Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications, it has been a widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms since version 5 in 1993, it has replaced Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard for spreadsheets. Excel forms part of the Microsoft Office suite of software. Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets, using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations, it has a battery of supplied functions to answer statistical and financial needs. In addition, it can display data as line graphs and charts, with a limited three-dimensional graphical display, it allows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on various factors for different perspectives. It has a programming aspect, Visual Basic for Applications, allowing the user to employ a wide variety of numerical methods, for example, for solving differential equations of mathematical physics, reporting the results back to the spreadsheet.
It has a variety of interactive features allowing user interfaces that can hide the spreadsheet from the user, so the spreadsheet presents itself as a so-called application, or decision support system, via a custom-designed user interface, for example, a stock analyzer, or in general, as a design tool that asks the user questions and provides answers and reports. In a more elaborate realization, an Excel application can automatically poll external databases and measuring instruments using an update schedule, analyze the results, make a Word report or PowerPoint slide show, e-mail these presentations on a regular basis to a list of participants. Excel was not designed to be used as a database. Microsoft allows for a number of optional command-line switches to control the manner in which Excel starts. Excel 2016 has 484 functions. Of these, 360 existed prior to Excel 2010. Microsoft classifies these functions in 14 categories. Of the 484 current functions, 386 may be called from VBA as methods of the object "WorksheetFunction" and 44 have the same names as VBA functions.
The Windows version of Excel supports programming through Microsoft's Visual Basic for Applications, a dialect of Visual Basic. Programming with VBA allows spreadsheet manipulation, awkward or impossible with standard spreadsheet techniques. Programmers may write code directly using the Visual Basic Editor, which includes a window for writing code, debugging code, code module organization environment; the user can implement numerical methods as well as automating tasks such as formatting or data organization in VBA and guide the calculation using any desired intermediate results reported back to the spreadsheet. VBA was removed from Mac Excel 2008, as the developers did not believe that a timely release would allow porting the VBA engine natively to Mac OS X. VBA was restored in the next version, Mac Excel 2011, although the build lacks support for ActiveX objects, impacting some high level developer tools. A common and easy way to generate VBA code is by using the Macro Recorder; the Macro Recorder generates VBA code in the form of a macro.
These actions can be repeated automatically by running the macro. The macros can be linked to different trigger types like keyboard shortcuts, a command button or a graphic; the actions in the macro can be executed from these trigger types or from the generic toolbar options. The VBA code of the macro can be edited in the VBE. Certain features such as loop functions and screen prompt by their own properties, some graphical display items, cannot be recorded but must be entered into the VBA module directly by the programmer. Advanced users can employ user prompts to create an interactive program, or react to events such as sheets being loaded or changed. Macro Recorded code may not be compatible with Excel versions; some code, used in Excel 2010 cannot be used in Excel 2003. Making a Macro that changes the cell colours and making changes to other aspects of cells may not be backward compatible. VBA code interacts with the spreadsheet through the Excel Object Model, a vocabulary identifying spreadsheet objects, a set of supplied functions or methods that enable reading and writing to the spreadsheet and interaction with its users.
User-created VBA subroutines execute these actions and operate like macros generated using the macro recorder, but are more flexible and efficient. From its first version Excel supported. In early versions of Excel these programs were written in a macro language whose statements had formula syntax and resided in the cells of special purpose macro sheets XLM was the default macro language for Excel through Excel 4.0. Beginning with version 5.0 Excel recorded macros in VBA by default but with version 5.0 XLM recording was still allowed as an option. After version 5.0 that option was discontinued. All versions of Excel, including Excel 2010 are capable of running an XLM macro, though Microsoft discourages their use. Excel supports graphs, or histograms generated from specified groups of cells; the generated graphic component can either be embedded within the current sheet, or added as a separate object. These displays are dynamically updated. For example, suppose that the important design requirements
The Lumleian Lectures are a series of annual lectures started in 1582 by the Royal College of Physicians of London and run by the Lumleian Trust. The name commemorates John Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley, who with Richard Caldwell of the College endowed the lectures confined to surgery, but now on general medicine. William Harvey did not announce his work on the circulation of the blood in the Lumleian Lecture for 1616 although he had some partial notes on the heart and blood which led to the discovery of the circulation ten years later. By that time ambitious plans for a full anatomy course based on weekly lectures had been scaled back to a lecture three times a year; the appointment of the Lumleian lecturer was for life reduced to five years, since 1825 made annually, although for some years it was awarded for two years in succession. 2003 Rodney Phillips, Immunology as taught by Darwin 2004 Michael C. Sheppard, Growth Hormone – from Molecule to Mortality 2005 Steve Bloom, Gut feeling – the secret of satiety 2006 Elwyn Elias, Co-ordinated defence and the liver 2007 Julian Peto and the mesothelioma epidemic 2008 Jeremy J. Farrar and infectious diseases.
