The Microsoft campus is the informal name of Microsoft's corporate headquarters, located in Redmond, Washington, a suburb of Seattle. Microsoft moved onto the grounds of the campus on February 26, 1986, weeks before the company went public on March 13; the headquarters has experienced multiple expansions since its establishment. It is estimated to encompass over 30,000 -- 40,000 employees. Additional offices on the Eastside area of the Seattle metropolitan area are located in Bellevue and Issaquah. Building 92 on the campus contains a visitor store that are open to the public. Microsoft chose to move its headquarters from Bellevue to nearby Redmond in January 1985, selecting a 29-acre plot of land that would be developed by Wright Runstad & Company. Construction began on August 9, Microsoft moved into the $25 million facility on February 26, 1986, several weeks before the company's initial public offering; the move generated some concerns about increased traffic congestion on the unfinished State Route 520 freeway between Bellevue and Redmond.
The initial campus was on a 30-acre lot with six buildings, was able to accommodate 800 employees but grew to 1,400 by 1988. The site was once home to chicken farms in the 1920s that were demolished; the campus was leased to Microsoft from the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association, a pension fund manager, until it was bought back in 1992. The original buildings were given sequential numbers, with the exception of 7 due to a delay in permitting, instead delayed indefinitely. A pond between the original buildings was nicknamed "Lake Bill" for Bill Gates and was used for post-project celebrations, namely managers being thrown in after a successful launch; the first major expansion of the campus came in 1992, bringing the total amount of office space to 1.7 million square feet on 260 acres of land. Microsoft announced its intention to contain most of its future growth within Redmond, while retaining some offices in Downtown Bellevue and Factoria; the Redmond campus was plagued by hundreds of rabbits.
In January 2006, Microsoft announced the purchase of Safeco's Redmond campus after the company had begun consolidating its offices at the Safeco Tower in Seattle's University District a year earlier. In February 2006, Microsoft announced that it intended to expand its Redmond campus by 1,100,000 square feet at a cost of $1 billion and said that this would create space for between 7,000 and 15,000 new employees over the following three years. In 2009, a shopping mall called "The Commons" was completed on the campus, bringing 1.4 million square feet of retail space, as well as restaurants, a soccer field and pub to the West Campus. The Seattle Times reported in early September 2015 that Microsoft had hired architecture firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill to begin a multibillion-dollar redesign of the Redmond campus, using an additional 1.4 million square feet allowed by an agreement with the City of Redmond. The City of Redmond had approved a rezone in February 2015 to raise the height limit for buildings on the campus from 6 stories to 10.
In November 2017, Microsoft announced plans to demolish 12 buildings on the older East Campus and replace them with 18 new buildings, adding 2.5 million square feet to house 8,000 additional employees. The newer buildings would be arranged like an urban neighborhood, centered around a 2-acre open space with sports fields, retail space, hiking trails; the program, scheduled to be completed by 2023, will raise the total number of buildings on the campus to 131. A digital recreation of the future campus was made available in Minecraft Education Edition in November 2018. Demolition of the original buildings, including several X-shaped offices built in the 1980s, began in January 2019 and was completed in September; the expanded campus will have 17 office buildings and four floors of underground parking with capacity for 6,500 vehicles. The Microsoft campus in Redmond has 83 buildings; the company employs 53,576 people. The campus is located on both sides of the State Route 520 freeway, which connects it to the cities of Bellevue and Seattle as well as the Redmond city center.
Microsoft paid part of the cost for an overpass over the freeway at NE 36th Street to relieve congestion on other cross-streets in the area. The campus is served by buses to Seattle and some Eastside cities at the Overlake Transit Center, operated by Sound Transit and King County Metro; the RapidRide B Line runs through the campus, connecting to downtown Bellevue and Redmond. The transit center opened in 2002 and will be the eastern terminus of the East Link light rail extension, scheduled to open in 2023. Microsoft partnered with Sound Transit and the City of Redmond to fund a pedestrian bridge connecting the light rail station to both sides of its campus to open in 2020, providing $33.3 million of the cost. For employees, Microsoft operates a commuter bus service called "The Connector" that provides non-stop service to neighborhoods in Seattle, the Eastside, Snohomish County from the Redmond campus; the shuttles, which began operating in 2007, were targeted in early 2014 as a symbol of gentrification in similar fashion to the San Francisco tech bus protests that same year.
