Arthur Edeson, A. S. C. was a film cinematographer, born in New York City. His career ran from the formative years of the film industry in New York, through the silent era in Hollywood, the sound era there in the 1930s and 1940s, his work included many landmarks in film history, including The Thief of Bagdad, The Maltese Falcon, Casablanca. He was one of the founders of the American Society of Cinematographers, was nominated for three Academy Awards in his career in cinema. Edeson began his career as a still photographer, but turned to movies in 1911 as a camera operator at the American Éclair Studio in Fort Lee, New Jersey when it and many other early film studios in America's first motion picture industry were based there at the beginning of the 20th century; when the Éclair Studio was reorganized as the World Film Company, he was promoted to chief cinematographer assigned to the star Clara Kimball Young. Throughout the twenties, Edeson photographed a number of important films, including Douglas Fairbanks' Robin Hood and The Thief of Bagdad, the groundbreaking special effects film The Lost World.
When sound came in, Edeson experimented with camouflaging the microphones in exterior shots. In Old Arizona, the first sound film to be shot outside a studio, provided evidence to Hollywood executives that talking pictures need not be confined to the sound stage; the western The Big Trail, starring John Wayne in his first starring role, was filmed by Edeson in the 70mm widescreen process, known as "Fox Grandeur". In the early 1930s his most memorable creative partnership was formed with director James Whale, for whom he photographed the first three of Whale's quartet of horror films: Frankenstein, The Old Dark House, The Invisible Man. According to critic M. S. Fonseca, Edeson was one of the "master craftsmen" of the old American school, his principal work was on the side of realism, considered by most film historians to represent the "zenith of Hollywood photography." Edeson built on the influence of German Expressionism, brought to the America cinema by German cinematographers during the 1920s.
In 1919, Edeson was one of the founders of the American Society of Cinematographers. Arthur Edeson died on February 1970 in Agoura Hills, California, he is interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in the Hollywood Hills of California. Source: Nominations Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, for In Old Arizona, 1929 Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Cinematography, for All Quiet on the Western Front, 1930 Academy Awards: Oscar, Best Black and White Cinematography, for Casablanca, 1943 In 1955 and 1957, Edeson was awarded the George Eastman Awar, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film. Arthur Edeson on IMDb Arthur Edeson at AllMovie Arthur Edeson at Film Reference
Ethel Barrymore was an American actress and a member of the Barrymore family of actors. Barrymore was a stage actress regarded as "The First Lady of the American Theatre" whose career spanned six decades. Barrymore was born Ethel Mae Blythe in Philadelphia, the second child of the actors Maurice Barrymore and Georgiana Drew, her father was nearly killed four months before her birth in a famous Old West encounter in Texas while heading a traveling road company. She was named for her father's favorite character—Ethel in William Makepeace Thackeray’s The Newcomes, she was the sister of actors John and Lionel Barrymore, the aunt of actor John Drew Barrymore, grand-aunt of actress Drew Barrymore. She was a granddaughter of actress and theater-manager Louisa Lane Drew, niece of Broadway matinée idol John Drew Jr and early Vitagraph Studios stage and screen star Sidney Drew, she attended Roman Catholic schools there. In 1884, the family stayed two years. Maurice had inherited a substantial amount of money from an aunt and decided to exhibit a play and star in some plays at London's Haymarket Theatre.
Ethel recalled being frightened on first meeting Oscar Wilde when handing him some cakes and being reprimanded by her parents for showing fear of Wilde. Returning to the U. S. in 1886, her father took her to her first baseball game. She wanted to be a concert pianist; the years in England were the happiest of her childhood years due to the fact the Barrymores were more of a nuclear family in London than in the United States. In the summer of 1893 Barrymore was in the company of her mother, ailing from tuberculosis and took a curative sabbatical to Santa Barbara, not far from where family friend Helena Modjeska had a retreat. Georgie died in July 1893 a week before her 37th birthday. Ethel's and Lionel's childhood ended when Georgie died. John, a few years younger, stayed with other relatives. Barrymore's first appearance on Broadway was in 1895, in a play called The Imprudent Young Couple which starred her uncle John Drew, Jr. and Maude Adams. She appeared with Adams again in 1896 in Rosemary. In 1897 Ethel went with William Gillette to London to play Miss Kittridge in Gillette's Secret Service.
