Microsoft Access

Microsoft Access is a database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software-development tools. It is a member of the Microsoft Office suite of applications, included in the Professional and higher editions or sold separately. Microsoft Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine, it can import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases. Software developers, data architects and power users can use Microsoft Access to develop application software. Like other Microsoft Office applications, Access is supported by Visual Basic for Applications, an object-based programming language that can reference a variety of objects including the legacy DAO, ActiveX Data Objects, many other ActiveX components. Visual objects used in forms and reports expose their methods and properties in the VBA programming environment, VBA code modules may declare and call Windows operating system operations.

Prior to the introduction of Access and Fox dominated the desktop database market. Microsoft Access was the first mass-market database program for Windows. With Microsoft's purchase of FoxPro in 1992 and the incorporation of Fox's Rushmore query optimization routines into Access, Microsoft Access became the dominant database for Windows—effectively eliminating the competition which failed to transition from the MS-DOS world. Microsoft's first attempt to sell a relational database product was during the mid 1980s, when Microsoft obtained the license to sell R:Base. In the late 1980s Microsoft developed, it was confirmed in 1988 that a database product for OS/2 was in development. It was going to include the "EB" Embedded Basic language, going to be the language for writing macros in all Microsoft applications, but the unification of macro languages did not happen until the introduction of Visual Basic for Applications. Omega was expected to provide a front end to the Microsoft SQL Server; the application was resource-hungry, there were reports that it was working on the 386 processors that were available at the time.

It was scheduled to be released in the 1st quarter of 1990, but in 1989 the development of the product was reset and it was rescheduled to be delivered no sooner than in January 1991. Parts of the project were used for other Microsoft projects: Cirrus and Thunder. After Access's premiere, the Omega project was demonstrated in 1992 to several journalists and included features that were not available in Access. After the Omega project was scrapped, some of its developers were assigned to the Cirrus project, its goal was to create a competitor for applications like Paradox or dBase that would work on Windows. After Microsoft acquired FoxPro, there were rumors that the Microsoft project might get replaced with it, but the company decided to develop them in parallel, it was assumed that the project would make use of Extensible Storage Engine but, in the end, only support for Microsoft Jet Database Engine was provided. The project used some of the code from both the Omega project and a pre-release version of Visual Basic.

In July 1992, betas of Cirrus shipped to developers and the name Access became the official name of the product. "Access" was used for an older terminal emulation program from Microsoft. Years after the program was abandoned, they decided to reuse the name here. 1992: Microsoft released Access version 1.0 on November 13, 1992, an Access 1.1 release in May 1993 to improve compatibility with other Microsoft products and to include the Access Basic programming language. 1994: Microsoft specified the minimum hardware requirements for Access v2.0 as: Microsoft Windows v3.1 with 4 MB of RAM required, 6 MB RAM recommended. The product shipped on seven 1.44 MB diskettes. The manual shows a 1994 copyright date. With Office 95, Microsoft Access 7.0 became part of the Microsoft Office Professional Suite, joining Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint and transitioning from Access Basic to VBA. Since Microsoft has released new versions of Microsoft Access with each release of Microsoft Office; this includes Access 97, Access 2000, Access 2002, Access 2003, Access 2007, Access 2010, Access 2013.

Versions 3.0 and 3.5 of Microsoft Jet database engine had a critical issue which made these versions of Access unusable on a computer with more than 1 GB of memory. While Microsoft fixed this problem for Jet 3.5/Access 97 post-release, it never fixed the issue with Jet 3.0/Access 95. The native Access database format has evolved over the years. Formats include Access 1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 7.0, 97, 2000, 2002, 2007. The most significant transition was from the Access 97 to the Access 2000 format; as of 2011 all newer versions of Access support the Access 2000 format. New features were added to the Access 2002 format which can be used by Access 2002, 2003, 2007, 2010. Microsoft Access 2000 increased the maximum database size to 2GB from 1GB in Access 97. Microsoft Access 2007 introduced a new database format: ACCDB, it supports links to SharePoint lists and complex data types such as multivalue and attachment fields. Th

