One Thousand and One Nights
One Thousand and One Nights is a collection of Middle Eastern and South Asian stories and folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age. It is often known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English-language edition, the work was collected over many centuries by various authors and scholars across West and South Asia and North Africa. The tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Mesopotamian, Jewish, the stories proceed from this original tale, some are framed within other tales, while others begin and end of their own accord. Some editions contain only a few hundred nights, while others include 1,001 or more, the bulk of the text is in prose, although verse is occasionally used for songs and riddles and to express heightened emotion. Most of the poems are single couplets or quatrains, although some are longer, the main frame story concerns Shahryār, whom the narrator calls a Sasanian king ruling in India and China. Shahryār begins to marry a succession of only to execute each one the next morning.
Eventually the vizier, whose duty it is to provide them, the viziers daughter, offers herself as the next bride and her father reluctantly agrees. On the night of their marriage, Scheherazade begins to tell the king a tale, the king, curious about how the story ends, is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the conclusion. The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins a new one, so it goes on for 1,001 nights. The tales vary widely, they include historical tales, love stories, comedies, burlesques, numerous stories depict jinns, apes, sorcerers and legendary places, which are often intermingled with real people and geography, not always rationally. The different versions have different individually detailed endings but they all end with the giving his wife a pardon. The narrators standards for what constitutes a cliffhanger seem broader than in modern literature, the history of the Nights is extremely complex and modern scholars have made many attempts to untangle the story of how the collection as it currently exists came about.
Most scholars agreed that the Nights was a work and that the earliest tales in it came from India and Persia. At some time, probably in the early 8th century, these tales were translated into Arabic under the title Alf Layla and this collection formed the basis of The Thousand and One Nights. The original core of stories was quite small, then, in Iraq in the 9th or 10th century, this original core had Arab stories added to it – among them some tales about the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Devices found in Sanskrit literature such as stories and animal fables are seen by some scholars as lying at the root of the conception of the Nights. Indian folklore is represented in the Nights by certain animal stories, the influence of the Panchatantra and Baital Pachisi is particularly notable. The Jataka Tales are a collection of 547 Buddhist stories, which are for the most part moral stories with an ethical purpose
Historical reenactment is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period. Activities related to reenactment have a long history, the Romans staged recreations of famous battles within their amphitheaters as a form of public spectacle. In the Middle Ages, tournaments often reenacted historical themes from Ancient Rome or elsewhere, Military displays and mock battles and reenactments first became popular in 17th century England. It was in the century that historical reenactments became widespread. Medieval culture was admired as an antidote to the modern enlightenment. Plays and theatrical works perpetuated the romanticism of knights, the Tournament was a deliberate act of Romanticism, and drew 100,000 spectators. It was held on a meadow at a loop in the Lugton Water, the ground chosen for the tournament was low, almost marshy, with grassy slopes rising on all sides. Lord Eglinton announced that the public would be welcome, he requested medieval fancy dress, if possible, the pageant itself featured thirteen medieval knights on horseback.
The preparations, and the works of art commissioned for or inspired by the Eglinton Tournament, had an effect on public feeling. Its ambition carried over to events such as a lavish tournament in Brussels in 1905. Features of the tournament were actually inspired by Walter Scotts novel Ivanhoe, reenactments of battles became more commonplace in the late 19th century, both in Britain, and in America. Within a year of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, survivors of U. S. 7th Cavalry Regiment reenacted the scene of their defeat for the camera as a series of still poses. In 1895, members of the Gloucestershire Engineer Volunteers reenacted their famous stand at Rorkes Drift,18 years earlier,25 British soldiers beat back the attack of 75 Zulus at the Grand Military Fete at the Cheltenham Winter Gardens. Veterans of the American Civil War recreated battles as a way to remember their fallen comrades, in 1920, there was a reenactment of the 1917 Storming of the Winter Palace on the third anniversary of the event.