She was about to return to the States with Gillette's troupe when Henry Irving and Ellen Terry offered her the role of Annette in The Bells. A full London tour was on and, before it was over, Ethel created, on New Years Day 1898, Euphrosine in Peter the Great at the Lyceum, the play having been written by Irving's son, Laurence. Men everywhere were smitten with Ethel, most notably Winston Churchill. Not wishing to be a politician's wife, she refused. Winston, years married Clementine Hozier, a ravishing beauty who looked much like Ethel. Winston and Ethel remained friends until the end of her life, their “romance” was their own little secret until his son let the cat out of the bag 63 years after it happened. After her season in London, Ethel returned to the U. S. Charles Frohman cast her first in Catherine and as Stella de Grex in His Excellency the Governor. After that, Frohman gave Ethel the role that would make her a star: Madame Trentoni in Captain Jinks of the Horse Marines, which opened at the Garrick Theatre in London's West End on February 4, 1901.
Unbeknownst to Ethel, her father Maurice had witnessed the performance as an audience member and walked up to his daughter, congratulated her and gave her a big hug. It was the only time he saw her on stage professionally; when the tour concluded in Boston in June, she had out-drawn two of the most prominent actresses of her day, Mrs. Patrick Campbell and Minnie Maddern Fiske. Following her triumph in Captain Jinks, Ethel gave sterling performances in many top-rate productions and it was in Thomas Raceward's Sunday that she uttered what would be her most famous line, "That's all there is, there isn't any more."She portrayed Nora in A Doll's House by Ibsen, Juliet in Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare. Barrymore, along with friend Marie Dressler, was a strong supporter of the Actors' Equity Association and had a high-profile role in the 1919 strike. AEA came into being to allow performers to have a bigger share in the profits of stage productions and to provide benefit to elderly or infirm actors.
This angered many producers and cost Barrymore her friendship with George M. Cohan, an actor and producer. Like many benevolent organisations AEA meant well in it's early years but in succeeding years was accused of being a bureaucratic labor union. Ethel Barrymore's involvement in AEA may have been motivated by the fate of both of her parents, both long standing actors, her mother who had needed proper medical care and her father who required years of institutionalized care. In 1926, she scored one of her greatest successes as the sophisticated spouse of a philandering husband in W. Somerset Maugham's comedy, The Constant Wife She starred in Rasputin and the Empress, playing the czarina married to Czar Nicholas. In July 1934, she starred in the play Laura Garnett, by Leslie and Sewell Stokes, at Dobbs Ferry, New York. After she became a stage star, she would dismiss adoring audiences who kept demanding curtain calls by saying "That's all there is—there isn't any more!" This became a popular catch phrase in the 1920s an
Frank Coghlan Jr. known as Junior Coghlan, was an American actor who became a career officer in the United States Navy and a naval aviator. He appeared in 129 films and television programs between 1920 and 1974. During the 1920s and 1930s, he became a popular child and juvenile actor, appearing in films with Pola Negri, Jack Dempsey, William Haines, Shirley Temple, Mickey Rooney, William Boyd and Bette Davis, he appeared in early "Our Gang" comedies, but he is best known for the role of Billy Batson in the 1941 motion picture serial Adventures of Captain Marvel. Coghlan served 23 years as an aviator and officer in the U. S. Navy, from 1942 to 1965. After retiring from the Navy, he returned to acting and appeared in television and commercials, he published an autobiography in 1992 and died in 2009 at age 93. Coghlan was born in New Haven, but his parents moved to Hollywood when he was still a baby, his father was a doctor, in "Who's Who on the Screen" for 1932 he hoped to be a doctor, when he grew up.
