Orlando Sanford International Airport
Orlando Sanford International Airport is in Sanford, near Orlando. It was built as Naval Air Station Sanford, a Master Jet Base for carrier-based attack and reconnaissance aircraft until 1969; the airport is operated by the Sanford Airport Authority. Due to flight training, the airport is in the top 30 busiest airports in the world in terms of total flight operations, it is the Orlando area's secondary commercial airport, but is farther away from downtown Orlando and the major theme parks than the primary airport, Orlando International Airport. Because of that affiliation, passenger traffic at Orlando Sanford International Airport was once dominated by European charter carrier service. Since 2008, however, a majority of its passenger traffic has been domestic. Sanford was a small focus city for the travel marketer Direct Air until the company's demise in 2012. Orlando Sanford International Airport started life as Naval Air Station Sanford with the airport codes NRJ and KNRJ. Commissioned on November 3, 1942, the base concentrated on advanced land-based patrol plane training.
It was used by the U. S. Navy until it closed in 1969; the City of Sanford assumed control of the former NAS Sanford in 1969 and renamed the facility Sanford Airport, hiring the air station's retired Executive Officer, Commander J. S. "Red" Cleveland, USN, as the first Airport Manager. The city concurrently established the Sanford Airport Authority. For the next twenty-five years, the airport was a general aviation facility and periodically hosted civilian/military air shows and static displays. An uncontrolled airfield, the control tower was reactivated in the early 1970s as a non-FAA facility, employing a number of retired enlisted Navy air traffic controllers who had served at NAS Sanford. Additional name changes followed, to include Sanford Regional Airport, Central Florida Regional Airport, Orlando Sanford Regional Airport and the current Orlando Sanford International Airport. Through the 1980s and 1990s the oldest Navy buildings were demolished while those built in the 1950s and 1960s were renovated for civil use.
New buildings and hangars were added. OLF Osceola was transferred to the control of Seminole County, Florida but was never recommissioned as an active airfield. In the 1970s the former OLF began to be used by general aviation drug-smuggling aircraft as a transshipment point. Following a major drug interdiction by local and federal law enforcement agencies, Seminole County placed large speed bumps at various intervals across the runway to deter future illegal use. By the 1980s the county began to use the site as a landfill and dump, demolishing the remaining runways. In 1992 parts of the action film Passenger 57, starring Wesley Snipes, were filmed at the then-Orlando Sanford Regional Airport, where it represented a small airport in Louisiana. Shortly after filming, a new control tower was built and air traffic control operations assumed by the FAA; the Navy control tower and the large Navy hangar to which it was attached were demolished. In the mid-1990s a new passenger terminal capable of accommodating jet airliners was built.
Charter airlines catering to the heavy British tourist demographic, using Orlando International Airport were offered reduced landing fees at Sanford, therefore many carriers relocated their operations. In 2010 Allegiant Air announced it was moving many flights to the larger and more centrally located Orlando International Airport in order to compete with AirTran Airways. Owing to passenger feedback, all flights have returned to Orlando Sanford. In 2014 Thomas Cook Airlines moved back to the larger Orlando International Airport after a decade of serving Orlando Sanford with the operations of Airtours, JMC Air & My Travel. Icelandair moved to Orlando International Airport in 2015. In March 2015, Monarch ceased all longhaul operations, therefore resulting in the termination of all flights to Sanford; this was completed to approach a budget-airline model within Europe, despite Monarch's many years of charter service. The service, offered included an economy cabin, this ticket included in-flight meals and entertainment from the overhead screens, with premium economy featuring more legroom, seatback entertainment, baggage allowance and amenity kit.
All services were operated using the Airbus A330 and served London Gatwick and Glasgow International. From 2017, Thomson Airways will operate 9 UK routes, the most international routes from Sanford and the airline now operates long haul flights from the most UK airports. Thomson's new airport is Bristol; the airport is home to Aerosim Flight Academy Delta Connection Academy, a subsidiary of Delta Air Lines, which provides ab initio flight training for prospective regional airline and international pilots. The Seminole County Sheriff's Office has a hangar and support facility for aviation elements of the agency's Special Operations Division; the airport covers 3,000 acres and has four runways: Runway 9L/27R: 11,002 x 150 ft. Asphalt Runway 9C/27C: 3,578 x 75 ft. Asphalt Runway 9R/27L: 6,647 x 75 ft. Asphalt Runway 18/36: 6,002 x 150 ft. Asphalt/ConcreteThe dominant runway is 9L/27R; this was built from the naval air station's original Runway 9/27, 8,000 ft x 200 ft with overruns of 2,145 ft and 1,985 ft.
