A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a reliable form of information storage and transfer; the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting; the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora.
In a logography, each character represents morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Most systems will have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms, giving rise to many more possibilities in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves. Systems will enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language; the reading step expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, accent, inflection or intonation.
A writing system will typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to express a full range of thoughts and ideas; the invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner, not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication; the creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is called romanization.
Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related; some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems; every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow. Once established, writing systems change more than their spoken counterparts.
Thus they preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field; the generic term text refers to an instance of writte
The Armenian Highlands is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East. To its west is the Anatolian plateau which rises from the lowland coast of the Aegean Sea and converges with the Armenian Highlands to the east of Cappadocia. To its southeast is the Iranian plateau, where the elevation drops by about 600 metres to 1,500 metres above sea level; the Caucasus extends to the northeast of the Armenian Highlands. To the southwest of the Armenian Highlands is Upper Mesopotamia. During the Iron Age, the region was known by variations of the name Ararat. During Antiquity, it was known as "Armenia Major," a central region to the history of Armenians, one of the four geo-political regions associated with Armenians, the other three being Armenia Minor and Commagene. Since the 1040s the highlands have been under the rule of various Turkic peoples and the Safavid dynasty. Much of Eastern Armenia, ruled by the Safavids from the 16th century, came under Russian control in 1828.
While much of Western Armenia was under the rule of the Ottomans and incorporated into Turkey. The highlands are divided into western and eastern regions, defined by the Ararat Valley where Mount Ararat is located; the region to the west of the Ararat Valley, conventionally called "Western Armenia", is now part of present day eastern Anatolia, the region to the east, conventionally called "Eastern Armenia," is now referred to as "Lesser Caucasus" or "Caucasus Minor." The region was mainly inhabited by Armenians, minorities of Assyrians, Greeks and Iranians. During the Middle Ages and Turkmens and Kurds settled in large numbers in the Armenian Highlands; the Christian population of the western half of the region was exterminated during the Armenian Genocide of 1915 and on a smaller scale the Assyrian Genocide and Greek Genocide. Today, the eastern half is inhabited by Armenians and Georgians, while the western half is inhabited by Azerbaijanis, Kurds and Zazas, with a minority of Assyrians; the Armenian Highlands is part of the Alpide belt, forming part of the Asian range that stretches from the Pontic Mountains to the Malay Peninsula.
Its total area is about 400,000 km2. The Armenian Highlands have been the scene of great volcanic activity. Geologically recent volcanism on the area has resulted in large volcanic formations and a series of massifs and tectonic movement has formed the three largest lakes in the Highland, Lake Sevan, Lake Van and Lake Urmia; the Armenian Highlands are rich in water resources. The central, axial chain of Armenian highland ridges, running from west to east across Western Armenia, is called Anti-Taurus. In the west, the Anti-Taurus departs to the north from the Central Taurus, passing right in the middle of the Armenian plateau, parallel to the Eastern Taurus, ends in the east with Ararat peaks. Most of the Armenian Highlands is in present day eastern Anatolia, includes northwestern Iran, all of Armenia, southern Georgia, western Azerbaijan, its northeastern parts are known as Lesser Caucasus, a center of Armenian culture. From 4000 to 1000 BC, tools and trinkets of copper and iron were produced in this region and traded in neighboring lands where those metals were less abundant.
It is traditionally believed to be one of the possible locations of the Garden of Eden. The Armenian Plateau has been called the "epicenter of the Iron Age", since it appears to be the location of the first appearance of Iron Age metallurgy in the late 2nd millennium BC. In the Early Iron Age, the Kingdom of Van controlled much of the region, until it was overthrown by the Medes and Orontid dynasty. In Gilgamesh, the land of Aratta is placed in a geographic space that could be describing the Armenian plateau. Throughout Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages, during various centuries, the Armenian Highlands was a contested territory of the Iranian Parthian Empire, Sassanid Persian Empire, Byzantine Empire, the Arab Caliphate. From the early modern era and on, the region came directly under Safavid Iranian rule. Contested for centuries between the Iranian Safavids and its vying archrival the Ottoman Empire with numerous wars raging over the region, large parts of the Highlands comprising Western Armenia were conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the first half of the 17th century following the Ottoman–Safavid War and the outcoming Treaty of Zuhab, while Eastern Armenia, forming another major part of the Highlands, stayed in Iranian hands up to the course of the 19th century, when it was ceded to Imperial Russia.
