InterContinental Hotels Group
InterContinental Hotels Group plc, informally InterContinental Hotels or IHG, is a British multinational hospitality company headquartered in Denham, England. IHG has 5,000 hotels across nearly 100 countries. IHG includes several brands such as InterContinental, Regent Hotels, Six Senses Hotels, Kimpton Hotels and Resorts, Crowne Plaza, voco Hotels, Hotel Indigo, Holiday Inn, Holiday Inn Express, Candlewood Suites, Even Hotels, Staybridge Suites; the origins of the business can be traced back to 1777, when William Bass established the Bass Brewery in Burton-upon-Trent. In 1876, its red triangle logo was the first trademark registered in the United Kingdom. In 1969, Bass Charrington, as it was at the time, launched the Crest Hotel chain, marking its first entry into the lodging sector. In 1989, the British Government limited the number of pubs which brewers could directly own, resulting in Bass's further investing in the expansion of its hotel business; this led to it purchasing Holiday Inn International from shareholders.
Pan American Airways founder Juan Trippe established the Intercontinental Hotels chain as a division of Pan Am and opened the first hotel in Belém, Brazil in 1946. On August 19, 1981, Pan Am sold the holding company Inter-Continental Hotels Corporation to UK-based Grand Metropolitan for $50 million; as GrandMet focused its core business and expanded into fast food through the purchase of Burger King, it sold IHC to the Japanese-based Saison Group in 1988. In March 1998, Saison Group sold IHC to the British brewery Bass. In 2000, Bass sold its brewing assets to the Belgian brewer Interbrew for £2.3 billion and changed its name to Six Continents. In 2003, the independent corporation InterContinental Hotels Group was created after Six Continents split into two companies: Mitchells & Butlers took control of the restaurant assets, while IHG focused on hotels and soft drinks. IHG retained Britvic, the soft drinks division, until December 2005 when it sold its interest in the company by an initial public offering.
In April/May 2014, the company rejected a $10 billion takeover bid from an unknown suitor, believed to be Starwood. In April 2017, the company announced that it been the subject of a malware attack and hackers had stolen credit card details; the company worldwide headquarters and Europe offices are in Buckinghamshire in England. The Americas office is in Georgia in Greater Atlanta; the Asia, Middle East, Africa offices are in Singapore. The Australasia offices are in Sydney; the Japan offices are in Tokyo. The Greater China offices are in Shanghai. In 2006, IHG and Lend Lease Group, joined forces in the Privatization of Army Lodging program; as of 2012, of IHG's more than 5,400 hotels, 4,433 are operated under franchise agreements, 907 were managed by the company but separately owned, eight were directly owned. IHG has 5,000 hotels across nearly 100 countries; the InterContinental Hotels Group became the target of an international boycott campaign in May 2013, over their plan to operate an Intercontinental-brand luxury hotel in Lhasa, Tibet.
According to campaigners from the Free Tibet campaign, the hotel was a "PR coup for the Chinese government". In July 2012, the Office of Fair Trading alleged that IHG had broken competition law by preventing online travel agents from discounting the price of room-only hotel accommodation. In February 2014, IHG agreed to end the practice of price fixing. In February 2017, the hotel chain admitted to a data breach, they asserted. However, in April 2017 it raised the number to 1200 hotels; the attackers had installed malware designed to access payment card data, which could be used to clone cards and make fraudulent payments. In May 2012, the UK Advertising Standards Authority warned IHG that it must not use adverts showing prices for hotel rooms excluding VAT; because the ASA thought the adverts were to be viewed by consumers who must pay VAT, it had decided the adverts were misleading. It ordered IHG. However, in August 2012, a report by Which? magazine showed that the hotel chain was still breaching VAT rules.
In November 2017, the Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan, accused the hotel chain of reneging on a commitment to pay the living wage. In July 2016 Intercontinental Adelaide was responsible for giving at least 70 diners salmonella food poisoning. Twenty-one of these people had to be treated at hospital IHG Group has several brands including: The Crowne Plaza Liverpool John Lennon Airport is the former terminal building of Liverpool Speke Airport, constructed in the 1930s and used until 1986, its notable art deco features led to its listing as a heritage building, subsequent adaption as a hotel. The hotel in the Wilshire Grand Tower in downtown Los Angeles is the largest InterContinental in the Americas and the tallest building in Los Angeles; the InterContinental Davos is well known for its modern architecture. IHG rewards club is the loyalty programme for over 5,300 hotels under the IHG umbrella. There are three elite tiers of IHG rewards club which include Gold Elite, Platinum Elite and Spire Elite
A pager is a wireless telecommunications device that receives and displays alphanumeric or voice messages. One-way pagers can only receive messages, while response pagers and two-way pagers can acknowledge, reply to, originate messages using an internal transmitter. Pagers operate as part of a paging system which includes one or more fixed transmitters, as well as a number of pagers carried by mobile users; these systems can range from a restaurant system with a single low-power transmitter, to a nationwide system with thousands of high-power base stations. Pagers were developed in the 1950s and 1960s, became used by the 1980s. In the 21st century, the widespread availability of cellphones and smartphones has diminished the pager industry. Pagers continue to be used by some emergency services and public safety personnel, because modern pager systems' coverage overlap, combined with use of satellite communications, can make paging systems more reliable than terrestrial-based cellular networks in some cases, including during natural and man-made disasters.
This resilience has led public safety agencies to adopt pagers over cellular and other commercial services for critical messaging. The UK National Health Service is thought to use over 10% of remaining pagers in 2017, with an annual cost of £6.6 million. Matt Hancock announced in February 2019; the first telephone pager system was patented in 1949 by Alfred J. Gross. One of the first practical paging services was launched in 1950 for physicians in the New York City area. Physicians paid $12 per month for the service and carried a 200-gram pager that would receive phone messages within 40 kilometres of a single transmitter tower; the system was operated by Telanswerphone. In 1960, John Francis Mitchell combined elements of Motorola's walkie-talkie and automobile radio technologies to create the first transistorized pager, from that time, paging technology continued to advance, pager adoption among emergency personnel is still popular, as of July 2016. In 1962 the Bell System—the U. S. telephone monopoly colloquially known as "Ma Bell"—presented its Bellboy radio paging system at the Seattle World's Fair.
Bellboy was the first commercial system for personal paging. It marked one of the first consumer applications of the transistor, for which three Bell Labs inventors received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. Solid-state circuitry enabled the Bellboy pager, about the size of a small TV remote device, to fit into a customer's pocket or purse, quite a feat at that time; the Bellboy was a terminal. When the person received an audible signal on the pager, he found a telephone and called the service centre, which informed him of the caller's message. Bell System Bellboy radio pagers each used three reed receiver relays, each relay tuned to one of 33 different frequencies, selectively ringing a particular customer when all three relays were activated at the same time—a precursor of DTMF; the ReFLEX protocol was developed in the mid-1990s. While Motorola announced the end of its new pager manufacturing in 2001, pagers remained in use in large hospital complexes. Another is a facility handling classified information, where various radio transmitter or data storage devices are excluded to ensure security.
First responders in rural areas with inadequate cellular coverage are issued pagers. The 2005 London bombings resulted in overload of TETRA systems by the emergency services, showed that pagers, with their absence of necessity to transmit an acknowledgement before showing the message, the related capability to operate on low signal levels, are not outclassed by their successors. Volunteer firefighters, EMS paramedics, rescue squad members carry pagers to alert them of emergency call outs for their department; these pagers receive a special tone from a fire department radio frequency. Restaurant pagers were in wide use in the 2000s. Customers were given a portable receiver that vibrates, flashes, or beeps when a table becomes free or when their meal is ready. Pagers have been popular with birdwatchers in Britain and Ireland since 1991, with companies Rare Bird Alert and Birdnet Information offering news of rare birds sent to pagers that they sell; the U. S. paging industry generated $2.1 billion in revenue in 2008, down from $6.2 billion in 2003.
In Canada, 161,500 Canadians paid $18.5 million for pager service in 2013. Telus, one of the three major mobile carriers, announced the end to its Canadian pager service as of March 31, 2015, but rivals Bell and PageNet intend to continue service. Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging networks via email; this is convenient for many users, due to the widespread adoption of email. This can result in pager messages being lost. Older forms of message submission using the Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol involve modem connections directly to a paging network, are less subject to these delays. For this reason, older forms of message submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency services personnel. Common paging protocols include TAP, FLEX, ReFLEX, POCSAG, GOLAY, ERMES and NTT. Past paging protocols include 5/6-tone. In the United States, pagers receive signals using the FLEX protocol in th
Computer hardware includes the physical, tangible parts or components of a computer, such as the cabinet, central processing unit, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound card and motherboard. By contrast, software is instructions that can be run by hardware. Hardware is so-termed because it rigid with respect to changes or modifications. Intermediate between software and hardware is "firmware", software, coupled to the particular hardware of a computer system and thus the most difficult to change but among the most stable with respect to consistency of interface; the progression from levels of "hardness" to "softness" in computer systems parallels a progression of layers of abstraction in computing. Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware components; the template for all modern computers is the Von Neumann architecture, detailed in a 1945 paper by Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann.
