A command-line interface or command language interpreter known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface, is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text. A program which handles the interface is called shell; the CLI was the primary means of interaction with most computer systems on computer terminals in the mid-1960s, continued to be used throughout the 1970s and 1980s on OpenVMS, Unix systems and personal computer systems including MS-DOS, CP/M and Apple DOS. The interface is implemented with a command line shell, a program that accepts commands as text input and converts commands into appropriate operating system functions. Today, many end users if use command-line interfaces and instead rely upon graphical user interfaces and menu-driven interactions. However, many software developers, system administrators and advanced users still rely on command-line interfaces to perform tasks more efficiently, configure their machine, or access programs and program features that are not available through a graphical interface.
Alternatives to the command line include, but are not limited to text user interface menus, keyboard shortcuts, various other desktop metaphors centered on the pointer. Examples of this include the Windows versions 1, 2, 3, 3.1, 3.11, DosShell, Mouse Systems PowerPanel. Programs with command-line interfaces are easier to automate via scripting. Command-line interfaces for software other than operating systems include a number of programming languages such as Tcl/Tk, PHP, others, as well as utilities such as the compression utility WinZip, some FTP and SSH/Telnet clients. Compared with a graphical user interface, a command line requires fewer system resources to implement. Since options to commands are given in a few characters in each command line, an experienced user finds the options easier to access. Automation of repetitive tasks is simplified - most operating systems using a command line interface support some mechanism for storing used sequences in a disk file, for re-use. A command-line history can be kept, allowing repetition of commands.
A command-line system may require paper or online manuals for the user's reference, although a "help" option provides a concise review of the options of a command. The command-line environment may not provide the graphical enhancements such as different fonts or extended edit windows found in a GUI, it may be difficult for a new user to become familiar with all the commands and options available, compared with the drop-down menus of a graphical user interface, without repeated reference to manuals. Operating system command line interfaces are distinct programs supplied with the operating system. A program that implements such a text interface is called a command-line interpreter, command processor or shell. Examples of command-line interpreters include DEC's DIGITAL Command Language in OpenVMS and RSX-11, the various Unix shells, CP/M's CCP, DOS's COMMAND. COM, as well as the OS/2 and the Windows CMD. EXE programs, the latter groups being based on DEC's RSX-11 and RSTS CLIs. Under most operating systems, it is possible to replace the default shell program with alternatives.
Although the term'shell' is used to describe a command-line interpreter speaking a'shell' can be any program that constitutes the user-interface, including graphically oriented ones. For example, the default Windows GUI is a shell program named EXPLORER. EXE, as defined in the SHELL=EXPLORER. EXE line in the WIN. INI configuration file; these programs are shells, but not CLIs. Application programs may have command line interfaces. An application program may support none, any, or all of these three major types of command line interface mechanisms: Parameters: Most operating systems support a means to pass additional information to a program when it is launched; when a program is launched from an OS command line shell, additional text provided along with the program name is passed to the launched program. Interactive command line sessions: After launch, a program may provide an operator with an independent means to enter commands in the form of text. OS inter-process communication: Most operating systems support means of inter-process communication.
Command lines from client processes may be redirected to a CLI program by one of these methods. Some applications support only a CLI, presenting a CLI prompt to the user and acting upon command lines as they are entered. Other programs support both a CLI and a GUI. In some cases, a GUI is a wrapper around a separate CLI executable file. In other cases, a program may provide a CLI as an optional alternative to its GUI. CLIs and GUIs support different functionality. For example, all features of MATLAB, a numerical analysis computer program, are available via the CLI, whereas the MATLAB GUI exposes only a subset of features; the early Sierra games, such as the first three King's Quest games, used commands from an internal command line to move the character around in the graphic window. The command-line interface evolved from a form of dialog once conducted by humans over teleprinter machines, in which human operators remotely exchanged inf
William Henry Gates III is an American business magnate, author and humanitarian. He is best known as the principal founder of Microsoft Corporation. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, while being the largest individual shareholder until May 2014. In 1975, Gates and Paul Allen launched Microsoft, which became the world's largest PC software company. Gates led the company as chief executive officer until stepping down in January 2000, but he remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect for himself. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the private charitable foundation that he and his wife, Melinda Gates, established in 2000, he transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014 and assumed a new post as technology adviser to support the newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella.
Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics; this opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings. Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people, an index of the wealthiest documented individuals and ranking against those with wealth, not able to be ascertained. From 1995 to 2017, he held the Forbes title of the richest person in the world all but four of those years, held it from March 2014 to July 2017, with an estimated net worth of US$89.9 billion as of October 2017. However, on July 27, 2017, since October 27, 2017, he has been surpassed by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, who had an estimated net worth of US$90.6 billion at the time. As of August 6, 2018, Gates had a net worth of $95.4 billion, making him the second-richest person in the world, behind Bezos. In his career and since leaving Microsoft, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, he donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, reported to be the world's largest private charity.
In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy. The foundation works to save lives and improve global health, is working with Rotary International to eliminate polio. Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1955, he is the son of Mary Maxwell Gates. His ancestry includes English, German and Scots-Irish, his father was a prominent lawyer, his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates' maternal grandfather was J. W. Maxwell, a national bank president. Gates has one older sister, a younger sister, Libby, he is the fourth of his name in his family, but is known as William Gates III or "Trey" because his father had the "II" suffix. The family lived in the Sand Point area of Seattle in a home, once damaged by a rare tornado when Gates was seven years old. Early on in his life, Gates observed; when Gates was young, his family attended a church of the Congregational Christian Churches, a Protestant Reformed denomination.
The family encouraged competition. There was always a reward for winning and there was always a penalty for losing". At 13, he enrolled in the Lakeside School, a private preparatory school and wrote his first software program; when Gates was in the eighth grade, the Mothers' Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School's rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric computer for the school's students. Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, was excused from math classes to pursue his interest, he wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine; when he reflected back on that moment, he said, "There was just something neat about the machine." After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation, which banned four Lakeside students – Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, Kent Evans – for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.
At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for extra computer time. Rather than use the system via Teletype, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in Fortran and machine language; the arrangement with CCC continued until 1970. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them computer time and royalties. After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school's student information system software to schedule students in classes, he modified the code so that he was placed in classes with "a disproportionate number of interesting girls." He stated that "it
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
Newline is a control character or sequence of control characters in a character encoding specification, used to signify the end of a line of text and the start of a new one. Text editors set this special character; when displaying a text file, this control character causes the text editor to show the following characters in a new line. In the mid-1800s, long before the advent of teleprinters and teletype machines, Morse code operators or telegraphists invented and used Morse code prosigns to encode white space text formatting in formal written text messages. In particular the Morse prosign represented by the concatenation of two literal textual Morse code "A" characters sent without the normal inter-character spacing is used in Morse code to encode and indicate a new line in a formal text message. In the age of modern teleprinters standardized character set control codes were developed to aid in white space text formatting. ASCII was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and the American Standards Association, the latter being the predecessor organization to American National Standards Institute.
During the period of 1963 to 1968, the ISO draft standards supported the use of either CR+LF or LF alone as a newline, while the ASA drafts supported only CR+LF. The sequence CR+LF was used on many early computer systems that had adopted Teletype machines—typically a Teletype Model 33 ASR—as a console device, because this sequence was required to position those printers at the start of a new line; the separation of newline into two functions concealed the fact that the print head could not return from the far right to the beginning of the next line in time to print the next character. Any character printed after a CR would print as a smudge in the middle of the page while the print head was still moving the carriage back to the first position. "The solution was to make the newline two characters: CR to move the carriage to column one, LF to move the paper up." In fact, it was necessary to send extra characters—extraneous CRs or NULs—which are ignored but give the print head time to move to the left margin.
Many early video displays required multiple character times to scroll the display. On such systems, applications had to talk directly to the Teletype machine and follow its conventions since the concept of device drivers hiding such hardware details from the application was not yet well developed. Therefore, text was composed to satisfy the needs of Teletype machines. Most minicomputer systems from DEC used this convention. CP/M used it in order to print on the same terminals that minicomputers used. From there MS-DOS adopted CP/M's CR+LF in order to be compatible, this convention was inherited by Microsoft's Windows operating system; the Multics operating system used LF alone as its newline. Multics used a device driver to translate this character to whatever sequence a printer needed, the single byte was more convenient for programming. What seems like a more obvious choice—CR—was not used, as CR provided the useful function of overprinting one line with another to create boldface and strikethrough effects.
