographs as a personal hobby, did not document his procedures; the idea that microphotography could be no more than a novelty was an opinion shared by the 1858 Dictionary of Photography, which called the process "somewhat trifling and childish".
Microphotography was first suggested as a document preservation method in 1851 by James Glaisher, an astronomer, in 1853 by John Herschel. Both men attended the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, where the exhibit on photography influenced Glaisher, he called it "the most remarkable discovery of modern times", argued in his official report for using microphotography to preserve documents. The pigeon post was in operation while Paris was besieged during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. Charles Barreswil, proposed the application of photographic methods with prints of a reduced size; the prints were on photographic paper and did not exceed 40mm to permit insertion in the pigeon's quill. The developments in microphotography continued through the next decades, but it was not until the turn of the century that its potential for practical usage was seized by a wider audience. In 1896, Canadian engineer Reginald A. Fessenden suggested microforms were a compact solution to engineers' unwieldy but consulted materials.
He proposed that up to 150,000,000 words could be made to fit in a square inch, that a one-foot cube could contain 1.5 million volumes. In 1906, Paul Otlet and Robert Goldschmidt proposed the livre microphotographique as a way to alleviate the cost and space limitations imposed by the codex format. Otlet’s overarching goal was to create a World Center Library of Juridical and Cultural Documentation, he saw microfiche as a way to offer a stable and durable format, inexpensive, easy to use, easy to reproduce, compact. In 1925, the team spoke of a massive library where each volume existed as master negatives and positives, where items were printed on demand for interested patrons. In the 1920s microfilm began to be used in a commercial setting. New York City banker George McCarthy was issued a patent in 1925 for his "Checkograph" machine, designed to make micrographic copies of cancelled checks for permanent storage by financial institutions. In 1928, the Eastman Kodak Company bought McCarthy's invention and began marketing check microfilming devices under its "Recordak" division.
Between 1927 and 1935, the Library of Congress microfilmed more than three million pages of books and manuscripts in the British Library. Binkley, which looked at microform’s potential to serve small print runs of academic or technical materials. In 1933, Charles C. Peters developed a method to microformat dissertations, in 1934 the United States National Agriculture Library implemented the first microform print-on-demand service, followed by a similar commercial concern, Science Service. In 1935, Kodak's Recordak division began filming and publishing The New York Times on reels of 35 millimeter microfilm, ushering in the era of newspaper preservation on film; this method of information storage received the sanction of the American Library Association at its annual meeting in 1936, when it endorsed microforms. Harvard University Library was the first major institution to realize the potential of microfilm to preserve broadsheets printed on high-acid newsprint and it launched its "Foreign Newspaper Project" to preserve such ephemeral publications in 1938.
Roll microfilm proved far more satisfactory as a storage medium than earlier methods of film information storage, such as the Photoscope, the Film-O-Graph, the Fiske-O-Scope, filmslides. The year 1938 saw another major event in the history of microfilm when University Microfilms International was established by Eugene Power. For the next half century, UMI would dominate the field and distributing microfilm editions of current and past publications and academic dissertations. After another short-lived name change, UMI was made a part of ProQuest Information and Learning in 2001. Systems that mount microfilm images in punched cards have been used for archival storage of engineering information. For example, when airlines demand archival engineering drawings to support purchased equipment, they specify punch-card-mounted microfilm with an industry-standard indexing system punched into the card; this permits automated reproduction, as well as permitting mechanical card-sorting equipment to sort and select microfilm drawings.
Aperture card mounted microfilm is 3% of the size and space of conventional paper or vellum engineering drawings. Some military contracts aroun
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres in size with a surrounding interfacial layer. The interfacial layer is an integral part of nanoscale matter, fundamentally affecting all of its properties; the interfacial layer consists of ions and organic molecules. Organic molecules coating inorganic nanoparticles are known as stabilizers and surface ligands, or passivating agents. In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties. Particles are further classified according to diameter; the term "nanoparticle" is not applied to individual molecules. Ultrafine particles are the same as nanoparticles and between 1 and 100 nm in size, as opposed to fine particles are sized between 100 and 2,500 nm, coarse particles cover a range between 2,500 and 10,000 nm; the reason for the synonymous definition of nanoparticles and ultrafine particles is that, during the 1970s and 80s, when the first thorough fundamental studies with "nanoparticles" were underway in the USA and Japan, they were called "ultrafine particles".
However, during the 1990s before the National Nanotechnology Initiative was launched in the USA, the new name, "nanoparticle," had become more common. Nanoparticles can exhibit size-related properties different from those of either fine particles or bulk materials. Nanoclusters have at least one dimension a narrow size distribution. Nanopowders nanoparticles, or nanoclusters. Nanometer-sized single crystals, or single-domain ultrafine particles, are referred to as nanocrystals. According to ISO Technical Specification 80004, a nanoparticle is defined as a nano-object with all three external dimensions in the nanoscale, whose longest and shortest axes do not differ with a significant difference being a factor of at least 3; the terms colloid and nanoparticle are not interchangeable. A colloid is a mixture; the term applies only if the particles are larger than atomic dimensions but small enough to exhibit Brownian motion, with the critical size range ranging from nanometers to micrometers. Colloids can contain particles too large to be nanoparticles, nanoparticles can exist in non-colloidal form, for examples as a powder or in a solid matrix.
Although nanoparticles are associated with modern science, they have a long history. Nanoparticles were used by artisans as far back as Rome in the fourth century in the famous Lycurgus cup made of dichroic glass as well as the ninth century in Mesopotamia for creating a glittering effect on the surface of pots. In modern times, pottery from the Middle Ages and Renaissance retains a distinct gold- or copper-colored metallic glitter; this luster is caused by a metallic film, applied to the transparent surface of a glazing. The luster can still be visible if the film has resisted other weathering; the luster originates within the film itself, which contains silver and copper nanoparticles dispersed homogeneously in the glassy matrix of the ceramic glaze. These nanoparticles are created by the artisans by adding copper and silver salts and oxides together with vinegar and clay on the surface of previously-glazed pottery; the object is placed into a kiln and heated to about 600 °C in a reducing atmosphere.
In heat the glaze softens, causing the copper and silver ions to migrate into the outer layers of the glaze. There the reducing atmosphere reduced the ions back to metals, which came together forming the nanoparticles that give the color and optical effects. Luster technique showed; the technique originated in the Muslim world. As Muslims were not allowed to use gold in artistic representations, they sought a way to create a similar effect without using real gold; the solution they found was using luster. Michael Faraday provided the first description, in scientific terms, of the optical properties of nanometer-scale metals in his classic 1857 paper. In a subsequent paper, the author points out that: "It is well known that when thin leaves of gold or silver are mounted upon glass and heated to a temperature, well below a red heat, a remarkable change of properties takes place, whereby the continuity of the metallic film is destroyed; the result is that white light is now transmitted, reflection is correspondingly diminished, while the electrical resistivity is enormously increased."
Nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are, in effect, a bridge between bulk materials and atomic or molecular structures. A bulk material should have constant physical properties regardless of its size, but at the nano-scale size-dependent properties are observed. Thus, the properties of materials change as their size approaches the nanoscale and as the percentage of the surface in relation to the percentage of the volume of a material becomes significant. For bulk materials larger than one micrometer, the percentage of the surface is insignificant in relation to the volume in the bulk of the material; the interesting and sometimes unexpected properties of nanoparticles are therefore due to the large surface area of the material, which dominates the contributions made by the small bulk of the material. Nanoparticles possess unexpected optical properties as they are small enough
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti