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Microtonal music

Microtonal music or microtonality is the use in music of microtones—intervals smaller than a semitone called "microintervals". It may be extended to include any music using intervals not found in the customary Western tuning of twelve equal intervals per octave. In other words, a microtone may be thought of as a note that falls between the keys of a piano tuned in equal temperament. Microtonal music can refer to any music containing microtones; the words "microtone" and "microtonal" were coined before 1912 by Maud MacCarthy Mann in order to avoid the misnomer "quarter tone" when speaking of the srutis of Indian music. Prior to this time the term "quarter tone" was used, not only for an interval half the size of a semitone, but for all intervals smaller than a semitone, it may have been slightly earlier as early as 1895, that the Mexican composer Julián Carrillo, writing in Spanish or French, coined the terms microtono/micro-ton and microtonalismo/micro-tonalité. In French, the usual term is the somewhat more self-explanatory micro-intervalle, French sources give the equivalent German and English terms as Mikrointervall and micro interval (Amy 1961.

1998. "Microinterval" is a frequent alternative in English in translations of writings by French authors and in discussion of music by French composers. In English, the two terms "microtone" and "microinterval" are synonymous; the English analogue of the related French term, micro-intervalité, however, is rare or nonexistent being translated as "microtonality". Ezra Sims, in the article "Microtone" in the second edition of the Harvard Dictionary of Music defines "microtone" as "an interval smaller than a semitone", which corresponds with Aristoxenus's use of the term diesis. However, the unsigned article "Comma, Schisma" in the same reference source calls comma and diaschisma "microintervals" but not "microtones", in the fourth edition of the same reference a new "Comma, Schisma" article by André Barbera calls them "intervals". In the second edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Paul Griffiths, Mark Lindley, Ioannis Zannos define "microtone" as a musical rather than an acoustical entity: "any musical interval or difference of pitch distinctly smaller than a semitone", including "the tiny enharmonic melodic intervals of ancient Greece, the several divisions of the octave into more than 12 parts, various discrepancies among the intervals of just intonation or between a sharp and its enharmonically paired flat in various forms of mean-tone temperament", as well as the Indian sruti, small intervals used in Byzantine chant, Arabic music theory from the 10th century onward, for Persian traditional music and Turkish music and various other Near Eastern musical traditions, but do not name the "mathematical" terms schisma and diaschisma.

"Microtone" is sometimes used to refer to individual notes, "microtonal pitches" added to and distinct from the familiar twelve notes of the chromatic scale, as "enharmonic microtones", for example. In English the word "microtonality" is mentioned in 1946 by Rudi Blesh who related it to microtonal inflexions of the so-called "blues scales", it was used still earlier by W. McNaught with reference to developments in "modernism" in a 1939 record review of the Columbia History of Music, Vol. 5. In German the term Mikrotonalität came into use at least by 1958, though "Mikrointervall" is still common today in contexts where small intervals of early European tradition are described, as e.g. in the new Geschichte der Musiktheorie while "Mikroton" seems to prevail in discussions of the avant-garde music and music of Eastern traditions. The term "microinterval" is used alongside "microtone" by American musicologist Margo Schulter in her articles on medieval music; the term "microtonal music" refers to music containing small intervals but can include any tuning that differs from Western twelve-tone equal temperament.

Traditional Indian systems of 22 śruti. Microtonal variation of intervals is standard practice in the African-American musical forms of spirituals and jazz. Many microtonal equal divisions of the octave have been proposed in order to achieve approximation to the intervals of just intonation. Terminology other than "microtonal" has been proposed by some theorists and composers. In 1914, A. H. Fox Strangways objected that "'heterotone' would be a better name for śruti than the usual translation'microtone'". Modern Indian researchers yet write: "microtonal intervals called shru

Lenovo IdeaCentre A720

The Lenovo IdeaCentre A720 is an all-in-one desktop computer with a 27-inch touchscreen released by Lenovo in 2012. The A720 has a 27-inch frameless glossy screen with a resolution of 1920x1080 and capacitive touch technology; the A720's screen is only 24.5mm thick. Lenovo claims; the hinge connecting the base to the display is key to the design of the A720. The screen is anchored by a base which includes all of its ports. Lenovo says; the A720 uses a quad-core Intel Core-i7 processor, 8 gigabytes of RAM, a 1-terabyte hard drive. A DVD-drive comes standard and an upgrade to Blu-ray is an option. Ports include ethernet, two USB 3.0 and two USB 2.0 connections and HDMI ports for both input and output. The A720's ability to accept HDMI input allows for using the screen with external devices. An internal TV-tuner is optional. A wireless mouse and keyboard that connect via wi-fi are included. A review published in the Bangkok Post stated, "With all its merits, the A720 is not the perfect home computing solution.

It is the most expensive on the market, has a reflective screen, suffers the same service issues as notebooks with its compact form factor, its touchscreen has few applications. But the screen is fantastic, it's plenty powerful and it can be used as a replacement TV, which should win many punters over."In a review published by ZDNet, James Kendrick wrote, "The 27-inch display is gorgeous whether working on the desktop or playing video in full-screen glory. The latter is a key function of the A720. There is full remote control to turn the system into an HD TV system; this is such a good desktop PC. This is precise and handles 10 finger touch; the display swivels down at any angle for touch operation, including flat on the desktop."

Calamba railway station

Calamba station is a station on the South Main Line of the Philippine National Railways, serving Calamba City in Laguna. It is one of two railway stations in the city and it is a major station on the South Main Line, serving as the junction between the South Main Line and the Calamba-Batangas branch line which connects to Batangas City, it is envisioned to be the terminus of the Commuter Express when rehabilitation work is complete. The station was opened on January 24, 1909. Major landmarks near the station include SM City Calamba, the Calamba Central Bus and Jeepney Terminal and the Calamba Medical Center; the Hybrid Electric Train headquarters is located at Calamba station departure, built by Department of Science and Technology's Metals Industry Research and Development Center, It is the main station of the Hybrid Electric Train, runs from Calamba to San Pablo in Laguna to the south in May 6, 2019, The train project began 2012 and built in year 2014-2015. The project was introduced to the public and the media in June 2016

Darcy Nicholas

Darcy John Nicholas is a New Zealand artist and art administrator of Māori and European descent. Nicholas was born in Waitara in 1945, he lives in Lower Hutt. Nicholas opened his own art gallery in Lower Hutt in 1975. In 1981 he became director of the Wellington Arts Centre. In 1986 Nicholas was appointed director of the Central Regional Arts Council and in 1989 was appointed Assistant General Manager with the Iwi Transition Agency. Nicholas led the development of the Pataka Art + Museum complex in Porirua, which opened in 1998, he stepped down from his role as Pataka's director and Porirua City Council’s community services general manager in 2012. Nicholas established the Māori Art Market art fair in 2005 and has remained involved in the creative leadership of the event. Nicholas has been involved in the contemporary Māori art movement since the late 1960s. Nicholas spent 10 years with the New Zealand Police early in his career, but painted and exhibited during this time. In 1973 he decided to move into making art full-time.

He has exhibited throughout New Zealand, Africa, United States, India, Germany and Canada. Nicholas was commissioned to produce a sculpture for the opening of Pukeahu National War Memorial Park in 2015. 1984 Fulbright Scholarship to observe contemporary Native American and African America art in the United States Queens Service Order for services to museums in the 2010 Queen's Birthday Honours 2013 Supreme Te Waka Toi award, Creative New Zealand'Land of My Ancestors - Darcy Nicholas Artist', documentary film, 2007, nzonscreen.com Darcy Nicholas' website

Teleiopsis baldiana

Teleiopsis baldiana is a moth of the family Gelechiidae described by William Barnes and August Busck in 1920. It is found in North America; the wingspan is 19–21 mm. The forewings are bluish white, overlaid with fuscous and brown scales and with a rather well defined outwardly oblique fasciae of black raised scales from near the base of the costa to the basal fourth of the dorsum. There is an ill-defined light fuscous spot on the middle of costa, as well as an ill-defined transverse shade of fuscous over the end of the cell, edged exteriorly by a narrow nearly unmottled white fascia. There is a short transverse streak of black-and-brown raised scales at the end of the cell and the tip of the wing is overlaid with fuscous; the larvae feed on Toxicodendron diversilobum. They roll the leaves of their host plant

Highland Lakes, New Jersey

Highland Lakes is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located within Vernon Township, in Sussex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP's population was 4,933. Highland Lakes has its own Post Office with the ZIP code 07422. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP had a total area of 6.099 square miles, including 5.071 square miles of land and 1.028 square miles of water. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,933 people, 1,875 households, 1,387.500 families living in the CDP. The population density was 972.8 per square mile. There were 2,342 housing units at an average density of 461.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.55% White, 1.09% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.98% of the population. There were 1,875 households out of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.8% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.0% were non-families.

21.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.07. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 34.8% from 45 to 64, 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.1 years. For every 100 females there were 102.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 99.8 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 5,051 people, 1,794 households, 1,375 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 386.9/km². There were 2,283 housing units at an average density of 174.9/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.88% White, 2.09% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.48% Asian, 1.23% from other races, 1.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.53% of the population. There were 1,794 households out of which 42.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.7% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.3% were non-families.

18.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.24. In the CDP the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 34.3% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $77,968, the median income for a family was $87,313. Males had a median income of $58,395 versus $39,968 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $27,445. About 2.6% of families and 3.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.4% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over. Located in northern New Jersey's Sussex County, Highland Lakes is a private lake community that focuses on outdoor activities; the area, once rolling dairy farm hillsides, was developed in the 1930s as a summer retreat for families in the New York City Metropolitan area.

Most of the homes are lake-style or log cabins, retaining most of the architecture of the original community. Many of what were once summer homes, are now the full-time residences of homeowners in Highland Lakes. Highland Lakes is made up of five lakes ( that between them have seven beaches. Highland Lakes is governed by a private association that manages all property and access to recreational facilities, which include the lakes, playgrounds and basketball courts and clubhouse. All property owners pay an initiation fee and annual dues to the Highland Lakes Country Club and Community Association. Highland Lakes is located adjacent to the 34,350-acre Wawayanda State Park and near the Pequannock Watershed, a large parcel owned by the City of Newark in Essex County for their water supply. People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise associated with Highland Lakes include: Nicolas de Gunzburg Ryan Izzo Football player for the New England Patriots The Advertiser News, community newspaper