A project to extended runway 9L/27R by 1,400 ft to 11,000 ft was completed on April 1, 2013. Paralle
TransMeridian Airlines was an Atlanta, Georgia based charter airline, operating under U. S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Regulations Part 121, it ceased all operations on September 29, 2005, after negotiations with creditors to restructure its debt failed. The scheduled charter airline was founded in 1995. TransMeridian flew on behalf of the nation’s largest tour operators from the upper Midwest and Northeast to points in the Caribbean and Mexico, but expanded to operate its own branded scheduled charter service with an additional focus on Florida destinations. At its peak, it had 7 Boeing 11 Airbus A320, 7 Boeing 757 and 7 MD-80 aircraft in service. Over its 10-year history, TransMeridian had safely carried well over one million passengers to over 150 destinations within the United States, South America and the Caribbean. At the time of its closing, TransMeridian operated a domestic hub operation from Orlando Sanford International Airport with service to Syracuse, NY, Rockford, IL, Allentown, PA, Harrisburg, PA, Toledo, OH, Belleville, IL, Louisville, KY, Cincinnati, OH and Las Vegas, NV.
International TMA destinations included Costa Rica. In 2004, Senator John Kerry used a chartered Boeing 757 from TransMeridian for his 2004 presidential campaign; the airline ceased all operations. McDonnell Douglas MD-80: 5 MD-82: 4 MD-83: 1 Boeing 757-200: 6
St. Clair County, Illinois
St. Clair County is the oldest county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 United States Census, it had a population of 270,056, making it the eighth-most populous county in Illinois and the most populous in the southern portion of the state, its county seat is Belleville. The county was founded in 1790 by the government of the Northwest Territory, before the establishment of Illinois as a state. Cahokia Village in the county was founded in 1697 and was a French settlement and former Jesuit mission. St. Clair County is part of the American Bottom or Metro-East area of the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1970, the United States Census Bureau placed the mean center of U. S. population in St. Clair County; this area was occupied for thousands of years by cultures of indigenous peoples. The first modern explorers and colonists of the area were French and French Canadians, founding a mission settlement in 1697 now known as Cahokia Village. After Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War in 1763 and absorbed its territory in North America east of the Mississippi River, British-American colonists began to move into the area.
Many ethnic and Catholic French moved to settlements west of the river rather than live under British Protestant rule. After the United States achieved independence in the late 18th century, St. Clair County was the first county established in present-day Illinois; the county was established in 1790 by a proclamation of Arthur St. Clair, first governor of the Northwest Territory, who named it after himself; the original boundary of St. Clair county covered a large area between the Ohio rivers. In 1801, Governor William Henry Harrison re-established St. Clair County as part of the Indiana Territory, extending its northern border to Lake Superior and the international border with Rupert's Land; when the Illinois Territory was created in 1809, Territorial Secretary Nathaniel Pope, in his capacity as acting governor, issued a proclamation establishing St. Clair and Randolph County as the two original counties of Illinois. Developed for agriculture, this area became industrialized and urbanized in the area of East St. Louis, Illinois, a city that developed on the east side of the Mississippi River from St. Louis, Missouri.
It was always influenced by actions of businessmen from St. Louis, who were French Creole fur traders with western trading networks. In the 19th century, industrialists from St. Louis put coal plants and other heavy industry on the east side of the river, developing East St. Louis. Coal from southern mines was transported on the river to East St. Louis fed by barge to St. Louis furnaces as needed. After bridges spanned the river, industry expanded. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the cities attracted immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and from the South. In 1910 there were 6,000 African Americans in the city. With the Great Migration underway from the rural South, to leave behind Jim Crow and disenfranchisement, by 1917, the African-American population in East St. Louis had doubled. Whites were hired first and given higher–paying jobs, but there were still opportunities for American blacks. If hired as strikebreakers, they were resented by white workers, both groups competed for jobs and limited housing in East St. Louis.
The city had not been able to keep up with the rapid growth of population. The United States was developing war industries to support its eventual entry into the Great War, now known as World War I. In February 1917 tensions in the city arose. Employers fiercely resisted union organizing, sometimes with violence. In this case they hired hundreds of blacks as strikebreakers. White workers complained to the city council about this practice in late May. Rumors circulated about an armed African American man robbing a white man, whites began to attack blacks on the street; the governor ordered in the National Guard and peace seemed restored by early June. "On July 1, a white man in a Ford shot into black homes. Armed African-Americans gathered in the area and shot into another oncoming Ford, killing two men who turned out to be police officers investigating the shooting." Word spread and whites gathered at the Labor Temple. From July 1 through July 3, 1917, the East St. Louis riots engulfed the city, with whites attacking blacks throughout the city, pulling them from streetcars and hanging them, burning their houses.