This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, input and output mechanisms. The meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus; this is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and limits the performance of the system. The personal computer known as the PC, is one of the most common types of computer due to its versatility and low price. Laptops are very similar, although they may use lower-power or reduced size components, thus lower performance; the computer case encloses most of the components of the system. It provides mechanical support and protection for internal elements such as the motherboard, disk drives, power supplies, controls and directs the flow of cooling air over internal components.
The case is part of the system to control electromagnetic interference radiated by the computer, protects internal parts from electrostatic discharge. Large tower cases provide extra internal space for multiple disk drives or other peripherals and stand on the floor, while desktop cases provide less expansion room. All-in-one style designs include a video display built into the same case. Portable and laptop computers require cases. A current development in laptop computers is a detachable keyboard, which allows the system to be configured as a touch-screen tablet. Hobbyists may decorate the cases with colored lights, paint, or other features, in an activity called case modding. A power supply unit converts alternating current electric power to low-voltage DC power for the internal components of the computer. Laptops are capable of running from a built-in battery for a period of hours; the motherboard is the main component of a computer. It is a board with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer including the CPU, the RAM, the disk drives as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots.
Components directly attached to or to part of the motherboard include: The CPU, which performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, is sometimes referred to as the brain of the computer. It is cooled by a heatsink and fan, or water-cooling system. Most newer CPUs include an on-die graphics processing unit; the clock speed of CPUs governs how fast it executes instructions, is measured in GHz. Many modern computers have the option to overclock the CPU which enhances performance at the expense of greater thermal output and thus a need for improved cooling; the chipset, which includes the north bridge, mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory. Random-access memory, which stores the code and data that are being accessed by the CPU. For example, when a web browser is opened on the computer it takes up memory. RAM comes on DIMMs in the sizes 2GB, 4GB, 8GB, but can be much larger. Read-only memory, which stores the BIOS that runs when the computer is powered on or otherwise begins execution, a process known as Bootstrapping, or "booting" or "booting up".
The BIOS includes power management firmware. Newer motherboards use Unified Extensible Firmware Interface instead of BIOS. Buses that connect the CPU to various internal components and to expand cards for graphics and sound; the CMOS battery, which powers the memory for date and time in the BIOS chip. This battery is a watch battery; the video card, which processes computer graphics. More powerful graphics cards are better suited to handle strenuous tasks, such as playing intensive video games. An expansion card in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard or
Hospitality refers to the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the guest with goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes hospitality in the Encyclopédie as the virtue of a great soul that cares for the whole universe through the ties of humanity. Hospitality ethics is a discipline. Derives from the Latin hospes, meaning "host", "guest", or "stranger". Hospes is formed from hostis, which means "stranger" or "enemy". By metonymy the Latin word ` Hospital' means guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes/hostis is thus the root for the English words host, hospice and hotel. In ancient cultures hospitality involved welcoming the stranger and offering him food and safety. In Ancient Greece, hospitality was a right, with the host being expected to make sure the needs of his guests were met; the ancient Greek term xenia, or theoxenia when a god was involved, expressed this ritualized guest-friendship relation.
In Greek society a person's ability to abide by the laws of hospitality determined nobility and social standing. The Stoics regarded hospitality as a duty inspired by Zeus himself. In India and Nepal hospitality is based on the principle Atithi Devo Bhava, meaning "the guest is God"; this principle is shown in a number of stories where a guest is revealed to be a god who rewards the provider of hospitality. From this stems the Indian or Nepal practice of graciousness towards guests at home and in all social situations; the Tirukkuṛaḷ, an ancient Indian work on ethics and morality, explains the ethics of hospitality through its verses 81 through 90, dedicating a separate chapter on it. Judaism praises hospitality to strangers and guests based on the examples of Abraham and Lot in the Book of Genesis. In Hebrew, the practice is called hachnasat orchim, or "welcoming guests". Besides other expectations, hosts are expected to provide nourishment and entertainment for their guests, at the end of the visit, hosts customarily escort their guests out of their home, wishing them a safe journey.
