Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the term is equivalent to the term Midgard of Norse mythology, describing the human-inhabited world, that is, the central continent of the Earth in Tolkien's imagined mythological past. Tolkien's most read works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, take place in Middle-earth, Middle-earth has become a short-hand to refer to the legendarium and Tolkien's fictional take on the world. Within his stories, Tolkien translated the name "Middle-earth" as Endor and Ennor in the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin sometimes referring only to the continent that the stories take place on, with another southern continent called the Dark Land. Middle-earth is the north continent of Earth in an imaginary period of the Earth's past, in the sense of a "secondary or sub-creational reality", its general position is reminiscent of Europe, with the environs of the Shire intended to be reminiscent of England. Tolkien's stories chronicle the struggle to control the world and the continent of Middle-earth: on one side, the angelic Valar, the Elves and their allies among Men.
In ages, after Morgoth's defeat and expulsion from Arda, his place was taken by his lieutenant Sauron. The Valar withdrew from direct involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth after the defeat of Morgoth, but in years they sent the wizards or Istari to help in the struggle against Sauron; the most important wizards were Gandalf the Saruman the White. Gandalf proved crucial in the fight against Sauron. Saruman, became corrupted and sought to establish himself as a rival to Sauron for absolute power in Middle-earth. Other races involved in the struggle against evil were Dwarves and most famously Hobbits; the early stages of the conflict are chronicled in The Silmarillion, while the final stages of the struggle to defeat Sauron are told in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings. Conflict over the possession and control of precious or magical objects is a recurring theme in the stories; the First Age is dominated by the doomed quest of the elf Fëanor and most of his Noldorin clan to recover three precious jewels called the Silmarils that Morgoth stole from them.
The Second and Third Age are dominated by the forging of the Rings of Power, the fate of the One Ring forged by Sauron, which gives its wearer the power to control or influence those wearing the other Rings of Power. In ancient Germanic mythology, the world of Men is known by several names, such as Midgard, Middenheim and Middengeard; the Old English middangeard descends from an earlier Germanic word and so has cognates in languages related to Old English such as the Old Norse word Miðgarðr from Norse mythology, transliterated to modern English as Midgard. The term "Middle-earth", it is found throughout the Modern English period as a development of the Middle English word middel-erde, which developed in turn, through a process of folk etymology, from middanġeard. By the time of the Middle English period, middangeard was being written as middellærd, midden-erde, or middel-erde, indicating that the second element had been reinterpreted, based on its similarity to the word for "earth"; the shift in meaning was not great, however: middangeard properly meant "middle enclosure" instead of "middle-earth".
Tolkien first encountered the term middangeard in an Old English fragment he studied in 1914: Éala éarendel engla beorhtast / ofer middangeard monnum sended. Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / above the middle-earth sent unto men; this quote is from the second of the fragmentary remnants of the Crist poems by Cynewulf. The name Éarendel was the inspiration for Tolkien's mariner Eärendil, who set sail from the lands of Middle-earth to ask for aid from the angelic powers, the Valar. Tolkien's earliest poem about Eärendil, from 1914, the same year he read the Crist poems, refers to "the mid-world's rim"; the concept of middangeard was considered by Tolkien to be the same as a particular usage of the Greek word οἰκουμένη - oikoumenē. In this usage Tolkien says that the oikoumenē is "the abiding place of men". Tolkien wrote: Middle-earth is... not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration... of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the oikoumene: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and between ice of the North and the fire of the South.
O. English middan-geard, mediaeval E. midden-erd, middle-erd. Many reviewers seem to assume. However, the term "Middle-earth" is not found in Tolkien's earliest writings about Middle-earth, dating from the early 1920s and published in The Book of Lost Tales. Nor is the term used in The Hobbit. Tolkien began to use the term "Middle-earth" in the late 1930s, in place of the earlier terms "Great Lands", "Outer Lands", "Hither Lands"
The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game
The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game is an out-of-print collectible card game produced by Decipher, Inc. Released November 2001, it is based on Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and the J. R. R. Tolkien novel on which the films were based. Decipher had the rights to The Hobbit novel but did not release any cards based on it. In addition to images taken from the films, in 2004 Weta Workshop produced artwork depicting characters and items from the novel absent from the films for use on cards; the game has an online version that maintains identical gameplay as well as a market economy. However, since the game's print run has ended, sales for online cards have been stopped and the servers closed in June 2010. In 2002, LOTR TCG won the Origins Awards for Best Trading Card Game of 2001 and Best Graphic Presentation of a Card Game 2001; the Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game is a game for two or more players, each of who uses his or her own deck consisting of equal numbers of Free Peoples and Shadow cards, with a minimum of 30 of each.