This reenactment inspired the scenes in Sergei Eisensteins film October, Ten Days That Shook the World, large scale reenactments began to be regularly held at the Royal Tournament, Aldershot Tattoo in the 1920s and 30s. A spectacular recreation of the Siege of Namur, an important military engagement of the Nine Years War, was staged in 1934 as part of 6-day long show, in America, modern reenacting is thought to have begun during the 1961–1965 Civil War Centennial commemorations. Most participants are amateurs who pursue history as a hobby, participants within this hobby are extremely diverse. The ages of participants range from young children whose parents bring them along to events, among adult participants, people from all different walks of life can be found, college students, lawyers, members of the armed forces and even professional historians
Middle Ages in film
Medieval films imagine and portray the Middle Ages through the visual and thematic forms of cinema. The 20th century is not the first to create images of life during medieval times, the Middle Ages ended over five centuries ago and each century has imagined and depicted the Middle Ages through painting, poetry and novel. In the 20th century, film has defined Medieval history perhaps more so than any other medium, if film was the most influential medium, Hollywood was the most influential image maker. Hollywood films reached an audience through big budget productions, and equally big distribution. The ideals of the Romantics were fully realized on the screen in such works as Ivanhoe and El Cid which belong to the same late Romantic culture in their music, imagery. Strong cinematic images of the Middle Ages can be found in European films, the first Medieval film was one of the earliest films ever made, Jeanne dArc released in 1900. The first Robin Hood film dates to 1907 and was called Robin Hood, the historiography and historiophoty of medieval film is a new field of study.
The French historian Marc Ferro had already devoted his seminal work Cinéma et Histoire to precisely this question, he asks in Chapter 16, until the publication of Kevin J. As Rosenstone observes, we always violate the past, even as we attempt to preserve its memory in whatever medium we use, yet this violation is inevitable, part of the price of our attempts at understanding the vanished world of our forebears. These ideas were picked up by authors and incorporated into criticism of medieval films, most notably by Nickolas Haydock. Haydock achieves this by arguing for an imaginary, a Lacanian idea which suggests that there exists a collected body of ideas about the Middle Ages to which filmmakers refer. Elliott, on the hand, suggests that modern images of the period are based on semiotics. Both of these ideas back to the theory of historiophoty, in that they rely on a kind of history which is written in images. At over 900 films listed by Harty in 1999, it is beyond the scope of article to create a complete list.
Listed here are some of the best and most significant films in both quality and historical accuracy as determined by a poll of medieval students and teachers. Anke Bernau and Bettina Bildhauer, ed, Medieval Film, ISBN 0-7190-7702-8 Amy de La Bretèque, Limaginaire Médiéval Dans Le Cinéma Occidental. ISBN 978-0-7864-3443-5 Nickolas Haydock and Edward L. Risden, Hollywood in the Holy Land, Essays on Film Depictions of the Crusades and Christian-Muslim Clashes.2. 217-42, co-edited by Richard Burt and Nickolas Haydock, Richard Burt, Re-embroidering the Bayeux Tapestry in Film and Media, the Flip Side of History in Opening and End Title Sequences, special issue of Exemplaria on Movie Medievalism,19.2
Robin Hood in popular culture
The folkloric hero Robin Hood has appeared many times, in many different variations, in popular modern works. Robin Hood has appeared in a number of plays throughout the medieval, the first record of a Robin Hood play being performed is in Exeter in 1426-27. The earliest surviving text of a Robin Hood play is dated c.1475 and entitled Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham. The plays which perhaps have been most influential upon the Robin Hood legend as a whole are Anthony Mundays The Downfall of Robert, Earle of Huntington and The Death of Robert and it is in these plays that Robin is first depicted as a nobleman. Further plays followed during the modern period such as the anonymous Looke About You and Robin Hood. The first published account of Robin Hoods life appears to be the anonymously authored The Noble Birth and Gallant Atchievements of that Remarkable Out-Law. In addition, there were numerous books printed throughout the seventeenth and eigheenth centuries that went by the name of Robin Hoods Garland.
These were cheaply printed collections of Robin Hood ballads, the first Robin Hood novel written, although not published, is Robert Southeys Harold, or, The Castle of Morford. This exists in form in the Bodleian Library. The first published Robin Hood novel was the anonymous Robin Hood, A Tale of the Olden Time, Ivanhoe was Scotts first novel where history and romance is combined. Robin Hood in this book is the saviour of the nation, the Upper classes need the working classes as much as the working classes rely on their betters. Scotts tale is significant because it is the first time that Robin is presented as an Anglo-Saxon freedom fighter, the next novel following Scott was Thomas Love Peacocks novella Maid Marian. The novel was intended as a satire on continental conservatism and its enthusiasm for all things feudal and medieval. Thus through his novella Peacock attempted to show how man’s feudal overlords have always been the same, violent, Robin appears as the principal protagonist of two tales printed in an early penny blood entitled Lives of the Highwaymen in 1836.
By far the longest Robin Hood novel, standing at almost half-a-million words, is Pierce Egan the Youngers Robin Hood and Little John, or, The Merrie Men of Sherwood Forest. As in Ivanhoe, Robin is a Saxon, although he is not actually outlawed in the novel until nearly the end of the first book, the novel traces Robins life from birth to death. Egans text was translated into two French books, Le prince des voleurs, and Robin Hood le proscrit, by Alexandre Dumas, Dumas works were retranslated back into English by Alfred Allinson in 1904. A companion novel to Egans text was published by J. H. Stocqueler in 1849 entitled Maid Marian, the first Robin Hood novel written specifically for children appears to be Stephen Percys Tales of Robin Hood
Cultural depictions of Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly six centuries. The following lists cover various media to include items of historic interest, enduring works of high art, the entries represent portrayals that a reader has a reasonable chance of encountering rather than a complete catalog. Lesser known works, particularly from early periods, are not included, in this article, many of the excluded items are derivative of better known representations. For instance, Schillers play inspired at least 82 different dramatic works during the nineteenth century, most of the others survive only in research libraries. As another example, in 1894, Émile Huet listed over 400 plays, portrayals of Joan of Arc are numerous. For example, in 1979 the Bibliothèque Municipale in Rouen, France held a gallery containing over 500 images, the story of Joan of Arc was a popular subject for dramatization in the 1940s. There were three radio dramatizations of the story of Joan during those years, one of them specifically written with a World War II framework, for purposes of classification, popular culture music is a separate section from operas and oratorios.
Films include made-for-television movies and miniseries, in 1909, the Paris hairdresser Antoine took Joan of Arc as the inspiration for the bob, which ended centuries of taboo against women who cut their hair. The style became popular in the 1920s and was associated with liberated women, nearly all subsequent Western hair fashions are designed for women who cut their hair at least occasionally. Such haircut is still known in French as coupe à la Jeanne dArc, during the Cristero War in 1927, a group of female Cristeros named themselves after Joan of Arc. They obtained money and intelligence for the male combatants and they often smuggled weapons into war zones and cared for the wounded. By the end of the war they had 35,000 participants, ^ Pernoud 1999, pp.240,246. Nadia Margolis, Joan of Arc in History, Literature, régine Pernoud and Marie-Véronique Clin, Joan of Arc, Her Story, trans. International Joan of Arc Society film list Médailles Jeanne d’Arc, French site containing pictures and descriptions of Medallions devoted to Joan of Arc
Norse mythology in popular culture
The Norse mythology, preserved in such ancient Icelandic texts as the Poetic Edda, the Prose Edda, and other lays and sagas, was little known outside Scandinavia until the 19th century. Germany and England were Christianized far earlier than the Scandinavian countries, in Britain, William Morris composed poetry such as Sigurd the Volsung on Norse legendary subjects as well as translating Icelandic sagas into English. Also Loki is one of the most prominent villains in the Marvel Universe serving as one of the antagonists in the Marvel Cinematic Universe franchise. Lucifer, being a Sandman-spinoff, continues this trend, having Loki, bergelmir and Naglfar have prominent roles, and Fenris is a major antagonist. The Danish comic book series Valhalla is based on the Norse myths, the Belgian comic book series Thorgal is based on Norse mythology but on Atlantean fantasy and science fiction. The Norse Pantheon heroes are the characters of the Japanese manga. The manhwa series Ragnarok, by Myung-Jin Lee, is based on Norse mythology and the events of Ragnarok, the prophesied fall of the gods.
Each of the Eight Fists were nicknamed after a figure in Norse mythology including, Freya, Thor, Hermit, Valkyrie and my Goddess. has aspects of Norse mythology. Heavens main computer is called Yggdrasil, the goddesses and demons names are based on Norse gods and goddesses, the conflict between the titan shifters and normal humans may be compared to the wars between the Aesir and Vanir. There are other references that are minor as well, such as the can of herring found by Ymir, Sword Art Online has characters and story based on Norse mythology High School DxD has Norse mythical creatures and gods in the light novel and anime. Sparkling Generation Valkyrie Yuuki is a webcomic featuring Yuuki, a boy turned into a Valkyrie by Hermod to stand against Surt and it features many representations of Norse mythological figures in a modern-day setting. Brat-halla is a webcomic about the Norse gods during their elementary school days. All-Father Odin and his wife Frigg constantly have their hands full with youngsters Thor, Balder, Hod and the rest of the Norse pantheon.