More the use of LF alone as a line terminator had been incorporated into drafts of the eventual ISO/IEC 646 standard. Unix followed the Multics practice, Unix-like systems followed Unix; the concepts of line feed and carriage return are associated, can be considered either separately or together. In the physical media of typewriters and printers, two axes of motion, "down" and "across", are needed to create a new line on the page. Although the design of a machine must consider them separately, the abstract logic of software can combine them together as one event; this is why a newline in character encoding can be defined as CR combined into one. Some character sets provide a separate newline character code. EBCDIC, for example, provides an NL character code in addition to the LF codes. Unicode, in addition to providing the ASCII CR and LF control codes provides a "next line" control code, as well as control codes for "line separator" and "paragraph separator" markers. Software applications and operating systems represent a newline with one or two control characters: EBCDIC systems—mainly IBM mainframe systems, including z/OS and i5/OS —use NL as the character combining the functions of line-feed and carriage-return.
The equivalent UNICODE character is called NEL. EBCDIC has control characters called CR and LF, but the numerical value of LF differs from the one used by ASCII. Additionally, some EBCDIC variants use NL but assign a different numeric code to the character. However, those operating systems use a record-based file system, which stores text files as one record per line. In most file formats, no line terminators are stored. Operating systems for the CDC 6000 series defined a newline as two or more zero-valued six-bit characters at the end of a 60-bit word; some configurations defined a zero-valued character as a colon character, with the result that multiple colons could be interpreted as a newline depending on position. RSX-11 and OpenVMS use a record-based file system, which stores text files as one record per line. In most file formats, no line terminators are stored, but the Record Management Services facility can transparently add a terminator to each line when it is retrieved by
DOS is a family of disk operating systems, hence the name. DOS consists of MS-DOS and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC DOS, both of which were introduced in 1981. Other compatible systems from other manufacturers include DR-DOS, ROM-DOS, PTS-DOS, FreeDOS. MS-DOS dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966. Others are Apple DOS, Apple ProDOS, Atari DOS, Commodore DOS, TRSDOS, AmigaDOS. Fictional operating systems have used this acronym as well, such as GLaDOS from the video game Portal. IBM PC DOS and its predecessor, 86-DOS, resembled Digital Research's CP/M—the dominant disk operating system for 8-bit Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 microcomputers—but instead ran on Intel 8086 16-bit processors; when IBM introduced the IBM PC, built with the Intel 8088 microprocessor, they needed an operating system. Seeking an 8088-compatible build of CP/M, IBM approached Microsoft CEO Bill Gates.
IBM was sent to Digital Research, a meeting was set up. However, the initial negotiations for the use of CP/M broke down. Digital Research founder Gary Kildall refused, IBM withdrew. IBM again approached Bill Gates. Gates in turn approached Seattle Computer Products. There, programmer Tim Paterson had developed a variant of CP/M-80, intended as an internal product for testing SCP's new 16-bit Intel 8086 CPU card for the S-100 bus; the system was named QDOS, before being made commercially available as 86-DOS. Microsoft purchased 86-DOS for $50,000; this became Microsoft Disk Operating System, MS-DOS, introduced in 1981. Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, which supplied the operating system for their own hardware, sometimes under their own names. Microsoft required the use of the MS-DOS name, with the exception of the IBM variant. IBM continued to develop their version, PC DOS, for the IBM PC. Digital Research became aware that an operating system similar to CP/M was being sold by IBM, threatened legal action.
IBM responded by offering an agreement: they would give PC consumers a choice of PC DOS or CP/M-86, Kildall's 8086 version. Side-by-side, CP/M cost $200 more than PC DOS, sales were low. CP/M faded, with MS-DOS and PC DOS becoming the marketed operating system for PCs and PC compatibles. Microsoft sold MS-DOS only to original equipment manufacturers. One major reason for this was. DOS was structured such that there was a separation between the system specific device driver code and the DOS kernel. Microsoft provided an OEM Adaptation Kit which allowed OEMs to customize the device driver code to their particular system. By the early 1990s, most PCs adhered to IBM PC standards so Microsoft began selling MS-DOS in retail with MS-DOS 5.0. In the mid-1980s Microsoft developed a multitasking version of DOS; this version of DOS is referred to as "European MS-DOS 4" because it was developed for ICL and licensed to several European companies. This version of DOS supports preemptive multitasking, shared memory, device helper services and New Executable format executables.