During this period, some African Americans tried to use boats to get to safety. The official death toll was 39 blacks and nine whites, but some historians believe more blacks were killed; because the riots were racial terrorism, the Equal Justice Initiative has included these deaths among the lynchings of African Americans in the state of Illinois in its 2017 3rd edition of its report, Lynching in America. The riots had disrupted East St. Louis, which had seemed to be on the rise as a flourishing industrial city. In addition to the human toll, they cost $400,000 in property damage, they have been described as among the worst labor and race-related riots in United States history, they devastated the African-American community. Rebuilding was difficult as workers were being drafted to fight in World War I; when the veterans returned, they struggled to find jobs and re-enter the economy, which had to shift down to peacetime. In the late 20th c
An orthophoto, orthophotograph or orthoimage is an aerial photograph or satellite imagery geometrically corrected such that the scale is uniform: the photo or image has follows a given map projection. Unlike an uncorrected aerial photograph, an orthophoto can be used to measure true distances, because it is an accurate representation of the Earth's surface, having been adjusted for topographic relief, lens distortion, camera tilt. Orthophotographs are used in geographic information systems as a "map accurate" background image. An orthorectified image differs from "rubber sheeted" rectifications as the latter may locate a number of points on each image but "stretch" the area between so scale may not be uniform across the image. A digital elevation model is required to create an accurate orthophoto as distortions in the image due to the varying distance between the camera/sensor and different points on the ground need to be corrected. An orthoimage and a "rubber sheeted" image can both be said to have been "georeferenced" however the overall accuracy of the rectification varies.
Software can display the orthophoto and allow an operator to digitize or place linework, text annotations or geographic symbols. Some software can produce the linework automatically. Production of orthophotos was achieved using mechanical devices. An orthophotomosaic is a raster image made by merging orthophotos — aerial or satellite photographs which have been transformed to correct for perspective so that they appear to have been taken from vertically above at an infinite distance. Google Earth images are of this type; the document representing an orthophotomosaic with additional marginal information like a title, north arrow, scale bar and cartographical information is called an orthophotomap or image map. These maps show additional point, line or polygon layers on top of the orthophotomosaic. A similar document used for disaster relief, is called a spatiomap. Aerial Photography Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle and Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangle Leica Photogrammetry Suite Orthorectification Software GRASS GIS Photogrammetry Photomapping TopoFlight Socet set Orthophoto Software U.
S. Geological Survey Rational Polynomial Coefficient Bolstad, P. GIS Fundamentals: A First Text on Geographic Information Systems, Eider Press, White Bear Lake, MN, 2nd ed. Demers, Michael N.. Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, John Wiley & Sons. Fernandez, E. Garfinkel, R. & Roman Arbiol. "Mosaicking of Aerial Photographic Maps Via Seams Defined by Bottleneck Shortest Paths". Operations Research. 46: 293–304. Doi:10.1287/opre.46.3.293. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter. Petrie, G. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers: Orthophotomaps New Series, vol. 2, no.1, Contemporary Cartography. Pg. 49-70 Robinson, A. H. Morrison, J. L. Muehrcke, P. C. Kimerling, A. J. Stephen Guptill, Elements of Cartography: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Canada, 6th ed. United States Geological Survey, US Department of Interior, USGS Fact Sheet May 2001 http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/factsheets/fs05701.html United States Geological Survey National Digital Orthophoto Programs - Original Site via Wayback Machine National Digital Orthoimagery Program National Digital Orthoimagery Program Subcommittee
Allegiant Air is an American discount airline that operates scheduled and charter flights. As a major air carrier, it is the ninth-largest commercial airline in the US, it is wholly owned by Allegiant Travel Company, a publicly traded company with 4,000 employees and over US$2.6 billion market capitalization. The corporate headquarters are in a suburb of Las Vegas. Allegiant Air was founded in January 1997 by Mitch Allee, Jim Patterson and Dave Beadle, under the name WestJet Express. After losing a trademark dispute with West Jet Air Center of Rapid City, South Dakota and recognizing the name's similarity to WestJet Airlines of Canada, the airline adopted the name Allegiant Air and received FAA and DOT certification for scheduled and charter domestic operations on June 19, 1998; the airline has authority for charter service to Canada and Mexico. Scheduled service began on October 15, 1998, between Las Vegas and the airline's original hub in Fresno, California, at the Fresno Yosemite International Airport, with Douglas DC-9-21 and McDonnell Douglas DC-9-51 jetliners.