The Trump–Tsai call was a telephone conversation between the U. S President-elect Donald Trump and the President of the Republic of China Tsai Ing-wen which took place on December 2, 2016; this event marked the first time since 1979 that a U. S. President or President-elect had directly spoken with a ROC President. In the call, Tsai congratulated Trump for his victory in the presidential election; the two leaders spoke for around 10 minutes, focusing on politics and security in Asia-Pacific. Following the call, Trump publicized this on Twitter and Facebook and said thank you to "the President of Taiwan". After Trump's transition team confirmed the event, the Presidential Office of Taiwan released a statement about the content of the call. Several prominent Republicans praised the call between the two leaders, saying that the United States needs no more pressure from the government of the People's Republic of China, which does not recognize the ROC government and claims Taiwan is part of its territory.
Some commentators from U. S. media outlets said that the call humiliated Beijing as it seemed a violation of a diplomatic practice. Other media and comments criticized the One-China policy, saying that Trump's move was morally right and strategically correct for American interests. Wang Yi, the Foreign Minister of the People's Republic of China subsequently responded that this event is only a "small trick" played by Taiwan and will not change the One-China Policy. A spokesperson for the Presidential Office in Taipei expressed that there is no conflict between the Cross-Strait relations and the Taiwan–U. S. Relations; the Obama administration stated that the U. S. would uphold the One-China Policy. Trump responded by saying that the U. S. did not have to follow that policy. In 1972, U. S. President Richard Nixon visited Mainland China, met with Communist Party of China Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai the two parties agreed on the "One-China" policy. In 1978 President Jimmy Carter's administration formally cut ties with the Republic of China on Taiwan, establishing relations with the PRC.
Since the severing of diplomatic relations, the Presidents of the United States and the Republic of China have never formally met or made calls in line with the policy. But the 1979 Act of Congress Taiwan Relations Act and the 1982 Six Assurances between the governments between U. S. and Taiwan have defined the substantial relations between the peoples of the United States and Taiwan. After Tsai Ing-wen's victory in Taiwan's presidential election in 2016, analysts predicted that Tsai's Democratic Progressive Party would install a pro-American government, in contrast to that of former President Ma Ying-jeou's Kuomintang, which called for close co-operation with Beijing. After the call on December 2, Donald Trump wrote on Twitter: "The President of Taiwan CALLED ME today to wish me congratulations on winning the Presidency. Thank you!" and hours "Interesting how the U. S. sells Taiwan billions of dollars of military equipment but I should not accept a congratulatory call."On December 4, Trump raised doubt on Twitter: "Did China ask us if it was OK to devalue their currency tax our products going into their country or to build a massive military complex in the middle of the South China Sea?
I don't think so!" Vice President-elect Mike Pence said "the conversation with the President of Taiwan was a courtesy call." "It's striking to me that President Obama would reach out to a murdering dictator in Cuba and be hailed as a hero. And President-elect Donald Trump takes a courtesy call from the democratically-elected President of Taiwan and it becomes something of a thing in the media." "You're going to see... President Donald Trump... engage the world on America's terms."Former House Speaker Newt Gingrich, a close adviser to Trump, praised the President-elect's conversation with Taiwanese President of 23.5 million people as he would be to communicate with the democratically elected leader of any nation. He compares Trump's Taiwan call to President Obama's visit to Cuba to hang out with the Castro dictatorship and suggests the dialogue resets a more favorable relationship for the U. S. with China. "... State Department mythology that we have to somehow let the Chinese dictate to us is nonsense...
They are not going to be able to intimidate us." He urged Trump to reform the DOS to more align with American values. House Speaker Paul Ryan said, "I spoke with the President of Taiwan when she was transferring planes in Miami a couple months ago, it is prudent for the President-elect to take congratulatory calls — absolutely. I think for him to not take a congratulatory call would of itself be considered a snub. So I think everything is fine."Trump's former primary competitor Senator Ted Cruz defends the call by comparing Obama's foreign policy "I would much rather have Donald Trump talking to President Tsai than to Cuba's Raul Castro or Iran's Hasan Rouhani. This is an improvement" on Twitter. Senator Tom Cotton commends President-elect Trump for his conversation with President Tsai Ing-wen, which reaffirms U. S. commitment "America's policy toward Taiwan is governed by the Taiwan Relations Act, under which we maintain close ties with Taiwan and support its democratic system... I have met with President Tsai twice and I'm confident she expressed to the president-elect the same desire for closer relations with the United States."House Foreign Affairs Committee Chair Ed Royce said "I presume that phone conversation was a courtesy call from the President of Taiwan to the Pres