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Middle America (Americas)

Middle America is a region in the mid-latitudes of the Americas. In southern North America, it comprises Mexico, the nations of Central America, the Caribbean. In northern South America, it comprises Colombia and Venezuela; the Caribbean is excluded from the region, the Guianas are infrequently included. Physiographically, Middle America marks the territorial transition between the rest of North America and South America, connecting yet separating the two. On the west, the Middle American mainland comprises the tapering, isthmian tract of the American landmass between the southern Rocky Mountains in the southern United States and the northern tip of the Andes in Colombia, separating the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Atlantic Ocean on the east, while the Greater and Lesser Antilles form an island arc in the east; the region developed subaerially southward from North America as a complex volcanic arc-trench system during the Early Cretaceous period forming the land bridge during the Pliocene epoch when its southern end collided with South America through tectonic action.

The term Middle America is used synonymously with Central America. In English, the term is uncommonly used as a synonym of the term Mesoamerica, which refers to an ancient culture region situated in Middle America extending from central Mexico to northern Costa Rica. In addition, some residents of the region may be referred to as Meso-Americans or Central Americans, but not, however, as Middle Americans, which refers to a particular constituency in the United States. Americas Aridoamerica Caribbean Central America – i.e. the 7 states of Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama Northern America Mesoamerica Middle America Trench Oasisamerica South America

Jumping (Kara song)

"'Jumping'" 점핑 is a song performed by South Korean girl group Kara from their debut Japanese album, Girl's Talk and their fourth EP, Jumping. It was released on November 2010 as the second Japanese single; the single was certified as Gold for selling over 100,000 physical copies by the Recording Industry Association of Japan. The song was certified as Double Platinum for ringtone downloads and Million for single track downloads by the RIAJ. A Korean version was released and included as the lead title song for the group's fourth mini-album titled Jumping, released in South Korea on November 17, 2010. On September 29, 2010, it was announced that Kara will be releasing their second single entitled "Jumping" on November 10, 2010, it was said to be a brand-new song that will have an exclusive Japanese single release. "Jumping" was chosen as the new theme song for Fuji TV's Saturday morning news and information program, Mezamashi Saturday. It was revealed that the song and concept for "Jumping" was inspired by the anime movie, "The Girl Who Leapt Through Time".

The song served as a promotion for KDDI's "au Santa's Challenge."On December 2010, the single was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for having over 100 000 copies shipped. Furthermore, their free music application "Kara Jumping" ranked #1 for the'free music category' on Japan's iTunes App store chart, earning over 50 000 downloads within 10 days upon release without any official promotions, it was met with many positive reviews and a representative of production company Danal commented, "Kara's popularity in Japan exceeds anything imaginable." The song was written by Song Soo Yun. It was revealed that the song and concept for "Jumping" was inspired by the anime movie, The Girl Who Leapt Through Time; the promotional video teaser for "Jumping" was featured on Mezamashi TV on October 25, 2010. The full version was released on October 28, 2010; the video features alternating scenes where they are seen wearing silvery white and dark black outfits. During the filming, it was reported that member Seungyeon cried a lot after being asked by the staff to shed a tear during an individual scene but she ended up sobbing because she became overwhelmed by her emotion.

The'au Smart Sports version' was released through Universal Music Japan and Universal Sigma YouTube channels on November 5, 2010. In this version, the group are dressed as cheerleaders and marathon runners, helping to promote the popular Japan carrier KDDI's "au Santa's Challenge". Following the release of the group's fourth mini-album back in South Korea, a Korean version of the single was used as the title track for the album; the music video is the same as the Japanese version but contains altered scenes including individual scenes where the group members are seen sitting in a black and white bedroom with a cell-phone on their hand. The single debuted at #5 in the Oricon Daily Singles Chart and rose to #2, behind Arashi's Hatenai Sora; the song climbed up in other charts including mobile downloads. The music video and song ranked #1 in iTunes Japan The single ranked at #5 in the Oricon Weekly Singles Chart selling around 55,000 copies in its first week; the song was certified platinum by the RIAJ for cellphone digital downloads, gold for PC downloads.

1.^ As of January 2014, the RIAJ ceased to certify separately full-length cellphone downloads and PC downloads. Thus, full song downloads are now certified as single track downloads

Route 412 (Israel)

Highway-Route 412, is a regional road in the south-east of the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area in Israel. The road connects Bilu Junction south of Rehovot, with Yehud Ma'arav Junction, running through Rehovot, Ness Ziona, Rishon LeZion and Beit Dagan and spanning a distance of 22 km. For most of its length, Route 412 is an urban road changing its width depending on available urban space, its urban sections are very busy, passing through the crowded city centers of Rehovot, Ness Ziona and Rishon LeZion with many signaled intersections. Route 412 starts at Bilu Junction, a large intersection with Highway 40, making it the central entrance to Rehovot from the south, it runs north as a four-lane divided urban road until it reaches central Rehovot, where it narrows in size to one lane in each direction. Leaving the city center, it once again widens to four lanes until it reaches a level crossing with the Lod - Ashkelon Railway, just west of the Rehovot Railway Station, it widens to five lanes as it leaves Rehovot.

Entering Ness Ziona, there is a large junction with Road 4303 leading towards Highway 42. The road passes through Ness Ziona as a four-lane divided urban road. Exiting Ness Ziona, HaRishonim Interchange connects the road with Route 431. Passing through Rishon LeZion, the road varies in length between five to six lanes, with the right lane serving as a public transportation lane during rush hours. Exiting Rishon LeZion, the road reaches Beit Dagan Junction with Highway 44. From Beit Dagan Junction, Route 412 becomes a standard inter-city highway, with two lanes in each direction, paved shoulders, a concrete median barrier and few signaled intersections; the road bypasses Beit Dagan and Or Yehuda to its terminus at Yehud Ma'arav Junction, the south-western entrance to Yehud. A road bridge designed to replace the over-crowded railway crossing in Rehovot is under construction; the bridge will be built by the Ayalon Highway Company and it is due for completion in 2014. A dedicated Bus Rapid Transit route is planned along the urban section of Route 412, between Bilu Junction and Beit Dagan Junction, as part of a larger mass-transit system designed to serve the entire Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area.

From Beit Dagan Junction, the BRT route will continue north-west along Highway 44 to its terminus at Holon Interchange, where it will meet the Green Line of the Tel Aviv Light Rail

Playland Parkway

The Playland Parkway is a 1.20-mile, four-lane divided road in Westchester County, New York, in the United States, is assigned County Route 152. The road is restricted to passenger vehicle traffic; the short stretch of road and low-standard freeway connects Interstate 95 and U. S. Route 1 with the Playland amusement park in Westchester County; the Playland Parkway was conceived as a part of the Cross County Parkway, which would have crossed from Yonkers via Mount Vernon and New Rochelle before reaching Playland. The parkway was constructed by the Westchester County Park Commission in 1928 between US 1 and the amusement park, although the extension of the Cross County was dropped during the Great Depression due to financial strains. During the mid-1960s and early-1970s, the parkway was part of a proposal to create a new bridge across the Long Island Sound connecting Rye to Oyster Bay. Led by Robert Moses and the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, the bridge would have demolished homes and used a part of the Playland Parkway for the right-of-way.

Opposition was heavy within Rye, in 1973, once more opposition was raised in Long Island, Nelson Rockefeller killed the project. The parkway terminated at US 1 upon opening, but construction was completed on the New England Thruway in 1958, extending the new parkway from US 1 to its current western terminus; the Playland Parkway begins at an interchange with I-95 in Rye, heading southeast as a four-lane divided highway. The road passes over Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line and heads into wooded areas with nearby development, coming to an interchange with Old Post Road that provides access to US 1. Past this interchange, the Playland Parkway becomes a four-lane undivided road and passes under US 1; the road continues through wore woodland near residential neighborhoods, coming to an at-grade intersection with Milton Road. The Playland Parkway curves more to the east and intersects Midland Avenue/Ridgeland Terrace and Forest Avenue before ending at the entrance to the Playland amusement park on Long Island Sound, at which point the road gains a wide median.

The four-lane parkway that would become the Playland Parkway was first conceived as part of the Cross County Parkway, which would connect the cities of Yonkers, Mount Vernon, New Rochelle before reaching the shores of the Long Island Sound, where it would meet Playland Amusement Park. Playland Amusement Park, a new park maintained by the Westchester County Park Commission in Rye, opened to the public in 1928, bringing a more middle-class, family-oriented environment to the shores of Rye, known for lewd behavior in the area; as result of the middle-class belief for the new park, the new parkway was designed so that a similar clientele could come by car to visit. Engineers considered Playland as the "junctional terminal of all the great boulevards of Westchester County", as a result, designed the new parkway lined with elm trees to circle around the new Bath House and reach the entrance via a new traffic circle; the new parkway, conceptualized as a 15-mile roadway, had the section between the Boston Post Road and Rye Playland, with construction starting in 1928.

