Microsoft Silverlight

Microsoft Silverlight is a deprecated application framework for writing and running rich Internet applications, similar to Adobe Flash. A plugin for Silverlight is still available for some browsers. While early versions of Silverlight focused on streaming media versions supported multimedia and animation and gave support to developers for CLI languages and development tools. Silverlight was one of the two application development platforms for Windows Phone, but web pages using Silverlight did not run on the Windows Phone or Windows Mobile versions of Internet Explorer, as there was no Silverlight plugin for Internet Explorer on those platforms. From the initial launch in 2007, reviewers compared the product to Adobe's Flash. According to, Microsoft Silverlight had a penetration of 64.2% in May 2011. Usage on July 2010 was 53.6%, whereas as of May 2011 market leader Adobe Flash was installed on 95.3% of browsers, Java was supported on 76.5% of browsers. Support of these plugins is not mutually exclusive.

Not all Web sites require a browser plugin. Silverlight was used to provide video streaming for the NBC coverage of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, the 2008 conventions for both major United States political parties. Silverlight was used by Amazon Video and Netflix for their instant video streaming services, but Netflix said in its Tech Blog in 2013 that, since Microsoft had announced Silverlight's end-of-life, they would be moving to HTML5 video. Industry observers had announced the death of Silverlight as early as 2011. Internally proponents of the technology thought Extensible Application Markup Language as a concept was a bad idea from the start. In 2012, Microsoft deprecated Silverlight for HTML5 in Windows 8, but as late as the beginning of 2015 it was not clear what Microsoft's official position was on the future of Silverlight as a technology. In July of 2015 a Microsoft blog post clarified matters: "...we encourage companies that are using Silverlight for media to begin the transition to DASH/MSE/CENC/EME based designs".

Microsoft plans to terminate Silverlight support on October 12, 2021. Support for IE7–8 was removed between 2014 and 2016, depending on the OS. Support for IE9–11 will last until late 2021, depending on the OS, "or though the support lifecycle of the underlying browsers, whichever is shorter." There is no Silverlight plugin available for Microsoft Edge. It has not been supported by Google Chrome since September 2015 or by Firefox since March 2017; as of February 2020, fewer than 0.04% of sites used Silverlight, 2.7% used Adobe Flash, 3.4% used Java. Silverlight provides a retained mode graphics system similar to Windows Presentation Foundation, integrates multimedia, graphics and interactivity into a single run-time environment. In Silverlight applications, user interfaces are declared in Extensible Application Markup Language and programmed using a subset of the. NET Framework. XAML can be used for marking up the vector animations. Silverlight can be used to create Windows Sidebar gadgets for Windows Vista.

Silverlight supports H.264 video, Advanced Audio Coding, Windows Media Video, Windows Media Audio, MPEG Layer III media content across all supported browsers without requiring Windows Media Player, the Windows Media Player ActiveX control, or Windows Media browser plug-ins. Because Windows Media Video 9 is an implementation of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers VC-1 standard, Silverlight supports VC-1 video. According to the end user license agreement VC-1 and H.264 are only licensed for the "personal and non-commercial use of a consumer". Silverlight makes it possible to dynamically load Extensible Markup Language content that can be manipulated through a Document Object Model interface, a technique, consistent with conventional Ajax techniques. Silverlight exposes a Downloader object which can be used to download content, like scripts, media assets, or other data, as may be required by the application. With version 2, the programming logic can be written in any. NET language, including some nuclear evolution of common dynamic programming languages like IronRuby and IronPython.