On a player's turn they are considered to be the Free Peoples player and their Fellowship and Free Peoples cards both in their Support Area and on their characters are active. A player uses his Free Peoples cards to attempt to traverse the site-path and destroy the One Ring by reaching the ninth site; each of his or her opponents, the Shadow Players, use their Shadow cards to prevent this by attempting to kill or corrupt the ring-bearer, or by forcing the Fellowship to slow down long enough for their Fellowship to race to victory. At the end of each turn the position of Free Peoples player rotates to the next player in turn; the game is won by the first Free Peoples player to survive to the ninth, final, site or the last player whose Fellowship is left alive or when you corrupt the opposing fellowships ring-bearer. An innovative mechanic called; each card has a numerical cost. When the Free Peoples player plays a card, tokens are added to the twilight pool equal to the cost of that card; the Shadow players, remove twilight tokens equal to the twilight cost of their cards in order to play their cards.
Thus the more powerful cards the Fellowship the Free Peoples player plays, the greater the threat from the Shadow players. Throughout a game, a player will play companions to help defend the ring-bearer; when it is his turn to play as the Shadow player, he can play minions to attack the opponents companions. The Free People's player has the opportunity to choose which of his companions will fight in one-to-one duels, called skirmishes, with the opponents minions; this is called assignment. Since the Free Peoples player wants to defend his ring-bearer, the only way a Shadow player can attack the Free Peoples player is by playing more minions than the Free Peoples player has companions, thus allowing the Shadow player to assign extra minions to any companion he chooses, including the ring-bearer, or by using minions whose game text allows the Shadow player to assign them to the ring-bearer. However, the Ring-bearer does not only face minions on his journey to destroy the Ring; the Ring-bearer has to resist the temptation of the Ring.
In the trading card game, when the ring-bearer succumbs to the temptation of the Ring, burdens are added. Each companion has a given resistance stat, whenever a burden is added, each companion's resistance is lowered by one. Once the ring-bearer's resistance reaches zero, he is corrupted by the power of the ring and the player is eliminated from the game. In July 2002, the first pro tour event was held at Origins Game Fair in Columbus, Ohio and it was won by John Lolli. 212 players participated in the event, first place was $2,500. Christopher Schaut finished in 2nd place winning $1,000. Lolli used a unique deck designed to pass the ring from Frodo to Sam, deny twilight to its opponent. All of the top players were using banned card called The Mirror of Galadriel, Lolli used that strategy against his opponents designing a Minion half of the deck to counteract it; as the game expanded, several basic deck strategies were developed. As decks are separated into Shadow and Free People sides, the two sides are to some extent interchangeable, but the best decks contain some synergy between both types of cards.
For the Free Peoples side, the most common strategies are tank, minion wounding and mass healing. Tank Tank decks try to play as much as possible and build up as many companions to combat the opponents Shadow side with force. Choke Choke decks, the opposite of tank decks, try to put out as little twilight as possible, denying the opponent resources to play their minions, clogging their hand with unplayable Shadow cards, thus hampering set up of their Fellowship. Archery/Minion Wounding Minion wounding decks try to use "archery fire" and direct wounding to destroy the minions before they have a chance to attack. Mass Healing Mass healing decks rely on cards that heal companions, under the theory that if the Free People's removal of wounds can out-pace the Shadow player's placement of wounds, the Fellowship will be unkillable.'Refuge', a card from the set Black Rider is critical to most of these decktypes, as it allows the player to cycle his Free Peoples side while healing his or her companions in order to set up the Shadow side.