During the second half of 1999, the airline was operating nonstop flights between Fresno and Las Vegas and Lake Tahoe, Las Vegas and Lake Tahoe as well as flying one-stop direct service between Fresno and Lake Tahoe via Las Vegas. Shortly after WinAir Airlines closed in 1999, Allegiant Air opened a small hub in Long Beach, CA and in 2000 was operating nonstop flights to Fresno and Las Vegas in addition to Fresno-Las Vegas nonstop service. In 2000, Allegiant continued to expand and was operating the only nonstop jet service between Lake Tahoe Airport from Long Beach in addition to operating new flights into Portland and Reno with Portland-Reno and Reno-Fresno nonstops and direct one-stop service between Portland and Fresno via Reno. Citing higher fuel costs as a major factor, Allegiant filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 2000; the bankruptcy allowed Maurice J. Gallagher Jr. one of the airline's major creditors, to gain control of the business. A veteran leader of low-cost airlines, Gallagher had worked with WestAir and as CEO of ValuJet Airlines.
In June 2001, Gallagher restructured Allegiant to a low-cost model, focusing on smaller markets that larger airlines did not serve with mainline aircraft. Allegiant's headquarters and operations were moved to Las Vegas. In the fall of 2001, Allegiant exited bankruptcy and the case was closed in early 2002. In March 2002, Allegiant entered into a long-term contract with Harrah's to provide charter services to its casinos in Laughlin and Reno, Nevada. At the same time, the airline acquired its first McDonnell Douglas MD-80 jetliner. From 2002 through 2004, the airline developed its scheduled-service business model. By 2004, Allegiant was flying from 13 small cities to Las Vegas offering bundled air and hotel packages. In May 2005, the airline's holding company, Allegiant Travel, completed a private equity placement worth $39.5 million, funded by the investment firms of ComVest and Irelandia II. In November 2006, Allegiant filed a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission in anticipation of a planned initial public offering of its Common Stock.
It raised $94.5 million in equity capital with 5.75 million shares worth $18 each. It began trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the ticker symbol "ALGT" in December 2006. On October 25, 2007, the airline opened a fourth focus city and operations base at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport in Mesa, connecting 13 cities served by Allegiant and one new city to the Phoenix metropolitan area; the airport announced a 10,000-square-foot expansion in August 2008, which increased the number of gates from two to four and allowed Allegiant to triple the number of flights from Phoenix. The expansion was funded by a loan from Allegiant. On November 14, 2007, Allegiant opened its fifth focus city and operations base at Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, connecting other Allegiant cities to South Florida. In January 2008, Allegiant opened its sixth base at Washington's Bellingham International Airport; the airline bases two McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft in Bellingham as part of the expansion.
Routes served from Bellingham include Las Vegas, Palm Springs, San Diego, San Francisco and Phoenix. Expansion in Bellingham has been driven by its proximity to Greater Vancouver, British Columbia. In January 2010, the airline celebrated its one-millionth passenger to fly out of Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport. Allegiant's parent company announced that it had purchased 18 new MD-80 aircraft from Scandinavian Airlines. In February 2010, Allegiant opened its ninth base at Grand Rapids' Gerald R. Ford International Airport in Michigan; the airline based two McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft in Grand Rapids, but ended their airport's status in 2011. The airline continues to fly out of Grand Rapids in a reduced capacity. On July 1, 2010 Allegiant returned to Long Beach Airport in Long Beach, California having served LGB with DC-9 jets with nonstop flights to Las Vegas and Lake Tahoe in 2000; the airline intended to fly from Bellingham International Airport and Stockton several times a week. In November 2011, Allegiant closed its Long Beach facility and consolidated all Los Angeles area flights at Los Angeles International.