A free software implementation named Moonlight, developed by Novell in cooperation with Microsoft, was released to bring Silverlight version 1 and 2 functionality to Linux, FreeBSD, other open source platforms, although some Linux distributions did not include it, citing redistribution and patent concerns. However, in May 2012, Moonlight was abandoned because of its lack of popularity. Over the course of about five years Microsoft released five versions with varying platform support: The first version was released in 2007, the fifth major version on May 8, 2012, it is compatible with versions of Internet Explorer web browser on Microsoft Windows operating systems, with Safari on Apple macOS, with mobile devices using the Windows Mobile and Symbian platforms. Cross-platform Mozilla Firefox support for Silverlight was removed in Firefox 52 released in March 2017 when Mozilla removed support for NPAPI plugins, bringing it in-line with the removal of NPAPI plugin support in Google Chrome. Silverlight requires an x86 processor with Streaming SIMD Extensions support.

Supported processors include the Intel Pentium III and up, the AMD Athlon XP and up, newer AMD Durons. The following table presents an availability and compatibility matrix of Silverlight versions for various operating systems and web browsers. Support for Opera had been promised since May 3, 2007, when David Storey, the Chief Web Opener at Opera, revealed

HMS Namur (1756)

HMS Namur was a 90-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built at Chatham Dockyard to the draught specified by the 1745 Establishment as amended in 1750, launched on 3 March 1756. HMS Namur’s battle honours surpass those of the more famous HMS Victory. Namur was the flagship of Edward Boscawen Vice Admiral of the Blue in the capture of Louisburg in 1758. General James Wolfe had sailed across the Atlantic in Namur on this occasion before his capture of Quebec. On this journey was 6th Lieutenant Michael Henry Pascal with his slave and servant Olaudah Equiano who at that time was called Gustavus Vasser, his slave name given him by Pascal. Equiano in his book wrote that the ceremony of surrender was "the most beautiful procession on the water I saw", gives fuller details. In 1758, fifteen Namur sailors were condemned to death by hanging for mutiny. King´s grace reprieved them from death penalty except one. Namur was the flagship of Admiral Sir George Pocock in the Battle of Havana. Namur fought in the Battle of Cape St Vincent under the command of Captain James Hawkins-Whitshed.

Namur was astern of HMS Captain, under the command of Commodore Horatio Nelson, at the beginning stages of the battle. Namur was razeed to a 74-gun ship in 1805, took part in the naval engagement of 4 November 1805, when the remnant of the French and Spanish warship fleet which had escaped from Trafalgar was engaged by Lord Strachan's squadron, she was placed on harbour service in 1807 and remained in this role until 1833, when she was broken up. Some of Namur's timbers were used to support the floor of the wheelwright's workshop at Chatham Dockyard, they were rediscovered there in 1995 and identified in 2003. The restored timbers form the centrepiece of the "Command of the Oceans" gallery at the Chatham Historic Dockyard museum opened in 2016; the marine painter Clarkson Stanfield served on board the ship, after being pressed into the Royal Navy in 1808. He was discharged on health grounds in 1814. One of Namur's captains was a brother of Jane Austen. Olaudah Equiano, a former African slave, active in the British abolitionist movement, served as a powder monkey on Namur.

Chapter III and Chapter IV of The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, at Wikisource, contain an account of the author's service aboard HMS Namur. Media related to HMS Namur at Wikimedia Commons


Serpentor is a fictional character and a recurring antagonist from the G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline, comic books and animated series, he is the Cobra Emperor and was introduced in 1986. In the original 1980s animated series, he is the main antagonist in the second season. Serpentor was designed to be the ultimate Cobra leader. Doctor Mindbender and Destro combed the tombs of the greatest leaders in history to find cells with DNA traces; these long-dead genetic blueprints were combined to produce a clone with the genius of Napoleon, the ruthlessness of Julius Caesar, the daring of Hannibal, the shrewdness of Attila the Hun. Serpentor is a brilliant tactician and a master of political intrigue, was capable of wresting control over Cobra from Cobra Commander. Serpentor was first released as an action figure in 1986, packaged with the Air Chariot; the Air Chariot is like a flying throne, with two 7.62mm attack guns, reinforced battle shield, hover engine. He was released in 2002 as a re-issue 2-pack, exclusive to online retailers.

