Los Angeles Historic Preservation Overlay Zone
The Historic Preservation Overlay Zone of the City of Los Angeles in California has been hailed by historic preservation advocates for its pioneering program, which designates not just buildings but entire neighborhoods or districts as worthy of historic preservation. Most of these districts are areas dominated by Victorian and Craftsman single-family houses, but some are predominantly Mission Revival or Spanish Colonial Revival, one is a mid-century modern area; the current HPOZs in Los Angeles, according to the Los Angeles Conservancy, include: Angelino Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Angelino Heights, Echo Park. Balboa Highlands Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Granada Hills, northern San Fernando Valley Banning Park Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Wilmington Carthay Circle Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Carthay Circle Country Club Park Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Country Club Park Gregory Ain Mar Vista Tract Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Mar Vista Hancock Park Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Hancock Park Harvard Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Harvard Heights Highland Park-Garvanza Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Highland Park-Garvanza Hollywood Grove Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Central Los Angeles Jefferson Park Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Jefferson Park Lafayette Square Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Lafayette Square Lincoln Heights East Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Lincoln Heights Melrose Hill Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Melrose Hill Miracle Mile Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Miracle Mile Miracle Mile North Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Miracle Mile North Pico-Union Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Pico-Union South Carthay Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, South Carthay Spaulding Square Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Spaulding Square Stonehurst Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Sun Valley, northeastern San Fernando Valley University Park Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, University Park Van Nuys Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Van Nuys Vinegar Hill Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, San Pedro, California West Adams Terrace Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, West Adams Western Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Western Heights Whitley Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Whitley Heights, Hollywood Wilshire Park Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Wilshire Park Windsor Square Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Windsor Square Windsor Village Historic Preservation Overlay Zone, Windsor Village For detailed articles about districts, see also: Category: Los Angeles Historic Preservation Overlay Zones.
City of Los Angeles: Historic Preservation Overlay Zones Los Angeles Conservancy: City of Los Angeles Historic Preservation Overlay Zones
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments are sites in Los Angeles, which have been designated by the Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission as worthy of preservation based on architectural and cultural criteria. The Historic-Cultural Monument process has its origin in the Historic Buildings Committee formed in 1958 by the Los Angeles chapter of the American Institute of Architects; as growth and development in Los Angeles threatened the city's historic landmarks, the committee sought to implement a formal preservation program in cooperation with local civic and business organizations and municipal leaders. On April 30, 1962, a historic preservation ordinance proposed by the AIA committee was passed; the original Cultural Heritage Board was formed in the summer of 1962, consisting of William Woollett, FAIA, Bonnie H. Riedel, Carl S. Dentzel, Senaida Sullivan and Edith Gibbs Vaughan; the board met for the first time in August 1962, at a time when the owner of the historic Leonis Adobe was attempting to demolish the structure and replace it with a supermarket.
In its first day of official business, the board designated the Leonis Adobe and four other sites as Historic-Cultural Monuments. The designation of a property as a Historic-Cultural Monument does not prevent demolition or alteration. However, the designation requires permits for demolition or substantial alteration to be presented to the commission; the commission has the power to delay the demolition of a designated property for up to one year. In the commission's first decade of operation, it designated 101 properties as Historic-Cultural Monuments. By March 2010, there were 979 designated properties. Leonis Adobe Bolton Hall 1913 Eastern Columbia Building Griffith Park CBS Columbia Square Studios Historic-Cultural Monuments in Downtown Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments on the East and Northeast Sides Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Harbor area Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood Historic-Cultural Monuments in the San Fernando Valley Historic-Cultural Monuments in Silver Lake, Angelino Heights, Echo Park Historic-Cultural Monuments in South Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments on the Westside Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Wilshire and Westlake areas City of Los Angeles' Historic Preservation Overlay Zones National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles List of California Historical Landmarks Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources: Designated L.
A. Historic-Cultural Monuments website — with'ever-updated' LAHCM List via PDF link. Official Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources website — Homepage Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission website Designated LAHCM Landmarks by Neighborhood — L. A. Department of City Planning website Big Orange Landmarks: "Exploring the Landmarks of Los Angeles, One Monument at a Time" — online photos and in-depth history of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments — Website curator: Floyd B. Bariscale. Big Orange Landmarks: Floyd B. Bariscale's Flickr Photostream — Big Orange Flickr Gallery of L. A. H. C. Monuments
Expo Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Expo Line is a 15.2 mi light rail line that runs between Downtown Los Angeles and Santa Monica. The line is named after Exposition Boulevard, it is one of the six lines in the Metro Rail system, is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Expo Line follows the right-of-way of the former Pacific Electric Santa Monica Air Line. Passenger service ended in 1953. Several Expo Line stations are built in the same location as Air Line stations, although no original station structures have been reused; when the Regional Connector is complete in 2021, the current Expo Line will be joined with the Eastside portion of the Gold Line, the new line will be named E Line. The color will be changed from aqua to gold on maps. An independent agency, the Exposition Metro Line Construction Authority, was given the authority to plan and construct the line by state law in 2003. After construction was completed, the line was handed over on January 15, 2016, to the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority for testing and operation.