In March 2010, Allegiant purchased six used Boeing 757-200 jetliners as part of plans to begin flights to Hawaii, with deliveries from earl
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
McCarran International Airport
McCarran International Airport is the primary commercial airport serving the Las Vegas Valley, a major metropolitan area in the U. S. state of Nevada. It is in Paradise, about 5 miles south of Downtown Las Vegas; the airport is operated by the Clark County Department of Aviation. It is named after the late U. S. Senator Pat McCarran, a member of the Democratic Party who contributed to the development of aviation both in Las Vegas and on a national scale. LAS covers 2,800 acres of land; the airport was built in 1942 and opened to commercial flights in 1948. It has undergone significant expansion since and has employed various innovative technologies, such as common-use facilities; the airport consists of four runways and two passenger terminals: Terminal 1 and Terminal 3. Terminal 1 is composed of four concourses, namely the A, B, C, D Gates. A people mover system is in place between the post-security area of Terminal 1 and the C and D Gates, as well as between the D Gates and Terminal 3. East of the passenger terminals is the Marnell Air Cargo Center, on the west side of the airports are facilities for fixed-base operators and helicopter companies.
McCarran received over 45,300,000 passengers in 2015, a 5.8% increase over the previous year but still below pre-recession levels. It is the 30th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic and the 8th busiest by aircraft movements; the airport has nonstop air service to destinations in North America and Asia. It is an operating base for Allegiant Air, as well as a crew and maintenance base for Frontier Airlines, Southwest Airlines, Spirit Airlines. Prior to McCarran Airport, the first airport to serve Las Vegas was Anderson Field, opened in November 1920 southeast of present-day Sahara Ave and Paradise Rd. Purchased by the Rockwell brothers in 1925, the airfield was renamed Rockwell Field, Western Air Express introduced commercial air service in April 1926; when the brothers sold Rockwell Field and the new owner canceled WAE's lease, the airline had to look for another airport. Local businessman P. A. Simon had built an airfield northeast of the city, now known as Nellis Air Force Base, to which WAE relocated in November 1929.
Despite rising traffic to Las Vegas, WAE reduced service to the city amid the Great Depression. Once its financial situation improved, the airline bought the airfield and established a monopoly on flights; when the city attempted to purchase the field and build a more modern terminal, WAE refused. With the advent of World War II, however, WAE was pressured to sell the airfield. Nevada Senator Pat McCarran helped obtain federal funding for the city to buy the field and construct a new terminal, he helped establish a gunnery school by the United States Army Air Corps at the field. For the senator's contributions, the airport was named McCarran Field in 1941. A third airfield, Alamo Field, was established in 1942 by aviator George Crockett south of the city of Las Vegas, at the present location of McCarran Airport; as the Army sought to open a local base at the site of McCarran Field, Clark County purchased Alamo Field from Crockett in order to relocate commercial air traffic. Alamo Field became the new McCarran Field on December 19, 1948.
The opening of this new airfield broke Western Air Express' monopoly on flights to Las Vegas, allowing other airlines to serve the market. Meanwhile, the Army reopened its base at the original McCarran Field in 1949 and named it Nellis Air Force Base in 1950. In its first year of operation, McCarran Field served over 35,000 passengers; as the Las Vegas casino industry grew and air travel became more popular during the 1950s, passenger traffic to the airfield rose with 959,603 passengers transiting through it in 1959. To cope with the increase, airport officials began planning a new passenger terminal. While the original terminal was located on Las Vegas Boulevard, the new terminal was built on Paradise Road; the terminal, whose design was inspired by the TWA Flight Center in New York City, opened on March 15, 1963. The airport was renamed McCarran International Airport in September 1968. Further expansion took place between 1974 with the construction of the A and B gates. Prior to deregulation, the airport had four dominant carriers: United and TWA served both coasts nonstop from Las Vegas, while Western and Hughes Airwest provided service to destinations in the western US.
After the airline industry was deregulated in 1978, the number of airlines serving McCarran doubled from seven to fourteen in only two years. New entrants by 1979 included American and Continental. In response, the county launched an expansion plan named McCarran 2000, detailing expansion projects to be undertaken into the year 2000. Expanded baggage claim facilities, an esplanade, a parking garage were inaugurated in 1985; the C Gates and the first line of the people mover system followed in 1987. Further expansion took place during the 1990s; the Charter/International Terminal renamed Terminal 2, was opened in December 1991 to handle rising international traffic to Las Vegas. An additional, nine-story parking garage and an underground tunnel linking the Las Vegas Beltway to the airport were constructed as well. In June 1998, the southwest and southeast wings of the D Gates were opened. During the late 1990s, the airport focused on attracting foreign airlines. In 1994, Condor Flugdienst began charter flights from Germany, launching scheduled service from Cologne and Frankfurt in 1997.
Northwest Airlines and Japan Airlines introduced flights from Tokyo in 1998, Virgin Atlantic began flying from London–Gatwick in 2000. In 1997, the airport introduced Common Use Terminal Equipment, becoming the first