During the first half of the 19th century, the Ottoman held parts of the Armenian Highlands comprising Western Armenia now formed the boundary of the Ottoman sphere of influence and the Russian sphere of influence, the latter who had just completed its conquest of the Caucasus and Eastern Armenia at the expense of its suzerain, Qajar Iran, in about 4 major wars spanning more than two centuries. According to Richard Hovannisian, the Armenian Genocide was the "physical elimination of the Armenian people and most of the evidence of their having lived on the great highland called the Armenian Plateau, to which the perpetrator side soon assigned the new name of Eastern Anatolia". Since the Armenian Genocide and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, it has been the boundary region of Turkey and the Sovie
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
The Armenian alphabet is an alphabetic writing system used to write Armenian. It was developed around 405 AD by an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader; the system had 36 letters. The Armenian word for "alphabet" is այբուբեն, named after the first two letters of the Armenian alphabet: ⟨Ա⟩ Armenian: այբ ayb and ⟨Բ⟩ Armenian: բեն ben. Armenian is written horizontally, left-to-right. Listen to the pronunciation of the letters in Eastern Armenian or in Western Armenian. Notes: ^ Primarily used in classical orthography. ^ Except in ով /ov/ "who" and ովքեր /ovkʰer/ "those" in Eastern Armenian. ^ Iranian Armenians pronounce this letter as, like in Classical Armenian. ^ In classical ու and և are considered a digraph and a ligature, respectively. In reformed orthography, they are separate letters of the alphabet. ^ In reformed orthography, the letter ւ appears only as a component of ու. In classical orthography, the letter represents /v/, except in the digraph իւ /ju/; the spelling reform in Soviet Armenia replaced իւ with the trigraph յու.
^ Except in the present tense of "to be": եմ /em/ "I am", ես /es/ "you are", ենք /enkʰ/ "we are", եք /ekʰ/ "you are", են /en/ "they are". ^ The letter ը is used only at the start or end of a word, so the sound /ə/ is unwritten between consonants. ^ The ligature և has no majuscule form. Ancient Armenian manuscripts used many ligatures; some of the used ligatures are: ﬓ, ﬔ, ﬕ, ﬖ, ﬗ, և, etc. Armenian print typefaces include many ligatures. In the new orthography, the character և is no longer a typographical ligature, but a distinct letter, placed in the new alphabetic sequence, before "o". Armenian punctuation marks include: The čakertner are used as ordinary quotation marks and they are placed like French guillemets: just above the baseline (preferably vertically centered in the middle of the x-height of Armenian lowercase letters; the computer-induced use of English-style single or double quotes is discouraged in Armenian as they look too much like other – unrelated – Armenian punctuations. The storaket is used as a comma, placed as in English.
The boot' is used as a short stop, placed in the same manner as the semicolon, to indicate a pause, longer than that of a comma, but shorter than that of a colon. The mijaket is used like an ordinary colon to separate two related clauses, or when a long list of items follows; the verjaket is used as the ordinary full stop, placed at the end of the sentence. Armenian punctuation marks used inside a word: The yent'amna is used as the ordinary Armenian hyphen; the pativ was used as an Armenian abbreviation mark, was placed on top of an abbreviated word to indicate that it was abbreviated. It is now obsolete; the apat'arts is used as a spacing apostrophe, only in Western Armenian, to indicate elision of a vowel /ə/. The following Armenian punctuation marks placed above and to the right of the vowel whose tone is modified, in order to reflect intonation: The yerkaratsman nshan is used as an exclamation mark; the shesht is used as an emphasis mark. The hartsakan nshan is used as a question mark. ISO 9985 transliterates the Armenian alphabet for modern Armenian as follows: In the linguistic literature on Classical Armenian different systems are in use.