The Order of the Stick features the Norse pantheon deities, including Thor, Loki, durkon Thundershield, one of the main characters, is a cleric of Thor. Stay Silent. by Finnish Swede illustrator and cartoonist Minna Sundberg, is a post apocalyptic webcomic with elements from Nordic mythology, in this story and Norway have returned to the embrace of their ancient Gods. Stephanie Edgley of the Skulduggery Pleasant novel series took up the name Valkyrie Cain, the Victorian adventure writer H. Rider Haggard wrote an epic adventure in the style of the Nordic sagas, Eric Brighteyes. Various Norse gods are referenced in the book The Ballad of the White Horse by G. K. Chesterton and Thor are portrayed there in a negative light. The ballad portrays Catholicism as the religion and the Norse religion as pagan
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
The words medievalism and Medieval are both first recorded in the nineteenth century. Medieval is derived from Latin medium aevum, scholars of the Renaissance believed that they lived in a new age that broke free of the decline described by Petrarch. Historians Leonardo Bruni and Flavio Biondo developed a three tier outline of history composed of Ancient and Modern, the Latin term media tempestas first appears in 1469. The term medium aevum is first recorded in 1604, Medieval first appears in the nineteenth century and is an Anglicised form of medium aevum. During the Reformations of the 16th and 17th centuries, Protestants generally followed the views expressed by Renaissance Humanists. They saw classical antiquity as a time, not only because of the Latin literature. Most Protestant historians did not date the beginnings of the era from the Renaissance. For them the Middle Ages was barbaric and priest-ridden and they referred to these dark times, the centuries of ignorance, and the uncouth centuries.
The Protestant critique of the Medieval Church was taken into Enlightenment thinking by works including Edward Gibbons Decline and it was partly a revolt against the political norms of the Age of Enlightenment which rationalised nature, and was embodied most strongly in the visual arts and literature. The name Romanticism itself was derived from the medieval chivalric romance. The latters Waverley Novels, including Ivanhoe and Quentin Durward helped popularise, and shape views of, the name Nazarene was adopted by a group of early nineteenth-century German Romantic painters who reacted against Neoclassicism and hoped to return to art which embodied spiritual values. They sought inspiration in artists of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, the name Nazarene came from a term of derision used against them for their affectation of a biblical manner of clothing and hair style. The movement was formed in 1809 by six students at the Vienna Academy and called the Brotherhood of St. Luke or Lukasbund.
They met up with Austrian romantic landscape artist Joseph Anton Koch who became a tutor to the group. In Rome the group lived an existence, as a way of re-creating the nature of the medieval artists workshop. However, by 1830 all except Overbeck had returned to Germany, many Nazareners became influential teachers in German art academies and were a major influence on the English Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. The Gothic Revival was a movement which began in the 1740s in England. He went on to produce important Gothic buildings such as Cathedrals at Birmingham and Southwark, large numbers of existing English churches had features such as crosses and stained glass, restored or added, and most new Anglican and Catholic churches were built in the Gothic style
A knight-errant is a figure of medieval chivalric romance literature. The adjective errant indicates how the knight-errant would wander the land in search of adventures to prove his chivalric virtues, the template of the knight-errant are the heroes of the Round Table of the Arthurian cycle such as Gawain and Percival. The quest par excellence in pursuit of which these knights wander the lands is that of the Holy Grail, such as in Perceval, knight-errantry tales remain popular with courtly audiences throughout the Late Middle Ages. They are written in Middle French, in Middle English and in Middle German, in the 16th century, the genre becomes highly popular in the Iberian Peninsula, Amadis de Gaula was one of the most successful knight-errantry tales of this period. In Don Quixote, Cervantes burlesqued the romances and their popularity, tales of knight-errantry fell out of fashion for two centuries, until they re-emerged in the form of the historical novel in Romanticism. A knight-errant typically performed all his deeds in the name of a lady, in more sublimated forms of knight-errantry, pure moralist idealism rather than romantic inspiration motivated the knight-errant.
This quest sends a knight on adventures much like the ones of a knight in search of them, as he happens on the same marvels. In The Faerie Queene, St. George is sent to rescue Unas parents kingdom from a dragon, and Guyon has no such quest, in the romances, his adventures frequently included greater foes than other knights, including giants, enchantresses, or dragons. They may help that is out of ordinary. Sir Ywain assisted a lion against a serpent, and was accompanied by it. Other knights-errant have been assisted by wild men of the woods, as in Valentine and Orson, or, like Guillaume de Palerme, by wolves that were, in fact, enchanted princes. A depiction of knight-errantry in the historical novel is found e. g. in Sir Nigel by Arthur Conan Doyle. g. The Dark Knight as a title of Batman, lee Childs has said Jack Reacher is a knight-errant. In the epic fantasy series A Song of Ice and Fire, there is a class of knights referred to as Hedge Knights, a Hedge Knight is a wandering knight without a master, many are quite poor.