The company runs a shuttle bus service, named the "Shuttle Connect", between buildings on the campus. F
Mom Rajawongse Pia Malakul, better known by his noble title Chaophraya Phrasadet Surentharathibodi, was a Thai educationalist, influential in the development of Siam's modern education system during the early twentieth century. He served as Minister of Public Instruction under King Vajiravudh from 1912 to 1916, laid out the country's first formal education plan, he was a writer. In recognition of his contributions to education, the 150th anniversary of his birth was celebrated in association with the UNESCO in 2017. Mom Rajawongse Pia was born on Tuesday 12th, waxing moon, 5th month, year of the rabbit, which corresponds to 16 April 1867, his father was the Prince Krommamuen Prapporapak, a grandson of King Rama II. As a boy, he was presented to Prince Damrong Rajanubhab, enrolled at Suankularb Palace School. MR Pia completed both stages of education, which took four years, in a single year, he underwent customary temporary ordination as a Buddhist monk at Wat Bowonniwet. Pia began his career in the Department of Education, serving as personal secretary to Prince Damrong and receiving the noble title Luang Phaisansinlapasat.
Pia followed Prince Damrong to the Ministry of Interior in 1892 when the Prince became minister, was promoted to the title Phra Montriphotchanakit. In 1893, King Chulalongkorn assigned Pia to be Prince Vajiravudh's guardian during the Prince's studies in England. Pia acted as guardian to many of the King's sons in England, received the title Phraya Wisutsuriyasak, he came to serve as Minister to the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and the United States, from 1897 to 1899. As custodian to the royal students, Pia made observations of the modern Western education system. In a letter replying to the King's inquiries on why many of the students were failing in their education, Pia, a strong advocate of meritocracy, wrote that students were being sent regardless of their academic abilities, like sending whole logs to the sawmill; the King commissioned a report, which Pia completed in 1898, suggesting improvements to Siam's developing education system. Pia returned to Bangkok in 1899. One of the government's priorities in education at the time was expanding professional education in order to staff the growing bureaucracy.
Pia became the head of the newly established Training School of the Civil Service, which became the Royal Pages School and Chulalongkorn University. To train the newly educated in proper manners, Pia authored Sombat Khong Phudi a manual prescribing proper etiquette, influential and had over a million copies printed throughout the century. Pia became Minister of Public Instruction in 1912, during the reign of King Vajiravudh, received the title Chaophraya Phrasadet Surentharathibodi, he pushed for the adoption of compulsory education, but due to constraints in the development of mass education, the policy was not successful. It was passed in 1921, under his successor Chaophraya Thammasakmontri. Pia resigned from public office in 1916, due to ill health. Pia married Miss Sa-ngiam, daughter of Luang Anurakphubet, in 1888, they lived at Luang Anurakphubet's family home on Atsadang Road before moving into a new property on Lan Luang Road, where Pia lived until his death. They had ten children, including a son, Mom Luang Pin Malakul, who would become one of Thailand's most influential educators.
The family name Malakul was bestowed by King Vajiravudh on 30 May 1913, following the royal act which prescribed the use of surnames. Toward the end of his career, Pia suffered from neurasthenia and fell ill to malaria. Chaophraya Thammasakmontri, a close aide of his, would note that "working with a fever in the office was one of his well-known habits", he died less than a year after retiring, on 14 February 1917. Pia produced numerous works, most of them textbooks written during his career in the Ministry of Public Instruction, focusing on the subjects of ethics and the Thai language; these include—in addition to Sombat Khong Phudi—Phonlamueang Di, Chanya Phaet, Phongsawadan Yo, Kham Thiap Ro Lo, Chuai Phuean and Tuean Phuean. To the modern Thai public, his most familiar work is the patriotic song "Samakkhi Chumnum", for which Pia wrote the lyrics, which and is set to the tune of "Auld Lang Syne"; as part of its anniversaries programme, the UNESCO, recognizing his contributions to education, was associated with the celebration of the 150th anniversary of Pia's birth in 2017.
A building in Suankularb Wittayalai School is named Sala Phrasadet in his honour
SM UC-51 was a German Type UC II minelaying submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy during World War I. The U-boat was ordered on 20 November 1915 and was launched on 5 December 1916, she was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy on 6 January 1917 as SM UC-51. In seven patrols UC-51 was credited with sinking 28 ships, either by mines laid. UC-51 was mined and sunk in the English Channel on 17 November 1917; the wreck was located and identified by marine archaeologist Innes McCartney close to the official sinking position in 2001. A German Type UC II submarine, UC-51 had a displacement of 434 tonnes when at the surface and 511 tonnes while submerged, she had a length overall of 52.69 m, a beam of 5.22 m, a draught of 3.64 m. The submarine was powered by two six-cylinder four-stroke diesel engines each producing 290–300 metric horsepower, two electric motors producing 620 metric horsepower, two propeller shafts, she was capable of operating at a depth of 50 metres. The submarine had a submerged speed of 7.2 knots.
When submerged, she could operate for 56 nautical miles at 4 knots. UC-51 was fitted with six 100 centimetres mine tubes, eighteen UC 200 mines, three 50 centimetres torpedo tubes, seven torpedoes, one 8.8 cm Uk L/30 deck gun. Her complement was twenty-six crew members