The line was built in two phases. Construction began in early 2006 and most stations opened to the public on April 28, 2012; the Culver City and Farmdale stations opened on June 20, 2012. Design and construction on the 6.6-mile portion between Culver City and Santa Monica started in September 2011. Testing along the phase 2 segment began on April 6, 2015, the segment opened on May 20, 2016; the Expo Line operates from 4:30 a.m. to 2:00 a.m. on weekdays and until 2:30 a.m. on Fridays and Saturdays. As of December 2016, trains run every 6 minutes during peak hours, every 12 minutes during middays, every 10 minutes during the evening, every 20 minutes after midnight. Maximum speed on the route is 55 mph: speeds within the city of Los Angeles are reduced; the Expo Line follows right of way used by the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad steam railroad, built in 1875, converted by Pacific Electric to electric traction and operated as the Santa Monica Air Line by 1920, providing both freight and passenger service between Los Angeles and Santa Monica.
Passenger service stopped in 1953 and diesel-powered freight deliveries ended in 1988. Local advocacy groups including Friends 4 Expo Transit supported the successful passage of Proposition C in 1990, which allowed the purchase of the entire right-of-way from Southern Pacific by Metro. Metro released a Major Investment Study in 2000 which compared bus rapid transit and light rail transit options along what was now known as the "Mid-City/Exposition Corridor"; the Culver City and Farmdale stations opened on June 20, 2012. Design and construction of the 6.6-mile portion between Culver City and Santa Monica started in September 2011. Testing along the phase 2 segment began on April 6, 2015, the segment opened on May 20, 2016; the Regional Connector is an under-construction light-rail subway corridor through Downtown Los Angeles, to connect the current Blue and Expo Lines to the current Gold Line, to allow a seamless one-seat ride between the Blue and Expo lines' current 7th Street/Metro Center terminus and Union Station.
Once the Regional Connector is completed, the Blue and Gold Lines will be simplified into two rail lines: a north-south line connecting Long Beach and Azusa, an east-west line connecting Santa Monica and East Los Angeles. Beginning in 2019, Metro will commence using a renaming system where each rail and bus rapid transit line will receive a letter and color; as a result, the Santa Monica-East L. A. line will be designated as E Line, retaining the "E" from the Expo gold coloring. The groundbreaking for the construction of the Regional Connector took place on September 30, 2014, the alignment is expected to be in public service by late 2021. By the summer of 2019, the northern half of the Metro Blue Line will be closed; the Expo Line will terminate at 23rd Street. The following is the complete list of stations from Downtown Los Angeles traveling west; the light rail vehicles used on the Expo Line were maintained at the division 11 yard in Long Beach, the same maintenance facility, used by the Blue Line.
However, the new division 14 yard, located east of Stewart Street and north of Exposition Boulevard in the vicinity of the 26th Street/Bergamot station in Santa Monica, was opened with the completion of Phase 2. Compatible with the rest of Metro's light-rail network, the Expo Line shares standard Metro light rail vehicles with the Blue Line. Metro estimates that it has 47 light rail cars to provide service on the Expo Line under the peak-hour assumption of 3-car trains running at 6-minute headways. Upon completion of Phase 2, it is expected that new P3010 light rail vehicles from Kinki Sharyo, that were ordered by the L. A. Metro board of directors in 2012, will begin operation, replacing the current LRVs in operation on the Expo Line; the Expo Line Bikeway parallels the route of the light rail line, includes a mixture of bike lanes on Exposition Boulevard and off-street paths alongside the rail tracks. On March 28, 2015, an Expo Line train collided with an automobile at an intersection causing the train to derail, injuring 12.
On December 10, 2015, a truck made an illegal left turn and collided with a test train in Santa Monica
Little Ethiopia, Los Angeles
For the area of Washington D. C. known as Little Ehtiopia see Shaw, Washington, D. C.#Little Ethiopia Little Ethiopia is located in the Mid-Wilshire District of Central Los Angeles. It is known for its collection of Ethiopian restaurants, coffee shops and thrift stores; the neighborhood is home to The Little Ethiopia Cultural and Resource Center, located at 1037 South Fairfax Avenue. Little Ethiopia is located on Fairfax Avenue between Olympic Boulevard and Whitworth Drive in Los Angeles, California, it is located northeast of Faircrest Heights, northwest of Picfair Village, east of Carthay Square and west of Wilshire Vista. The area has a high concentration of Ethiopian businesses and restaurants, as well as a significant concentration of residents of Ethiopian and Eritrean ancestry. Little Ethiopia dates back to the early 1990s; this stretch of Fairfax Avenue used to be occupied by Jewish businesses, as the Fairfax District to the north is now. In the 1990s, the neighborhood was referred to as "Little Addis"-- named for Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa.