One of the classical accounts about the existence of an Armenian alphabet before Mashtots comes from Philo of Alexandria, who in his writings notes that the work of the Greek philosopher and historian Metrodorus of Scepsis, On Animals, was translated into Armenian. Metrodorus was a close friend and a court historian of the Armenian emperor Tigranes the Great and wrote his biography. A third century Roman theologian, Hippolytus of Rome, in his Chronicle, while writing about his contemporary, Emperor Severus Alexander, mentions that the Armenians are amongst those nations who have their own distinct alphabet. Philostratus the Athenian, a sophist of the second and third centuries CE, wrote:And they say that a leopardess was once caught in Pamphy
Classical Armenian is the oldest attested form of the Armenian language. It was first written down at the beginning of the 5th century, all Armenian literature from through the 18th century is in Classical Armenian. Many ancient manuscripts written in Ancient Greek, Hebrew and Latin survive only in Armenian translation. Classical Armenian continues to be the liturgical language of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church and is learned by Biblical and Patristic scholars dedicated to textual studies. Classical Armenian is important for the reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European language. There are seven monophthongs: /a/, /i/, /ə/ or schwa, /ɛ/ or open e, /e/ or closed e, /o/, /u/; the vowel transcribed u is spelled using the Armenian letters for ow but it is not a diphthong. There are traditionally six diphthongs: ay, aw, ea, ew, iw, oy. In the following table is the Classical Armenian consonantal system; the stops and affricate consonants have, in addition to the more common voiced and unvoiced series a separate aspirated series, transcribed with the notation used for Ancient Greek rough breathing after the letter: p῾, t῾, c῾, č῾, k῾.
Each phoneme has three symbols in the table. The leftmost indicates the pronunciation in International Phonetic Alphabet; the letter f was introduced in the Medieval Period to represent the foreign sound /f/, the voiceless labiodental fricative. List of Armenian writers Proto-Armenian language Armenian alphabet Adjarian, Hrachia. Etymological Root Dictionary of the Armenian Language. Vol. I – IV. Yerevan: Yerevan State University. Meillet, Antoine. Esquisse d’une grammaire comparée de l’arménien classique. Thomson, Robert W. An Introduction to Classical Armenian. Caravan Books. Godel, Robert. An Introduction to the Study of Classical Armenian. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag Classical Armenian Online New Dictionary of the Armenian Language, Venice 1836-1837; the seminal dictionary of Classical Armenian. Includes Armenian to Latin, Armenian to Greek. Pocket Dictionary of the Armenian Language, Venice 1865. New Dictionary Armenian-English, Venice, 1875-9. Grabar Dictionary, Ruben Ghazarian, Yerevan, 2000.
Grabar Thesaurus, Ruben Ghazarian, Yerevan, 2006. A grammar and English by Paschal Aucher and Lord Byron. Venice 1873
In antiquity, Cilicia was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire. Extending inland from the southeastern coast of modern Turkey, Cilicia is due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus and corresponds to the modern region of Çukurova in Turkey. Cilicia extended along the Mediterranean coast east from Pamphylia, to the Nur Mountains, which separated it from Syria. North and east of Cilicia lie the rugged Taurus Mountains that separate it from the high central plateau of Anatolia, which are pierced by a narrow gorge, called in antiquity the Cilician Gates. Ancient Cilicia was divided into Cilicia Trachaea and Cilicia Pedias by the Limonlu River. Salamis, the city on the east coast of Cyprus, was included in its administrative jurisdiction; the Greeks invented for Cilicia an eponymous Hellene founder in the purely mythical Cilix, but the historic founder of the dynasty that ruled Cilicia Pedias was Mopsus, identifiable in Phoenician sources as Mpš, the founder of Mopsuestia who gave his name to an oracle nearby.