For the Shadow side, the most common strategies are beat-down, bomb, archery/wounding and corruption. Beat-down Beat down decks focus on making one or two minions powerful, with the intention of killing all of the companions one by one. Swarm Swarm decks have an opposite strate
The One Ring is an artefact that appears as the central plot element in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, it is described in The Hobbit, as a magic ring of invisibility. In the sequel, The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien ascribes to the Ring a darker character, with malevolent power going far beyond conferring invisibility: it was created by Sauron the Dark Lord as part of his design to win dominion over Middle-earth; the Lord of the Rings concerns the quest to destroy the Ring to keep Sauron from fulfilling his design. In The Lord of the Rings and the posthumously published The Silmarillion, Tolkien provides a detailed internal development from the forging of the Ring to its destruction. In the fictional context of Middle-earth, these events take place during several thousand years in the Second and Third Age of Arda; the One Ring was forged by the Dark Lord Sauron during the Second Age to gain dominion over the free peoples of Middle-earth. In disguise as Annatar, or "Lord of Gifts", he aided the Elven smiths of Eregion and their leader Celebrimbor in the making of the Rings of Power.
He forged the One Ring himself in the fires of Mount Doom. Sauron intended it to be the most powerful of all Rings, able to rule and control those who wore the others. Since the other Rings were themselves powerful, Sauron was obliged to place much of his own power into the One to achieve his purpose. Creating the Ring strengthened and weakened Sauron's power. On the one hand, as long as Sauron had the Ring, he could control the power of all the other Rings, thus he was more powerful after its creation than before. On the other hand, by binding his power within the Ring, Sauron became dependent on it—without it, his power was diminished; the Ring seemed to be made of gold, but it was impervious to damage. It could be destroyed only by throwing it into the pit of the volcanic Mount Doom where it was forged. Unlike other rings, the One Ring was not susceptible to dragon fire, but it could still be heated to some extent, as Isildur's hand was burnt when he took the Ring for the first time, because it was hot.
Like some lesser rings forged by the Elves as "essays in the craft"—but unlike the other Rings of Power—the One Ring bore no gem. Its identity could be determined by a little-known but simple test: when placed in a fire, it displayed a fiery Tengwar inscription in the Black Speech of Mordor, with two lines from a rhyme of lore describing the Rings: Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky,Seven for the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone,Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die, One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie. One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie; the lines inscribed on the Ring were pronounced by Sauron. The Elven smiths heard him chanting them, thereupon became aware of his purpose and took off their own Rings to foil his plan. A person wearing the Ring would enter a shadowy world revealing the physical world from a different aspect, from which physical objects were harder to see.
The wearer was invisible to ordinary beings, such as Men, but visible to the Nazgûl. The Ring dimmed the wearer's sight; the enigmatic Tom Bombadil appeared to be unaffected by the Ring. Tom played with the Ring like a conjurer borrowing someone's watch for a trick making it disappear and reappear, but Gandalf maintained that while the Ring had no effect on Bombadil, Bombadil could not unmake it or alter its power on others. The Ring but corrupted its bearer, regardless of the bearer's initial intent; this corrupting power was stronger on individuals more inclined to evil and selfishness: it took immediate hold of the greedy Sméagol as soon as he saw it, corrupted Boromir after a few months of near proximity, while its effects were only starting to be seen in the well-meaning Bilbo after his sixty years' possession. The Wise such as Gandalf and Galadriel were not immune. Rather than wielding it, the Wise determined that it should be destroyed; the Ring had the ability to change size, its weight too.
As well as adapting to fingers of varying size, from Sauron's to Frodo's, it sometimes expanded to escape from its wearer. For this reason, Frodo attached the Ring to a chain around his neck to avoid unwillingly losing it; the words of the ring-inscription are in Black Speech, a language devised by Sauron and used in the land of Mordor. The inscription reflects the One Ring's power to control the other Rings of Power; the writing uses Elvish letters, in a mode adapted to the Black Speech. The One Ring appeared plain and featureless, but when heated its inscription appeared in fiery letters. A drawing of the inscription and a translation provided by Gandalf appears in Book I, Chapter 2 of The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Shadow of the Past". Gandalf speaks the words in Black Speech in Book II, Chapter 2, "The Council of Elrond": Ash nazg durbatulûk, ash nazg gimbatul,Ash nazg thrakatulûk agh burzum-ishi krimpatul. Translated, the words mean: One ring to rule them all, one ring to find them,One ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them.