Thunder Bay Historical Museum

The Thunder Bay Historical Museum is located in Thunder Bay, Ontario. It is operated by the Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, incorporated in 1972 as the successor to the Thunder Bay Historical Society; the Museum is affiliated with the Canadian Museums Association, the Canadian Heritage Information Network, the Ontario Historical Society, Virtual Museum of Canada. The Thunder Bay Historical Society was founded October 2, 1908 at the instance of Barlow Cumberland, president of the Ontario Historical Society. Peter McKellar served as president of the Thunder Bay Historical Society from 1908 to 1923. Since 1994 the museum has been housed in the former Fort William police station and court house near Thunder Bay City Hall; the three-storey building, designed by architect Robert Mason, was erected in 1910 and is an example of Classical Revival architecture, with its two large Corinthian columns and pilasters. Fund raising is under way to restore other missing architectural elements; the interior of the building has been treated with complete renovations since 1994, including an overhaul of its HVAC system and the addition of a wheelchair ramp.

An annex was converted to a storage area for the collection. A visible storage gallery was built in front of the annex to display vehicles and other large items in the museum's collection; the first floor gallery features permanent exhibits on various aspects of local history. The second floor gallery is known as the James Murphy Room and is dedicated to meetings and programming, such as birthday parties and themed march & summer break camps for children; the third floor gallery features military and music exhibits and traveling exhibit space as well as a multipurpose room available for rentals. The museum collects objects of regional interest, such as dolls and furniture, its collection includes a firetruck; the archives has 130 metres of linear records, 1900 maps and plans, 150,000 photographic images and a 2200 volume library. The Society produces an annual peer-reviewed journal entitled Records, it is publishes a number of books annually on a variety of local and regional interest. Raffo, Peter.

“The Rocky road home: a hundred years in the life of the Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society.” Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records XXXVI: 3-17. Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society

Timeline of military aviation

1794 - French Aerostatic Corps use a tethered balloon at the Battle of Fleurus as a vantage point. 1849 - In 1849, Austrian forces besieging Venice launched some 200 incendiary balloons, each carrying a 24- to 30-pound bomb, to be dropped from the balloon with a time fuse over the besieged city. The balloons were launched from land and from the Austrian navy ship SMS Vulcano that acted as a balloon carrier. 1861 - The Union Army Balloon Corps is established during the American Civil War. 1878 - The British Army Balloon Equipment Store is established at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich by the Royal Engineers. 1885 - Balloons are deployed by the British Army to Bechuanaland and Suakin. 1888 - The British Army School of Ballooning is established. 1907 - The first military air organization, the Aeronautical Division of the U. S. Army Signal Corps, is formed 1 August 1907 - British Colonel John Capper flies the military airship Nulli Secundus from Farnborough to Crystal Palace in London. 1909 - Heavier-than-air military aviation is born with the US Army's purchase of Signal Corps Aeroplane No. 1.

1910 - The first experimental take-off of a heavier-than-air craft from the deck of a US Navy vessel, the cruiser USS Birmingham 1910 - First bombing attack against a surface ship: Didier Masson and Captain Joaquín Bauche Alcalde, flying for Mexican Revolutionist Venustiano Carranza, dropped dynamite bombs on Federalist gunboats at Guaymas, Mexico, on May 10, 1913. 1910 - The Aviation Militaire of the French Army is formed 22 October. 1911 - The Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers is formed, the first British heavier-than-air unit. 1911 - Heavier-than-air aircraft are used in war for the first time during the Italo-Turkish War. 1912 - The Royal Flying Corps is formed. A few months the Dominion of Australia formed the Australian Flying Corps. 1914 - The Royal Naval Air Service is formed by splitting airship squadrons away from the Royal Flying Corps. 1914 - In August, Russian Staff-Captain Pyotr Nesterov becomes the first pilot to ram his plane into an enemy spotter aircraft. 1914 - September 6th, the first aircraft raid was launched by the Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya on Qingdao.

1914 - In October, a plane is shot down by another aircraft with a handgun over Rheims, France. 1914 - The first conventional air-to-air kill occurs on 5 October when a gunner on a French Voisin machine-guns a German Aviatik reconnaissance aircraft in World War I. 1918 - The Royal Air Force, the world's first independent air force is formed. 1918 - HMS Argus became "the world's first carrier capable of launching and landing naval aircraft". 1940 - The Battle of Britain, the first major campaign to be fought by air forces, was fought. 1958 - The first air-to-air kill with a missile, when a Chinese Nationalist North American F-86 Sabre kills a Chinese PLAAF Mikoyan-Guryevich MiG-15 during the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1980 - The only confirmed air-to-air helicopter battles occur during the Iran–Iraq War. List of firsts in aviation