Homer mentions the people of Mopsus, identified as Cilices, as from the Troad in the northernwesternmost part of Anatolia. The English spelling Cilicia is the same as the Latin, as it was transliterated directly from the Greek form Κιλικία; the palatalization of c occurring in the west in Vulgar Latin accounts for its modern pronunciation in English. Cilicia Trachea is a rugged mountain district formed by the spurs of Taurus, which terminate in rocky headlands with small sheltered harbors, a feature which, in classical times, made the coast a string of havens for pirates and, in the Middle Ages, outposts for Genoese and Venetian traders; the district is watered by the Calycadnus and was covered in ancient times by forests that supplied timber to Phoenicia and Egypt. Cilicia lacked large cities. Cilicia Pedias, to the east, included the rugged spurs of Taurus and a large coastal plain, with rich loamy soil, known to the Greeks such as Xenophon, who passed through with his mercenary group of the Ten Thousand, for its abundance, filled with sesame and millet and olives and pasturage for the horses imported by Solomon.
Many of its high places were fortified. The plain is watered by the three great rivers, the Cydnus, the Sarus and the Pyramus, each of which brings down much silt from the deforested interior and which fed extensive wetlands; the Sarus now enters the sea due south of Tarsus, but there are clear indications that at one period it joined the Pyramus, that the united rivers ran to the sea west of Kara-tash. Through the rich plain of Issus ran the great highway that linked east and west, on which stood the cities of Tarsus on the Cydnus, Adana on the Sarus, Mopsuestia on the Pyramus. Cilicia was settled from the Neolithic period onwards. Dating of the ancient settlements of the region from Neolithic to Bronze Age is as follows: Aceramic/Neolithic: 8th and 7th millennia BC. 5400–4500 BC. 3400 BC. The area had been known as Kizzuwatna in the earlier Hittite era; the region was divided into two parts, Uru Adaniya, a well-watered plain, "rough" Cilicia, in the mountainous west. The Cilicians appear as Hilikku in Assyrian inscriptions, in the early part of the first millennium BC were one of the four chief powers of Western Asia.
Homer mentions the plain as the "Aleian plain" in which Bellerophon wandered, but he transferred the Cilicians far to the west and north and made them allies of Troy. The Cilician cities unknown to Homer bore their pre-Greek names: Tarzu, Danuna-Adana, which retains its ancient name, Pahri and Azatiwataya. There exists evidence that circa 1650 BC both Hittite kings Hattusili I and Mursili I enjoyed freedom of movement along the Pyramus River, proving they exerted strong control over Cilicia in their battles with Syria. After the death of Murshili around 1595 BC, Hurrians wrested control from the Hitties, Cilicia was free for two centuries; the first king of free Cilicia, Išputahšu, son of Pariyawatri, was recorded as a "great king" in both cuneiform and Hittite hieroglyphs. Another record of Hittite origins, a treaty between Išputahšu and Telipinu, king of the Hittites, is recorded in both Hittite and Akkadian. In the next century, Cilician king Pilliya finalized treaties with both King Zidanta II of the Hittites and Idrimi of Alalakh, in which Idrimi mentions that he had assaulted several military targets throughout Eastern Cilicia.
Niqmepa, who succeeded Idrimi as king of Alalakh, went so far as to ask for help from a Hurrian rival, Shaushtatar of Mitanni, to try and reduce Cilicia's power in the region. It was soon apparent, that increased Hittite power would soon prove Niqmepa's efforts to be futile, as the city of Kizzuwatna soon fell to the Hittites, threatening all of Cilicia. Soon after, King Sunassura II was forced to accept vassalization under the Hittites, becoming the last king of ancient Cilicia. In the 13th century BC a major population shift occurred as the Sea Peoples overran Cilicia; the Hurrians that resided there deserted the area and moved northeast towards the Taurus Mountains, where