When Isildur took the Ring from Sauron's
Aragorn II, son of Arathorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, he is one of the main protagonists of The Lord of the Rings. Aragorn was a Ranger of the North, first introduced with the name Strider at Bree, as the Hobbits continued to call him throughout The Lord of the Rings, he was revealed to be the heir of Isildur and rightful claimant to the thrones of Arnor and Gondor. He was a confidant of Gandalf and an integral part of the quest to destroy the One Ring and defeat the Dark Lord Sauron. Aragorn led the Fellowship of the Ring following the loss of Gandalf in the Mines of Moria while fighting the Balrog; when the Fellowship was broken, he tracked the hobbits Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took with the help of Legolas the elf and Gimli the dwarf to Fangorn Forest. He fought in the battle at Helm's Deep and the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. After defeating Sauron's forces in Gondor, he led an army of Gondor and Rohan against the Black Gate of Mordor to distract Sauron's attention so that Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee could have a chance to destroy the One Ring.
At the end of The Lord of the Rings, Aragorn was crowned King Elessar Telcontar of Gondor. He married Elrond's daughter and assumed the Sceptre of Annúminas as King of Arnor, uniting the two kingdoms for the first time since the reign of Isildur; the son of Arathorn II and his wife Gilraen, Aragorn was born on 1'March', T. A. 2931. Through his ancestor Elendil Aragorn was a descendant of the first king of Númenor, Elros Tar-Minyatur; when Aragorn was two years old, his father was killed while pursuing orcs. Aragorn was afterwards fostered in Rivendell by Elrond. At the bidding of Elrond, his lineage was kept secret, as Elrond feared he would be killed like his father and grandfather if his true identity as Isildur's heir became known. Aragorn was renamed Estel to hide his existence from his servants, he was not told about his heritage until he came of age in 2951. Elrond revealed to Aragorn his true name and ancestry, delivered to him the shards of Elendil's sword Narsil, the Ring of Barahir, he withheld the Sceptre of Annúminas from him.
Aragorn met and fell in love with Arwen, Elrond's daughter, when she returned from Lórien, her mother's homeland. Aragorn thereafter assumed his role as the sixteenth Chieftain of the Dúnedain, the Rangers of the North, went into the wild, living with the remnants of his people, whose kingdom had been destroyed through civil and regional wars centuries before. Aragorn met Gandalf the Grey in 2956, they became close friends; the Rangers help to guard the Shire, inhabited by the agrarian Hobbits. In the areas around the Shire and Bree he became known as "Strider". From 2957 to 2980, Aragorn undertook great journeys, serving in the armies of King Thengel of Rohan and of Steward Ecthelion II of Gondor, his tasks helped to raise morale in the West and to counter the growing threat of Sauron and his allies, he acquired experience that he would put to use in the War of the Ring. Aragorn served his lords during that time under the name Thorongil. With a small squadron of ships from Gondor, he led an assault on Umbar in 2980, burning many of the Corsairs' ships and slaying their lord during the Battle of the Havens.
After the victory at Umbar, "Thorongil" left the field, to the dismay of his men, went East. Aragorn travelled through the Dwarves' mines of Moria and to Rhûn and Harad, where "the stars are strange". In 2980, he visited Lórien, there again met Arwen, he gave her an heirloom of his House, the Ring of Barahir, and, on the hill of Cerin Amroth, Arwen pledged her hand to him in marriage, renouncing her Elvish lineage and accepting mortality, the "Gift of Men". Elrond withheld from Aragorn permission to marry his daughter until such time as his foster son should be king of Gondor and Arnor reunited. To marry a mortal, Arwen would be required to choose mortality and thus separate the immortal Elrond from his daughter. Gandalf grew suspicious of the ring belonging to the hobbit Bilbo Baggins, discovered to be Sauron's One Ring. Gandalf asked Aragorn to track Gollum, who had possessed the Ring; this hunt led Aragorn across Rhovanion, he captured Gollum in the Dead Marshes northwest of Mordor and brought him captive to King Thranduil’s halls in Mirkwood, where Gandalf questioned him.