Coghlan began appearing in motion pictures in 1920 as an extra and worked his way up to more important roles. He boasted that he had been gainfully employed since age three; the freckle-faced Coghlan was billed as "Junior Coghlan" and became one of Hollywood's most popular child stars. Film historian Leonard Maltin said, "He was one of the busiest child actors of the late'20s and 1930s, he was a fresh, freckle-faced boy with great All-American-type appeal." Coghlan began his acting career in 1920. In 1922 he co-starred with Brownie the Dog in a film called Rookies, in 1923 he played a small role in the Pola Negri film The Spanish Dancer, he appeared in early "Our Gang" films, including the 1923 Hal Roach short "Giants vs. Yanks," in which the gang, after having a baseball game called off, gets stuck in an elegant home, which they destroy. In 1924 Coghlan was again cast opposite Jack Dempsey in Winning His Way. One newspaper story described Coghlan's rise to fame this way: "When the boy was seven years old, his great mop of hair, freckled face, genial grin, likable personality attracted the attention of several directors who urged his parents to permit him to engage in screen work.
Mrs. Coghlan consented and one day he was cast for a'bit' role in Goldwyn's Poverty of Riches, in which he played the son of Leatrice Joy."By the mid 1920s, Coghlan had caught the eye of one of Hollywood's leading directors, Cecil B. DeMille. DeMille called Coghlan "the perfect example of a homeless waif" and signed the boy to a long-term contract in 1926; the Los Angeles Times reported on the event: DeMille Signs Child ActorSo far, Cecil B. DeMille hasn't run much to giving picture contracts to youngsters, but yesterday Mr. DeMille signified what he thought of Junior Coghlan by placing him under a long-term contract; the boy has appeared in several DeMille pictures, including'The Road to Yesterday.' The boy gives promise of being another Wesley Berry, with the same impish glance, the same freckles and the same cleverness. Of course, the office of freckled boy of the movies is a fixed institution, now that Wes Berry has gone and got himself married he can't pretend to like playing marbles in the movies.
Little Junior is to be cofeatured with Eleanor Faire and William Boyd in Rupert Julian's The Yankee Clipper. In 1927, Coghlan appeared in the baseball comedy Slide, Slide, playing an orphan who became a mascot and inspiration for an ace baseball pitcher, played by William Haines. By 1928, Coghlan was such a well-known star that the Los Angeles Times reported on his schooling as well as his film projects. By age 11, Coghlan was asking to play grownup roles. A newspaper article at the time reported that Coghlan, "like every other young and red-blooded American, desires to arrive at manhood as soon as possible. Long trousers is what he wants, but the motion picture claims him and demands that he stay in knee breeches."Coghlan's final film on his four-year DeMille-Pathe contract was 1929's military academy drama Square Shoulders. Conceived as a silent film, Square Shoulders was transformed into a "talkie" by the expedient adding of sound to the final reel. Only the silent version is known to survive.
A 1929 newspaper story on Coghlan noted that the twelve-year-old actor was "recognized by the motion picture public as the leading juvenile screen player in the world." With the arrival of the talking pictures, Coghlan continued to be one of the most popular juvenile actors. In the classic 1931 gangster film The Public Enemy, Coghlan played the role of James Cagney's character, Tom Powers, as a boy. In the 1931 screen version of Booth Tarkington's Penrod and Sam, Coghlan starred as Sam, with Leon Janney playing Penrod. In 1932, Coghlan appeared in the Bette Davis drama Hell's House. Davis played the girlfriend of Pat O'Brien's bootlegger character. Coghlan played the role of Shorty, a sickly boy, sent to a state industrial school where children were forced to work at hard labor, ending up in solitary confinement. Coghlan had another starring role in the 1932 film serial The Last of the Mohicans, based on the James Fennimore Cooper novel. Coghlan played the part of Uncas, the sachem of the Mohegan tribe who through an alliance with the English made the Mohegans the leading regional Indian tribe.