The Westchester County Park Commission announced in its annual report in April 1928 that the new park and the parkway that it would go with would open in the summer of 1928 as part of appropriations of $47 million. While the section between the Boston Post Road and the park opened in 1929, the extension between the current-day Cross County Parkway and the current-day Playland Parkway was never constructed, due to the financial strains of the Great Depression. In October 1958, the New England Thruway was completed through Westchester, connecting Pelham to Port Chester. With the opening of the new roadway, the Playland Parkway was extended to then-exit 11 of the Thruway; this exit was renumbered to 19 as part of a complete number revamp in February 1980. In the mid-1950s, proposals began for a bridge over the Long Island Sound, including a proposal for a crossing between the town of Oyster Bay and the city of Rye. A study was done in the 1960s for the Oyster Bay–Rye Bridge by Robert Moses and the Nassau-Suffolk County Planning Board to design the bridge, which would connect the Cross Westchester Expressway and the Seaford–Oyster Bay Expressway.

The cost of the new project would run upwards of $150 million. The project had the support of then-Governor of New York Nelson Rockefeller, along with several Long Island officials. While there was support on the Long Island side of the sound, the amount of support in Rye was not as upbeat. In July 1965, Robert Moses had to redesign the route for the new bridge, so that rather than the Cross Westchester meeting the bridge, the Playland Parkway would meet the new bridge. Opposition with Rye involved the fact that it would take $3 million of property demolition to fit the new bridges, although the original proposal would take over $6 million. Moving the approach to Playland did not amuse residents of Rye either, which would cost Playland Park its pool and some of the beach on the park. Other complaints included that while more houses would be saved, they would be in the area of heavy traffic. Clay Johnson, mayor of Rye opposed the project. Rutherford Hubbard, the leader of the "Rye Citizens Advisory Committee Against The Sound Bridge" stated that Moses should think about the people and be more democratic about his decisions.

Once opposition started to appear on the Long Island side of the sound, Governor Rockefeller cancelled the project himself on June 20, 1973, seven years after the first proposa

Einar Liljedahl

Einar Liljedahl was a Norwegian military officer. Liljedahl was born in a son of politician Edvard Liljedahl and Barbra Ramslie. In 1919 he married Ellen Rosenkilde, he was a brother-in-law of Ole Johan Vasbotten. Liljedahl graduated as officer from the Norwegian Military Academy in 1903, from the Norwegian Military College in 1905, he was promoted captain in 1911, major in 1930, colonel in 1934. From 1935 to 1947 he was head of 3rd Division of the Norwegian Army, with the rank of major general. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, the 3rd Division was responsible for the "neutrality guard" in Agder and Rogaland. During the German attack on Norway in April 1940, the troops of the 3rd Division were rather unprepared for the situation, surrendered after a few days. Liljedahl was criticized for his dispositions during the German invasion of Norway, by the military investigation commission of 1946, he died in February 1955

Public Cowboy No. 1 (album)

Public Cowboy #1 is a studio recording released on CD by the Western band Riders in the Sky on October 22, 1996. According to AllMusic's Bruce Eder, the Riders in the Sky created this album in the wake of performing a Gene Autry medley on television with Autry himself in the audience; the songs are done reverently but with a real sense of fun the same balancing act that has made them a success on stage and television. Their main innovations are the harmony singing, which works well throughout, a jazzy approach to Jimmie Rodgers' "Can't Shake The Sands of Texas From My Shoes." Autry's versions have held up magnificently well, but this loving tribute album is a necessary addition to any fan's collection. In another review, James H. Nottage wrote: Gene Autry's music was always more than something which fed childhood fantasies, it is still more than something which expresses adult nostalgia. A life-time of writing and recording music marks Gene Autry as an undeniable influence on his diverse audiences, on the development of Western music, on the image of the cowboy.

A performer as important as Autry could be forgotten in time if it were not for a new generation which records his music. We are fortunate that the Riders are of our time and have offered such an instrumental and vocal tribute which stands as a respectful interpretation of Gene Autry's cowboy classics. Let Riders in the Sky take you on a journey through our collective musical heritage, it is a trip worth taking. "Back in the Saddle Again" – 3:58 "Sioux City Sue" – 2:39 "Mexicali Rose" – 2:48 "You Are My Sunshine" – 3:24 "Have I Told You Lately That I Love You?" – 3:39 "Can't Shake the Sands of Texas from My Shoes" – 2:55 "That Silver Haired Daddy of Mine" – 3:50 "Be Honest with Me" – 2:20 "Blue Canadian Rockies" – 2:45 "Lonely River" – 3:02 "South of the Border" – 3:13 "Ridin' Down the Canyon" – 4:16 Douglas B. Greenvocals, guitar Paul Chrisman – vocals, fiddle Fred LaBour – vocals, bass Riders in the Sky