A new mold of Serpentor was released in 2005, as part of a comic three pack, which included a reprint of issue #49 of the Marvel Comics series. Serpentor was released again in 2007 as a single carded figure as part of the 25th anniversary series; this figure was packaged with a re-release of the Air Chariot in a vehicle 2 pack, with a DVD set that included the DVD of "Arise, Arise". In the Marvel Comics series, Serpentor appeared in G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero #49; the character in the comics was created as a "super soldier", intended to lead and inspire the troops while Cobra Commander remained in power. His creation involved Cobra collecting genetic material from various historical figures. However, the comic diverges from the version in the animated series, in that DNA from Storm Shadow was used in the creation of Serpentor, he was portrayed as having something akin to multiple personalities as a result of being created from the DNA of multiple tyrants. In another incident, he was able to access memories of one of his genetic forebears.

He recalls the invention of pizza. While his relationship in the comics was meant to be more of a figurehead, Serpentor was ambitious, leading to power struggles between him and other members of Cobra. Serpentor contended with Cobra Commander impostor Fred VII, the two were at odds, their rivalry escalated into the Cobra civil war, in which G. I. Joe was ordered to side with Serpentor to defeat the forces of Fred and the Baroness. During the conflict, Serpentor met his end at the hands of Zartan, was killed by an arrow to the head, in G. I. Joe A Real American Hero #76. Devil's Due continued the storyline of the Marvel series, years after the events that led to Serpentor's death, his body was found and reanimated by renegade scientists. Soon a secretive faction called. Serpentor targeted G. I. Joe and Cobra forces alike. Serpentor in the G. I. Joe vs. the Transformers crossover published by Devil's Due Publishing has a different origin. In the third G. I. Joe vs. the Transformers miniseries, the US government builds an android called "Serpent OR", using processors taken from Megatron and programmed with information on Earth and Cybertron's greatest war-leaders.

Serpent OR, seeing himself as Megatron's son and heir, sets out on a quest to gain the Matrix for himself, believing it will grant him the power he needed to rule. He travels to Cybertron, he captures the Matrix for himself, transforming himself into Serpentor Prime, a transformer-scale robot with the spark of life. This results in rethinking his strategy to conquer, but Cobra Commander takes over Serpentor Prime's body with a remote control device, planted back on Earth, his rampage did not last long, as Hawk was able to open the Matrix, transforming Hawk into a mighty leader and rendering the Commander comatose. Serpent OR's exact fate beyond this is unknown; the Official Transformer Fan Collectors Club's third Figure Subscription set included a human-made Transformer created by a former Cobra agent who sought to upload the data from the Serpentor project into the body of a deceased Sweep. However, as a result of an attack by the Earth Defense Command on this operation, the personality of Clayton "Hawk" Abernathy is added to Serpent O.

R.'s programming, creating a Transformer known as Serpent O. R. with feelings of loyalty to Cobra, the Decepticons, AND the Earth Defense Command. In the IDW continuity, Serpentor's real name is Stephen Minasian and he is the leader of the Coil, the religious wing of Cobra and a influential cult, known to the public as a self-help group; the Coil worship a god named Golobulus, who created a paradise called Cobra-La before human ignorance destroyed it. Serpentor claims to be the Final Disciple of Golobulus, a reincarnation of the best qualities of the god's previous champions such as Napoleon and Alexander the Great. Serpentor is a member of the ruling body that elects the Cobra Commander. In the case of a new Commander needing to be elected, Serpentor's view "carries a ton of weight. If he is backing someone their stock will go up in the eyes of the Cobra Court". Serpentor isn't interested in becoming the new Commander and, during the contest to decide the new leader, starts assisting the Baroness, Major Bludd and Tomax in getting the role - that way, the eventual leader will "need me".

Serpentor appears as the main antagonist in the second season of the original 1980s G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero animated series. Serpentor first appeared