Abraham set the pace as providing 3 things: Achila Shtiya Linah The initial letters of these Hebrew words spell Aishel.. In Christianity, hospitality is a virtue, a reminder of sympathy for strangers and a rule to welcome visitors; this is a virtue found in the Old Testament, for example, the custom of the foot washing of visitors or the kiss of peace. It was taught by Jesus in the New Testament. Indeed, Jesus said; some Western countries have developed a host culture based on the bible. John Paul II writes, "Welcoming our brothers and sisters with care and willingness must not be limited to extraordinary occasions but must become for all believers a habit of service in their daily lives". Individuals are treated as favored guests in the liberal Catholic tradition. Honored guests receive first parlance, religious clergy second parlance, important persons third parlance. Clergy and followers of Christ received parlance and some may have turned away from hospitality and serving, since active service requires detachment from material goods, family connections, physical comforts.
Hospitality is a meeting of minds, it is an openness to the familiar and meet to discuss and question the mystery of self, social events, nature and to God. Any guest should never made to feel or see that they are causing undue extra labor by their intrusion or presence, it is always polite to ask about religious convictions. John Paul II said: "Only those who have opened their hearts to Christ can offer a hospitality, never formal or superficial but identified by "gentleness" and "reverence"." In reference to Biblical scripture as a sign of politeness to always come to the defense and aid to those who give a account of hope and those interested. Christ expanded the meaning of brother and neighbor to include the stranger, that he or she be treated like a follower with and for hospitality and mutual help, if the believer in Christ or whom may be a messenger of god either needed help, circumstances made it difficult to interpret and being uncertain of whether a individual is a believer in Christ and god.
One of the main principles of Pashtunwali is Melmastia. This is the display of hospitality and profound respect to all visitors without any hope of remuneration or favour. Pashtuns will go to great lengths to show their hospitality. Islam recommends one another to say peace be upon you Assalamu Alaikum to one another as Muhammad had said, Muslims are obliged to treat their guest with kindness and peace prisoners, As Muhammad had said in authentic sources and verses from the Quran Abu Aziz ibn Umair reported: I was among the prisoners of war on the day of the battle of Badr. Muhammad had said, "I enjoin you to treat the captives well." After I accepted Islam, I was among the Ansar and when the time of lunch or dinner arrived, I would feed dates to the prisoners for I had been fed bread due to the command of Muhammad. Invite to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching, he felt dampness, although the surface was dry. He said: "O owner of the food
Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts
Four Seasons Hotels Limited, trading as Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts, is an international luxury hospitality company headquartered in Toronto, Canada. Four Seasons operates more than 100 hotels worldwide. Since 2007, Bill Gates and Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal have been majority owners of the company. Canadian businessman Isadore Sharp founded Four Seasons in 1960. While a young architect working for his father, Sharp designed a motel for a family friend, he bought a large parcel of land in a run-down area of Toronto and planned a stopover for business travellers. Four Seasons built more hotels, including the 1963 Inn on the Park, a $4 million two-story resort hotel in suburban Toronto that housed Canada's first discothèque. Upscale luxury became part of the brand; when a developer approached Four Seasons about building a hotel in London, Sharp planned it to compete with the city's old-world, elite hotels, such as Claridge's and The Connaught. The hotel opened in 1970. In 1974, cost overruns at the Four Seasons Hotel Vancouver nearly led the company into bankruptcy.
As a result, the company began shifting to its current, management-only business model, eliminating costs associated with buying land and buildings. The company went public in 1986. In the 1990s, Four Seasons and Ritz-Carlton began direct competition, with Ritz-Carlton emphasizing a uniform look while Four Seasons emphasized local architecture and styles with uniform service. Built in 1986, Four Seasons Hotel Austin is a nine-story hotel on 2.3 acres of land on the Lady Bird Lake's north shore. In 1997, Four Seasons Hotel Austin became the first hotel to have "a high-speed wireless Internet network" after Wayport, Inc. set it up there for testing wireless Internet networks. The hotel hosted Queen Elizabeth II in 1991, it was acquired by Anbang Insurance Group from the Blackstone Group for $359.7 million in 2016. Economic downturns in the early and mid-2000s affected the company; when the September 11 attacks caused the collapse of the travel industry, Four Seasons refused to cut room prices in order to preserve the perceived value of the brand, which caused tension with property owners who were losing money.