None of these features were used in versions of DOS, but they were used to form the basis of the OS/2 1.0 kernel. This version of DOS is distinct from the released PC DOS 4.0, developed by IBM and based upon DOS 3.3. Digital Research attempted to regain the market lost from CP/M-86 with Concurrent DOS, FlexOS and DOS Plus with Multiuser DOS and DR DOS. Digital Research was bought by Novell, DR DOS became Novell DOS 7. Gordon Letwin wrote in 1995 that "DOS was, when we first wrote it, a one-time throw-away product intended to keep IBM happy so that they'd buy our languages". Microsoft expected; the company planned to over time improve MS-DOS so it would be indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z-8000, LSI-11. IBM, did not want to replace DOS. After AT&T began selling Unix, Microsoft and IBM began developing OS/2 as an alternative; the two companies had a series of disagreements over two successor operating systems to DOS, OS/2 and Windows.
They split development of their DOS systems as a result. The last retail version of MS-DOS was MS-DOS 6.22. The last retail version of PC DOS was PC DOS 2000, though IBM did develop PC DOS 7.10 for OEMs and internal use. The FreeDOS project began on 26 June 1994, when Microsoft announced it would no longer sell or support MS-DOS. Jim Hall posted a manifesto proposing the development of an open-source replacement. Within a few weeks, other programmers including Pat Villani and Tim Norman joined the project. A kernel, the COMMAND. COM command line interpreter, core utilities were created by pooling code they had wri
Charles Simonyi, son of Károly Simonyi, is a Hungarian-born American computer businessman. He was head of Microsoft's application software group, where he oversaw the creation of Microsoft's flagship Office suite of applications, he founded and heads Intentional Software, with the aim of developing and marketing his concept of intentional programming. In April 2007, aboard Soyuz TMA-10, he became the fifth space tourist and the second Hungarian in space. In March 2009, aboard Soyuz TMA-14, he made a second trip to the International Space Station, his estimated net worth is US$3.1 billion. Simonyi was born in Budapest, the son of Károly Simonyi, a professor of electrical engineering at the Technical University of Budapest. While in secondary school he worked part-time as a night watchman at a computer laboratory in early 1960's, overseeing a large Soviet Ural II mainframe, he learned to program from one of the laboratory's engineers. By the time he left school, he had learned to develop compilers and sold one of these to a government department.
He presented a demonstration of his compiler to the members of a Danish computer trade delegation. In 2006 he said when he was young his dream was, "to get out of Hungary, go to the West and be free." At the age of 17, Simonyi did not return. He was hired by Denmark's A/S Regnecentralen in 1966 where he worked with Per Brinch Hansen and Peter Kraft on the RC 4000 minicomputer's Real-time Control System, with Peter Naur on the GIER ALGOL compiler, he subsequently moved to the United States in 1968 to attend the University of California, where he earned his B. S. in Engineering Mathematics & Statistics in 1972 under Butler Lampson. Simonyi was recruited to Xerox PARC by Butler Lampson during its most productive period, working alongside luminaries such as Alan Kay, Butler Lampson, Robert Metcalfe on the development of the Xerox Alto, one of the first personal computers, he and Lampson developed Bravo, the first WYSIWYG document preparation program, which became operational in 1974. During this time he received his Ph.
D. in computer science from Stanford University in 1977 with a dissertation on a software project management technique he called meta-programming. This approach sought to defeat Brooks' law by scaling programming through a formalization of communication among programmers. In the 1992 book Accidental Empires, Robert X. Cringely gave this description: Simonyi's dissertation was an attempt to describe a more efficient method of organizing programmers to write software... the metaprogrammer was the designer, decision maker, communication controller in a software development group.... Individual progammers were allowed to make no design decisions about the project. All they did was write the code as described by the metaprogrammer.... A programmer with a problem or a question would take it to the metaprogrammer, who could come up with an answer or transfer the question to another programmer... Simonyi remained at PARC until 1981. In 1981, at Metcalfe's suggestion, he visited Bill Gates at Microsoft who suggested Simonyi start an applications group at Microsoft with the first application being a WYSIWYG word processor.
At Microsoft, Simonyi built the organization and applications of what became its most profitable products and Excel, as well as Excel's predecessor Multiplan. For the applications, Simonyi pursued a strategy called the "revenue bomb", whereby the product ran on a virtual machine, ported to each platform; the resulting applications were portable, although Microsoft's focus and IBM's standardization on MS-DOS made portability less important. In a 2002 news item, The Age noted that Simonyi introduced the concept of metaprogramming at Microsoft, turning it into what people sometimes referred to as a software factory, but the metaprogramming concept "did not work out in practice."Simonyi introduced to Microsoft the techniques of object-oriented programming that he had learned at Xerox. He developed the Hungarian notation convention for naming variables; these standards were part of his doctoral thesis. The Hungarian notation has been used inside Microsoft. Simonyi remained at Microsoft during its rapid rise in the software industry, becoming one of its highest-ranking developers.