In The Fellowship of the Ring, Aragorn joined Frodo Baggins, Bilbo's adopted heir, three of Frodo's friends at the Inn of the Prancing Pony in Bree. The four hobbits had set out from the Shire to bring the One Ring to Rivendell. Aragorn, going by the nickname "Strider", was aged 87, nearing the prime of life for one of royal Númenórean descent. With Aragorn's help the Hobbits reached Rivendell. There Frodo volunteered to destroy the Ring in the fires of Mount Doom, Aragorn was chosen as a member of the Fellowship of the Ring to accompany him, along with Gandalf, Legolas the elf, Gimli the dwarf, Boromir of Gondor, the hobbits Pippin and Frodo's faithful gardener Samwise Gamgee. Elven-smiths reforged the shards of Narsil into a new sword, setting into the design of the blade seven stars and a crescent moon, as well as many runes. Aragorn renamed the sword Andúril, it was said to have shone with the light of the
J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium features dragons based on those of European legend. Besides dragon, Tolkien variously used worm. Dragons are present in The Book of Lost Tales, the earliest Middle-earth-related narratives written by Tolkien, starting in 1917; the Book of Lost Tales was posthumously published in two volumes as part of The History of Middle-earth series, edited and includes commentary by his son Christopher. In the earliest drafts of "The Fall of Gondolin", the Lost Tale, the basis for The Silmarillion, Morgoth sends mechanical war-machines in the form of dragons against the city; these machines do not appear in the published Silmarillion edited by Christopher Tolkien, in which real dragons attack the city. As in the conception of the dragons in the Legendarium, the winged dragons had not yet been devised by Morgoth at the time of the Fall of Gondolin; the first winged dragons were coeval with Ancalagon the Black. In the late Third Age, the dragons bred in the Northern Waste and Withered Heath north of the Grey Mountains.
The Dragons were inspired by Fafnir from Germanic mythology, The Dragon from Beowulf, the Dragon from the legend of Saint George and the Dragon. In Tolkien's works, dragons are quadrupedal, like Komodo dragons or other lizards, are either flightless or winged and capable of flight. Winged dragons are stated to have first appeared during the War of Wrath, the battle that ended the First Age; some dragons are capable of breathing fire, known as "Fire-drakes", or "Urulóki" in Quenya. It is not clear whether the term "Urulóki" referred only to the first dragons such as Glaurung that could breathe fire but were wingless, or to any dragon that could breathe fire, thus include Smaug. In Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien mentions that Dáin I of Durin's folk and his son Frór were killed by a "Cold-drake", prompting their people to leave the Grey Mountains, it is assumed, though not directly stated, that this term indicates a dragon which cannot breathe fire, rather than one who breathes ice or snow.
Dragon-fire is described as not being hot enough to melt the One Ring. Tolkien does not explicitly explain the term. All of Tolkien's dragons share a love of treasure, subtle intelligence, immense cunning, great physical strength, a hypnotic power called "dragon-spell", they are powerful and dangerous but mature slowly. Because of this, Melkor's first attempts to use them against his enemies fail, as they are not yet powerful enough to be useful in battle. Tolkien named only four dragons in his Middle-earth writings. Another, Chrysophylax Dives, appears in Farmer Giles of Ham, a story separate from the Middle-earth corpus. Chrysophylax is a fire-breathing dragon, described as a "hot" one. Glaurung, first introduced in The Silmarillion, is described as the Father of Dragons in Tolkien's legendarium, the first of the Urulóki, the Fire-drakes of Angband, he is a main antagonist in The Children of Húrin, in which he sets in motion events that bring about the protagonist Túrin's eventual suicide before being slain by him.
Glaurung is shown to use his ability to control and enslave Men using his mind to wipe the memory of Túrin's sister Nienor, though it was restored after Glaurung had perished. He is described as having the ability to breathe fire, but no wings. Ancalagon the Black was a dragon bred by Morgoth during the First Age of Middle-earth, as told in The Silmarillion, he was one of Morgoth's most powerful servants, bred to be the greatest and mightiest of all dragons, the first of the winged "fire-drakes". He arose like a storm of wind and fire from the infernal pits of Angband beneath the Iron Mountains, as a last defense of the realm of Dor Daedeloth. Near the end of the War of Wrath that pitted Morgoth's hosts against the Host of the Valar, Morgoth sent Ancalagon to lead a fleet of winged dragons from the fortress of Angband to destroy the Dark Lord's enemies. So powerful was the assault of the dragon flight that the Host of the Valar was driven back from the gates of Angband onto the ashy plain of Anfauglith.
Eärendil'The Blessed' in his powerfully hallowed Elven airborne ship Vingilot, aided by Thorondor and the great Eagles, battled Ancalagon and his dragons for an entire day. At length Eärendil prevailed, casting Ancalagon upon the triple-peaked towers of Thangorodrim, destroying both Ancalagon and the towers. With his last and mightiest defender slain, Morgoth was soon utterly defeated and made captive, thus ending the War of Wrath. Ancalagon the Black was the greatest dragon of Middle-earth, undoubtedly the largest, is referred to as the "father of the winged-drakes". Like all other Urulóki, Ancalagon breathed fire, said to be hotter than any other known flame. Two extinct genera have been named inspired by Tolkien's dragon. In 1977, an extinct genus of worms from the Cambrian Burgess Shale was named Ancalagon and in 1980, an extinct genus of mammal was named Ankalagon. Scatha was a mighty "long-worm" of the Grey Mountains. Little is known of Scatha except. After slaying Scatha, Fram's ownership of his recovered hoard was disputed by the Dwarves of that region.