East Slavic bylina feature bogatyrs, knights-errant who served as protectors of their homeland, some of them are presumed to be historical figures, while others are fictional and possibly descend from Slavic mythology. Most tales about bogatyrs revolve around the court of Vladimir I of Kiev, three popular bogatyrs—Ilya Muromets, Dobrynya Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich —are said to have served him. Youxia, Chinese knights-errant, traveled solo protecting common folk from oppressive regimes, unlike their European counterpart, they did not come from any particular social caste and were anything from soldiers to poets. A youxia who excels or is renowned for martial prowess or skills is usually called wuxia, in Japan, the expression Musha shugyō described a Samurai who wanted to test his abilities in real life conditions would travel the land and engage in duels along the way
The term is commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Viking home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age. Facilitated by advanced seafaring skills, and characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. A romanticized picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century, current popular representations of the Vikings are typically based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy. One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning creek, various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken, meaning a person from Viken. According to this theory, the word simply described persons from this area, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called Viking in Old Norse manuscripts, in addition, that explanation could only explain the masculine and ignore the feminine, which is a serious problem because the masculine is easily derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa.
The form occurs as a name on some Swedish rune stones. There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age and this is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan, ‘to turn’, similar to Old Icelandic víkja ‘to move, to turn’, with well-attested nautical usages. In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. A víkingr would originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterized by the shifting of rowers, in that case, the word Viking was not originally connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, Widsith, in Old English, and in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term generally referred to Scandinavian pirates or raiders. As in the Old Norse usages, the term is not employed as a name for any people or culture in general, the word does not occur in any preserved Middle English texts.
The Vikings were known as Ascomanni ashmen by the Germans for the ash wood of their boats, Lochlannach by the Gaels, the modern day name for Sweden in several neighbouring countries is possibly derived from rōþs-, Ruotsi in Finnish and Rootsi in Estonian. The Slavs and the Byzantines called them Varangians, Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard. The Franks normally called them Northmen or Danes, while for the English they were known as Danes or heathen. It is used in distinction from Anglo-Saxon, similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland. The period from the earliest recorded raids in the 790s until the Norman conquest of England in 1066 is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history, Vikings used the Norwegian Sea and Baltic Sea for sea routes to the south. The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France—the Duchy of Normandy—in the 10th century, in that respect, descendants of the Vikings continued to have an influence in northern Europe
Lady Godiva in popular culture
Because of the growth of the legend, Lady Godiva has since entered popular culture in a number of countries. Godiva Chocolatier is named after Lady Godiva, and features an image of her ride as its trademark. Kimberly-Clarks 2010 TV campaign for Poise adult underwear with Whoopi Goldberg as Lady Godiva The plot of Mascagnis opera Isabeau is based on the story of Lady Godiva, vítězslav Novák composed a concert overture called Lady Godiva based on the story. The Godiva Procession, a commemoration of the ride, was instituted on 31 May 1678 as part of Coventry fair and was celebrated up to the 1960s. The part of Lady Godiva was usually played by a scantily clad actress or dancer, for instance, in 1854, the Bishop of Worcester protested against a Birmingham whore being paraded through the streets as Lady Godiva. These annual processions were enlivened by constant rumours, that the playing the part of Lady Godiva would actually appear nude. The celebration has been revived as part of the Godiva Festival and it represents a man in armour and was probably an image of Saint George.
Nearby, in the 1950s rebuilt Broadgate, an animated Peeping Tom watches over Lady Godiva as she makes her hourly ride around the Godiva Clock. From the mid-1980s a Coventry resident, Pru Porretta, has adopted a Lady Godiva role to promote community events, in 1999 Coventry councillors considered eliminating Godiva from the citys public identity. As of 2005, Porretta retains the status of Coventrys unofficial ambassador, each September Poretta marks the occasion of Lady Godivas birthday by leading a local pageant focusing on world peace and unity known as The Godiva Sisters. In the New Year Honours 2010 Porretta was appointed a Member of the Order of The British Empire for services to the city of Coventry community and tourism services. The image of Lady Godiva on horseback is the symbol of the Coventry Building Society, appearing on letterheads, passbooks. This proposal went on to become the winner and will be realised as part of the Arts Councils 2012 Cultural Olympiad. The origin is unclear, although it developed in Britain.
By the mid-20th century, the practice of engineering organizations associating themselves with Lady Godiva was well established in the United States, a particular tradition associated with this is that of drinking songs, which make reference to Lady Godiva, particularly Godivas Hymn. Historically, certain college organisations staged an annual Godiva Ride in which a naked female rode a horse across campus and this practice may have declined with the advent of modern feminist attitudes. Lady Godiva, the first film telling of the story starring Julia Swayne Gordon, Lady Godiva, a British silent short with Gladys Jennings in the title role. The Ghost Talks, a film featuring the Three Stooges in a slapstick send-up of the Lady Godiva legend