He helped launch the career of Shirley Temple, appearing in a series of short films with her in 1933 and 1934. In the shorts, Coghlan played a star baseball player and high school class president. Temple played Mary Lou; the Coghlan-Temple titles included Merrily Yours, What's to Do?, Pardon My Pups, Managed Money. Coghlan had large roles in other features through the mid 1930s, including Ken
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.
J. Frank Glendon
J. Frank Glendon was an American film actor, he appeared in 79 films between 1915 and 1936. He was born in Choteau and died in Hollywood, California. J. Frank Glendon on IMDb
A reel is an object around which lengths of another material are wound for storage. A reel has a cylindrical core and walls on the sides to retain the material wound around the core. In some cases the core is hollow, although other items may be mounted on it, grips may exist for mechanically turning the reel; the size of the core is dependent on several factors. A smaller core will allow more material to be stored in a given space. However, there is a limit to how the stored material can be wound without damaging it and this limits how small the core can be. Other issues affecting the core size include: Mechanical strength of the core Acceptable turning speed any functional requirements of the core e.g. For a reel that must be mechanically turned the size of the grips that mount it on the mechanical turning device; the size of the mountings needed to support the core during unwinding. Anything mounted on the cores With material such as photographic film, flat and long but is wide, the material is stored in successive single layers.
In cases where the material is more uniform in cross-section, the material may be safely wound around a reel, wider than its width. In this case, several windings are needed to create a layer on the reel. Examples include: A fishing reel is used on a fishing rod to wind the fishing line up Many audio recordings of the late 20th century use reel-to-reel magnetic tape Kite lines are operated from reels Specialized reels for holding tow line for hang glider and sailplane launching Laying of communications table use giant reels Winches wind cables on reels Webbing barriers that allow mobile post positions collect tensionally excess webbing Tow trucks hold steel cable on reels Garden hoses reeled solve hose kink problems Rope and electrical cable is supplied on reels Badge reels are used to hold badges, ski passes and the like A cave diving reel is safety equipment used for running a guideline It is traditional to discuss the length of theatrical motion pictures in terms of "reels"; the standard length of a 35 mm film reel is 1,000 feet, which runs 11 minutes for sound film and about 15 minutes for silent film at the more-or-less standard speed of 16 frames per second.
Most films have visible cues. This allows projectionists running reel-to-reel to change over to the next reel on the other projector. A so-called "two-reeler" would have run about 15–24 minutes since the actual short film shipped to a movie theater for exhibition may have had less than 1,000 ft on it. Most modern projectionists use the term "reel" when referring to a 2,000-foot "two-reeler", as modern films are shipped by single 1,000-foot reels. A standard Hollywood movie averages about five 2,000-foot reels in length; the "reel" was established as a standard measurement because of considerations in printing motion picture film at a film laboratory, for shipping and for the size of the physical film magazine attached to the motion picture projector. Had it not been standardized there would have been many difficulties in the manufacture of the related equipment. A 16 mm "reel" is 400 feet, it runs, at sound speed the same amount of time as a 1,000-foot 35 mm reel. A "split reel" is a motion picture film reel in two halves that, when assembled, hold a specific length of motion picture film, wound on a plastic core.
Using a split reel allows film to be shipped or handled in a lighter and smaller form than film would on a "fixed" reel. In silent film terminology, two films on one reel; as digital cinema catches on, the physical reel is being replaced by a virtual format called Digital Cinema Package, which can be distributed using any storage medium or data transfer medium and projected using a digital projector instead of a conventional movie projector. Actors may submit a demo reel of their work to prospective employers in physical reel format. Spindle Media related to Film reels at Wikimedia Commons
Bertram Grassby was an English actor. He appeared in 96 silent era films between 1914 and 1927. Grassby was married to American actress Gerard Alexander, he was born in Lincolnshire and died in Scottsdale, Arizona. Bertram Grassby on IMDb