Fram rebuked this claim
Dice are small throwable objects that can rest in multiple positions, used for generating random numbers. Dice are suitable as gambling devices for games like craps and are used in non-gambling tabletop games. A traditional die is a cube, with each of its six faces showing a different number of dots from one to six; when thrown or rolled, the die comes to rest showing on its upper surface a random integer from one to six, each value being likely. A variety of similar devices are described as dice, they may be used to produce results other than one through six. Loaded and crooked dice are designed to favor some results over others for purposes of cheating or amusement. A dice tray, a tray used to contain thrown dice, is sometimes used for gambling or board games, in particular to allow dice throws which do not interfere with other game pieces. Dice have been used since before recorded history, it is uncertain where they originated; the oldest known dice were excavated as part of a backgammon-like game set at the Burnt City, an archeological site in south-eastern Iran, estimated to be from between 2800–2500 BC.
Other excavations from ancient tombs in the Indus Valley civilization indicate a South Asian origin. The Egyptian game of Senet was played with dice. Senet was played before 3000 BC and up to the 2nd century AD, it was a racing game, but there is no scholarly consensus on the rules of Senet. Dicing is mentioned as an Indian game in the Rigveda and the early Buddhist games list. There are several biblical references to "casting lots", as in Psalm 22, indicating that dicing was commonplace when the psalm was composed, it is theorized that dice developed from the practice of fortunetelling with the talus of hoofed animals, colloquially known as "knucklebones", but knucklebones is not the oldest divination technique that incorporates randomness. Knucklebones was a game of skill played by children. Although gambling was illegal, many Romans were passionate gamblers who enjoyed dicing, known as aleam ludere. Dicing was a popular pastime of emperors. Letters by Augustus to Tacitus and his daughter recount his hobby of dicing.
There were two sizes of Roman dice. Tali were large dice inscribed with one, three and six on four sides. Tesserae were smaller dice with sides numbered from one to six. Twenty-sided dice date back to the 2nd century AD and from Ptolemaic Egypt as early as the 2nd century BC. Dominoes and playing cards originated in China as developments from dice; the transition from dice to playing cards occurred in China around the Tang dynasty, coincides with the technological transition from rolls of manuscripts to block printed books. In Japan, dice were used to play a popular game called sugoroku. There are two types of sugoroku. Ban-sugoroku is similar to backgammon and dates to the Heian period, while e-sugoroku is a racing game. Dice are thrown onto a surface either from a container designed for this; the face of the die, uppermost when it comes to rest provides the value of the throw. One typical dice game today is craps, where two dice are thrown and wagers are made on the total value of the two dice.
Dice are used to randomize moves in board games by deciding the distance through which a piece will move along the board. The result of a die roll is determined by the way it is thrown, according to the laws of classical mechanics. A die roll is made random by uncertainty in minor factors such as tiny movements in the thrower's hand. To mitigate concerns that the pips on the faces of certain styles of dice cause a small bias, casinos use precision dice with flush markings. Common dice are small cubes most 1.6 cm across, whose faces are numbered from one to six by patterns of round dots called pips. Opposite sides of a modern die traditionally add up to seven, implying that the 1, 2 and 3 faces share a vertex; the faces of a die may be placed counterclockwise about this vertex. If the 1, 2 and 3 faces run counterclockwise, the die is called "right-handed", if those faces run clockwise, the die is called "left-handed". Western dice are right-handed, Chinese dice are left-handed; the pips on dice are arranged in specific patterns.