The company recovered, in 2007 it agreed to a buyout by Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates and Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal of Saudi Arabia for $3.8 billion. The pair own 95 percent of the company, in equal shares, Sharp owns the rest. Challenges returned again during the financial crisis of 2007–2010; the company made the first corporate layoffs in its history. In April 2010, after a year-long dispute with Broadreach Capital Partners and Maritz, Wolff & Co. owners of the Aviara resort near San Diego, an arbitration panel ruled that, while both parties contributed to the demise of the business relationship, Four Seasons had not violated its management agreement. The arbitrators ordered Broadreach to pay Four Seasons to terminate the contract." The resort is no longer a Four Seasons. Four Seasons has continued to add more resorts to its portfolio, notably in China, it opened a new hotel in Hangzhou in 2010 and Guangzhou, a second property in Shanghai in 2012. In India, it has one hotel in Mumbai. In 2013, it opened its first hotel in Russia in the Lobanov-Rostovsky Palace in St. Petersburg, opened a second hotel in Moscow.
In Indonesia, it has another two in Bali. In October 2012, Four Seasons opened a new 259 room Toronto hotel in Yorkville, designed by internationally known design firm Yabu Pushelberg; the hotel includes an upscale restaurant led by celebrity chef Daniel Boulud. It was hailed by The Globe and Mail as "the renewal of an iconic Canadian brand in its hometown"; the penthouse was bought by entrepreneur Robert Österlund for a Canadian record price of over $28 million. In 2009, founder Sharp wrote, it contained a historical chronicle of the hotels since its inception. Four Seasons does not own any of its properties; the contracts between Four Seasons and property owners permit the company to participate in the design of the property and run it with nearly total control over every aspect of the operation. Four Seasons earns three percent of the gross income and about five percent of profits from the properties it operates, the property owners are required to additionally contribute money for chain-wide sales and reservations systems.
Four Seasons hotels have larger staffs than competing chains, the company maintains separate reserve accounts for each hotel to cover upkeep costs. Profit margins are low, but the brand attracts developers through the hotels' reputation as solid assets for loan collateral or resale. Four Seasons produces a complimentary magazine for guests, supported by advertising revenue. Four Seasons has Four Seasons Residence Clubs. Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts began offering vacation rentals in June 2014. Titled Residential Rentals, the properties are available in: North America. Africa and Asia. Residential Rentals provide the same services as Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts in a residential setting. Customers are multi-generational vacationers and small group travellers; the first stand alone F
Columbia is a census-designated place in Howard County, United States, is one of the principal cities of the Baltimore metropolitan area and the Washington metropolitan area. It is a planned community consisting of 10 self-contained villages, it began with the idea. Creator and developer James W. Rouse saw the new community in terms of human values, rather than economics and engineering. Opened in 1967, Columbia was intended to not only eliminate the inconveniences of then-current subdivision design, but eliminate racial and class segregation. Columbia has ranked in the top 10 of CNN Money's Best Places to Live in the United States. Columbia proper consists only of that territory governed by the Columbia Association, but larger areas are included under its name by the U. S. Postal Service and the Census Bureau; these include several other communities which predate Columbia, including Simpsonville, in the case of the census, part of Clarksville. The census-designated place had a population of 99,615 at the 2010 United States Census.
It is the second most populous community in Maryland after Baltimore. More recent estimates by the U. S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey put the population at 103,467 as of 2015. Columbia was founded by a native of Easton, Maryland. In 1935, Rouse obtained a job in Baltimore with the Federal Housing Administration, a New Deal agency whose purpose was to promote home ownership and home construction; this position exposed Rouse to all phases of the housing industry. In the 1930s he co-founded a Baltimore mortgage banking business. In the 1950s his company, by known as James W. Rouse and Company, branched out into developing shopping centers and malls. In 1957 Rouse formed Community Research and Development, Inc. for the purpose of building and operating shopping centers throughout the country. Community Research and Development, Inc., managed by James W. Rouse and Company, became a publicly traded company in 1961. In 1966, Community Research and Development, Inc. changed its name to The Rouse Company, after it had acquired James W. Rouse and Company in exchange for company stock.
By the early 1950s Rouse was active in organizations whose goals were to combat blight and promote urban renewal. Along the way, he came to recognize the importance of comprehensive planning and action to address housing issues. A talented public speaker, Rouse's speeches on housing matters attracted media attention. By the mid-1950s he was espousing his belief that in order to be successful, cities had to be places where people succeeded. In a 1959 speech he declared that the purpose of cities is for people, that the objective of city planning should be to make a city into neighborhoods where men and their families can live and work, most grow in character, religious fulfillment and the capacity for joyous living. In the early 1960s, Rouse decided to develop a new model city. Rouse's ideas about what a new model city should be like were informed by a number of factors, including his personal Christian faith as well as the goal for his company to earn a profit, influences that he did not consider to be incompatible with one another.