He left Microsoft in 2002 to co-found, with business partner Gregor Kiczales, a company called Intentional Software. This company markets the intentional programming. In this approach to software, a programmer first builds a language environment specific to a given problem domain. Domain experts, aided by the programmer describe the program's intended behavior in a What You See Is What You Get -like manner. An automated system uses the language to generate the final program. Successive changes are only done at the WYSIWYG level. In 2004, Simonyi received the Wharton Infosys Business Transformation Award for the industry-wide impact of his innovative work in information technology. On April 18, 2017, Intentional Software was acquired by Microsoft. Simonyi holds 11 patents: US patent 6070007 US patent 6665866 US patent 2001037496 WO patent 2004102380 WO patent 2007053833 WO patent 2007076269 EP patent 1923782 JP patent 2008140410 US patent 2010146377 JP patent 2010146583 US patent 2010229092 Simonyi has been an active philanthropist.
He has funded the establishment of three professorships: In 1995, the Simonyi Professorship of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, first held by Richard Dawkins, currently
The clipboard is a data buffer used for short-term data storage and/or data transfer between documents or applications used by cut and paste operations and provided by the operating system. It is implemented as an anonymous, temporary data buffer, sometimes called the paste buffer, that can be accessed from most or all programs within the environment via defined programming interfaces. A typical application accesses clipboard functionality by mapping user input such as keybindings, menu selections, etc. to these interfaces. The semantics of the clipboard facility varies from one operating system to another, can vary between versions of the same system, they can sometimes be changed by user preference. When an element is copied or cut, the clipboard holds every available format of it, since at this point, it is not known which format is needed when the content is pasted; the core functionality of the clipboard provided by the operating system can be extended by applications and clipboard managers.
Windows and macOS support a single clipboard transaction. Each cut or copy overwrites the previous contents. Paste operations copy the contents, leaving the contents available in the clipboard for further pasting operations. Clipboard data is stored in the computer's RAM. Drag and drop enables users to drag and drop information from one control to another similar to the functionality of cut and paste from the users view, but it doesn't affect the clipboard. Clipboards as buffers for small text snippets were first used by Pentti Kanerva when he used it to store deleted texts in order to restore them. Since one could delete a text in one place and restore it in another, the term "delete" wasn't what one would expect in this case. Larry Tesler renamed this in 1973 as cut and paste and coined the term "clipboard" for this buffer, since these techniques need a clipboard for temporary saving the copied or cut data. Applications communicate through the clipboard by providing either serialized representations of an object, or a promise.
In some circumstances the transfer of certain common data formats may be achieved opaquely through the use of an abstract factory, for example Mac OS X uses the a class called NSImage to provide access to image data stored on the clipboard, though the actual format of the image data backing the object is hidden. The sending and receiving application negotiate the formats which can be transferred in between them, oftentimes with the active GUI widget responsible for providing acceptable type transformations; the pasteboard allows for transfer of common items such as URLs, images, attributed strings, sounds. The operating system and GUI toolkit may provide some common conversions, for example converting from rich text to plain text and vice versa. Various type identifiers for data transfer are supported by modern operating systems, which may automatically provide acceptable mappings between type systems, such as between MIME and Uniform Type Identifier. Clipboard hijacking is an exploit in which a person's clipboard's content is replaced by malicious data, such as a link to a malicious web site.
The standard paste operation copies the most recent transaction, while specialized pastes provide access to the other stored transactions. These managers also provide a window that displays the transaction history and allows the user to select earlier copies, edit them, change their format and search amongst them. Since most operating systems do not save the clipboard contents to any persistent storage – when a user logs out or reboots the system the clipboard contents are deleted – an added functionality is to save the clipboard persistently. Another example is making the local clipboard work with online applications by saving the clipboard data to the online location upon a copy or cut event, making this data available to online applications for pasting. Clipboard managers can serve as tools to overcome the limitation of software not supporting copying and pasting; the clipboard in Microsoft Windows holds one item in multiple available formats. Every item has at least one clipboard format, but can have different types of format of the same data.
The three different types of possible formats are: standard formats, registered formats private formats for internal useUp to