Asian style dice bear similar patterns to Western ones, but the pips are closer to the center of the face. One possible explanation is. In some older sets, the "one" pip is a colorless depression. Non-precision dice are manufactured via the plastic injection molding process; the pips or numbers on the die are a part of the mold. The coloring for numbering is achieved by submerging the die in paint, allowed to dry; the die is polished via a tumble finishing process similar to rock polishing. The abrasive agent scrapes off all of the paint except for the indents of the numbering. A finer abrasive is used to polish the die; this process creates the smoother, rounded edges on the dice. Precision casino dice may have a polished or sand finish, making them transparent or translucent res
Collectible card game
A collectible card game called a trading card game or many other names, is a kind of strategy card game, created in 1993 and consists of specially designed sets of playing cards. These cards use proprietary artwork or images to embellish the card. CCGs may depict anything from fantasy or science fiction genres, horror themes, cartoons, or sports. Game text is on the card and is used to interact with the other cards in a strategic fashion. Games are played between two players, though multiplayer formats are common. Players may use dice, card sleeves, or play mats to complement their gameplay. CCGs can be played with or collected, both. A CCG is played using a starter deck; this deck may be modified by adding cards from booster packs, which contain around 8 to 15 random cards. As a player obtains more cards, they may create new decks from scratch; when enough players have been established, tournaments are formed to compete for prizes. Successful CCGs have thousands of unique cards extended through expansion sets that add new mechanics.
Magic: The Gathering, the first developed and most successful, has over 18,000 distinct cards. By the end of 1994, Magic: The Gathering had sold over 1 billion cards, between the time period of 2008 to 2016 sold over 20 billion. Other successful CCGs include Yu-Gi-Oh! which sold over 25 billion cards as of March 2011, Pokémon which has sold over 25 billion cards as of March 2018. Other notable CCGs have come and gone, including Legend of the Five Rings, Star Wars, Lord of the Rings, Vampire: The Eternal Struggle, World of Warcraft. Many other CCGs had little or no commercial success. Digital collectible card games have gained popularity, spurred by the success of Hearthstone. DCCGs do not use physical cards and instead use digital representations, with newer DCCGs foregoing card images altogether by using basic icons. A collectible card game is defined as a game where players acquire cards into a personal collection from which they create customized decks of cards and challenge other players in matches.
Players start by purchasing a starter deck, ready to play, but additional cards are obtained from randomized booster packs or by trading with other players. The goal of most CCGs is to beat your opponent by crafting customized decks that play to synergies of card combinations. Refined decks will try to account for randomness as well as opponent's actions, by using the most complementary and efficient cards possible; the exact definition of what makes a CCG is varied, as many games are marketed under the "collectible card game" moniker. The basic definition requires the game to resemble trading cards in shape and function, be mass-produced for trading and/or collectibility, have rules for strategic gameplay; the definition of CCGs is further refined as being a card game in which the player uses his own deck with cards sold in random assortments. If every card in the game can be obtained by making a small number of purchases, or if the manufacturer does not market it as a CCG it is not a CCG. CCGs can further be designated as dead games.
Dead games are those CCGs which are no longer supported by their manufacturers and have ceased releasing expansions. Living games are those CCGs; this means that new expansions are being created for the game and official game tournaments are occurring in some fashion. Card games that should not be mistaken for CCGs: Deck-Building Games - Construction of the deck is the main focus of gameplay. Collectible Common-Deck Card Games are card games where players share a common deck rather than their own personal deck. No customization of decks nor trading occurs, no metagame is developed. There is little to no interest in collecting the cards. Non-Collectible Customizable Card Games are those games where each player has their own deck, but no randomness occurs when acquiring the cards. Many of these games are sold as complete sets. A few were intended to have booster packs; this category may be referred to as an ECG, or Expandable Card Game. This category includes LCGs. Living Card Games - LCGs are a type of non-collectible customizable card game, a registered trademark of Fantasy Flight Games.
They don't use the randomized booster packs like CCGs and instead are bought in a single purchase. LCGs are known for costing much less; each CCG system has a fundamental set of rules that describes the players' objectives, the categories of cards used in the game, the basic rules by which the cards interact. Each card will have additional text explaining that specific card's effect on the game, they generally represent some specific element derived from the game's genre, setting, or source material. The cards are illustrated and named for these source elements, the card's game function may relate to the subject. For example, Magic: The Gathering is based on the fantasy genre, so many of the cards represent creatures and magical spells from that setting. In the game, a dragon is illustrated as a reptilian beast and has the flying ability and higher combat stats than smaller creatures; the bulk of CCGs are designed around a resource system. The cards which constitute a player's deck are considered a resource, with the frequency of cards moving from the deck to the play area or player's hand being controlled.
Relative card strength is balanced by the number or type of resources needed in order to play the card, pacing after that may be determined by the flow of car