After exploring possible new city locations near Atlanta and Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Rouse focused attention between Baltimore and Washington, D. C. in Howard County, Maryland. In April 1962, Mel Berman, a longtime Howard County resident, a member of the CRD's Board of Directors, saw a sign on Cedar Lane in Howard County advertising 1,309 acres for sale. Berman reported the option to the CRD and a decision was made to purchase the land; this was the first of 165 land purchases made by Rouse over the next year-and-a-half. In order to keep land costs low, Jack Jones, an attorney from Rouse's firm of Piper Marbury, set up a grid system to secretly buy land through dummy corporations like the "Alaska Iron Mines Company"; some of these straw purchasers included Columbia Industrial Development Corporation, 95-32 Corporation, 95-216 Corporation, Inc. Columbia Mall, Inc. Oakland Ridge Industrial Development Corporation, Columbia Development Corporation. Robert Moxley's firm Security Realty Company, negotiated many of the land deals for Jones, becoming his best client.
CRD accumulated 10 percent of Howard County, from 140 separate owners. Rouse was turned down in financing from David Rockefeller, who had cancelled a planned Rouse "Village" concept called Pocantico Hills; the $19,122,622 acquisition was funded by Rouse's former employer Connecticut General Life Insurance in October 1962 at an average price of $1,500 per acre. The town center land of Oakland Manor was purchased from Isadore Guldesky, turned down from building high-rises on the site by Rob Moxley's brother, County Commissioner and land developer Norman E. Moxley. Sensing that he had a key property, he requested $5 million for his 1,000 acres, signing an agreement by hand on a land plat; the competition between Rouse and Guldesky carried over to the competing Tysons Corner Center and Tysons Galleria projects, with each hiring their competitor's employees. By late 1962, citizens had elected an all-Republican three-member council. J. Hubert Black, Charles E. Miller, David W. Force campaigned on a slow-growth ballot, but approved the Columbia project.
The Howard County Planning Commission Chairman Wilmer Sanner declared, "if this adds to the orderly development of the county, that's what we are looking for." That July, Sanner sold the majority of his 73-acre Simpsonville farm to
Radisson is an international hotel chain of the Radisson Hotel Group. Since 2016, the parent company Radisson Hotel Group has been majority owned by China's HNA Group, but as of 2018 that stake is being resold to a consortium led by Jin Jiang; the first Radisson hotel was built in 1909 in Minneapolis, United States. It is named after the 17th-century French explorer and furrier Pierre-Esprit Radisson; the hotel was purchased in 1962 by Curt Carlson. The majority of Radisson-branded hotels are located in the United States; the company's headquarters, as well as the headquarters of the owner, Radisson Hospitality, Inc. are located in Minnetonka, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis, the city where the first Radisson Hotel was built. The original Radisson Hotel, founded by heiress Edna Dickerson, was opened on December 15, 1909 at 41 South Seventh Street in Minneapolis. Radisson Blu is the brand name for Radisson hotels outside the United States, including those in Europe and Asia; the hotels were operated by Radisson Hospitality AB, of which Radisson Hospitality, Inc. is the main stakeholder.
Scandinavian Airlines System was a major shareholder and licensed its brand for Radisson SAS hotels. Following the withdrawal of SAS from the partnership on February 4, 2009, the name was replaced by Radisson Blu. Radisson Blu operates 158 hotels, with 42 projects in development. Radisson Blu did not exist within the borders of the United States; the first Radisson Blu in the United States opened in downtown Chicago in Aqua, a skyscraper, in November 2011. The second one opened in March 2013 in Bloomington, Minnesota and is connected to the Mall of America. Former Radisson Plaza hotels in Philadelphia and Minneapolis were converted to Radisson Blu. Radisson Blu Edwardian Hotels is a luxury line of 13 hotels in Manchester. Radisson RED is a hotel brand targeted at young travelers, it launched in 2015, with the first hotel opening in Brussels in April 2016. Hotels will be in cities worldwide, with a target of 60 locations by 2020. Meridian Gate, Cardiff, a skyscraper owned and occupied by Radisson Blu SAS Group Tour du Crédit Lyonnais, a tall skyscraper occupied by Radisson Blu Media related to Radisson Hotels & Resorts at Wikimedia Commons Official website