In 2002, the city bestowed the name "Little Ethiopia" on the neighborhood
La Cienega Boulevard
La Cienega Boulevard is a major north–south arterial road that runs between El Segundo Boulevard in Hawthorne, California on the south and the Sunset Strip/Sunset Boulevard in West Hollywood to the north. It was named for Rancho Las Cienegas "The Ranch Of The Swamps," an area of marshland south of Rancho La Brea. From south of Fairview and from north of Rodeo Road, La Cienega Boulevard is a regular surface street and one of Hollywood's major thoroughfares. Offices for A&E Network, The History Channel and the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences are located on La Cienega as are the studios of Citadel Broadcasting flagships KABC and KLOS, two of Los Angeles' biggest radio stations. A portion of La Cienega in and adjacent to Beverly Hills is known as "Restaurant Row" for its large number of upscale restaurants. South of Olympic, La Cienega runs through the Pico-Robertson and Crestview neighborhoods in West Los Angeles into Culver City and is known for its large number of automotive-related business including several used car dealerships and many body shops and auto mechanics.
It continues south passing Interstate 10, the Metro Expo Line. It is unusual among Southern California roadways to be built to freeway standards. South of Interstate 10, La Cienega was built to freeway standards in the late 1940s as part of the proposed Laurel Canyon Freeway, part of State Route 170; the SR 170 freeway was never completed south of U. S. Route 101, the stretch of La Cienega from just north of Fairview Blvd in Inglewood, through Baldwin Hills and along the Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area to Rodeo Road in Los Angeles is a divided, limited access highway with few traffic signals; as such, emergency call boxes like those found along the area's freeways were installed along that stretch in the early 1970s. South of Fairview Blvd, La Cienega runs parallel to the 405 freeway and terminates at El Segundo Boulevard in Del Aire along the west side of the freeway. A non-contiguous segment named La Cienega Blvd runs along the East side of the 405 freeway between El Segundo Blvd and Rosecrans Avenue in Wiseburn, another unincorporated area adjacent to Del Aire.
The area of La Cienega Boulevard, from Beverly Boulevard to Santa Monica Boulevard, its satellite streets is known as the La Cienega Design Quarter. Its shops and galleries house many antiques, rugs and art. Art dealer Felix Landau operated his trend-setting gallery there in the 1960s. La Cienega in Beverly Hills, north of Wilshire Boulevard, is known as Restaurant Row because it features many upscale restaurants. From Wilshire in Beverly Hills traveling north the best known establishments include Benihana, The Stinking Rose, the original Lawry's the Prime Rib, Tokyo Table - Tokyo City Cuisine, Fogo de Chão, Gyu-Kaku, Woo Lae Oak, The Bazaar by José Andrés, Morton's. La Cienega Boulevard is named after Rancho Las Cienegas Mexican land grant in the region now called "West Los Angeles." The Spanish phrase la ciénaga translates into English as "the swamp" and the area named "Las Ciénegas" was a continual marshland due to the course of the Los Angeles River through that area prior to a massive southerly shift in 1825 to its present course.
The difference in spelling in Los Angeles between the Castilian Spanish word ciénaga and the name of the thoroughfare, common in other Iberian languages like Extremaduran, originated with the name of the rancho. Metro Local lines 105 and 217, Metro Rapid line 705 run on La Cienega Boulevard. An elevated light rail station for the Metro Expo Line is located at Jefferson Boulevard. An underground station for the Metro Purple Line at Wilshire Boulevard is under construction and is due to open in 2023; the entire route is in Los Angeles County. Southern California Unsigned Freeways – La Cienega Boulevard La Cienega Design Quarter
Brookside, Los Angeles
Brookside is a neighborhood in Los Angeles, California. It is an enclave of 400 homes. Brookside is located between Olympic and Wilshire Boulevards, includes the homes on both sides of, between, Highland Ave. and Muirfield Ave. There is a natural stream -- the Arroyo de los Jardines -- that runs through Brookside and on to Baldwin Hills and flows into Ballona Creek. According to Mapping L. A. it is located in the Mid-Wilshire district. Brookside, a neighborhood of predominantly large, single family homes, was developed by the Rimpau Estate Co. in 1920. The area — called Wilshire Crest — was built to lure wealthy families from the West Adams District. On October 28, 2015, the Los Angeles City Council unanimously passed a motion to establish an Interim Control Ordinance for the Brookside and Sycamore Square neighborhoods to help prevent residential teardowns and the construction of oversized replacement homes as the city re-works its Baseline Mansionization Ordinance
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau; this includes people who indicate their race on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U. S. population, while people who are Asian alone, those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%. Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups prohibiting all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were referred to as Oriental and Mongoloid. Additionally, the American definition of'Asian' included West Asian ethnic groups Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American; the term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s. Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is shortened to Asian in common usage. The most used definition of Asian American is the U. S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent; this is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds; this differs from the U. S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian". In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race.
As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa. In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian Americans had been classified as "other". In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; the definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts.
Immigration status, citizenship and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U. S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of'Asian American' frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, why... the possible definitions of'Asian-Pacific American' are many and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, as an identity is "in beta".
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctn