The Juniata River is a tributary of the Susquehanna River 104 miles long, in central Pennsylvania in the United States. The river is considered scenic along much of its route, having a broad and shallow course passing through several mountain ridges and steeply-lined water gaps, it formed an early 18th-century frontier region in Pennsylvania and was the site of Native American attacks against white settlements during the French and Indian War. The watershed of the river encompasses an area of 3,400 square miles one-eighth of the drainage area of the Susquehanna. Two-thirds of the watershed is forested, it is the second largest tributary of the Susquehanna after the West Branch Susquehanna. The Juniata River forms in western Huntingdon County at the confluence of the Frankstown Branch and the Little Juniata River, between the boroughs of Alexandria and Petersburg; the river flows southeast through Huntingdon and continues to the small village of Ardenheim, where the Raystown Branch, the longest of the Juniata's tributaries, enters from the southwest.
The Juniata continues southeast, through a gap in the Jacks Mountain ridge. On the southeast side of the ridge it receives Aughwick Creek from the south flows northeast, along the eastern flank of the Jacks Mountain ridge to Lewistown, where it collects Kishacoquillas Creek and Jacks Creek. From Lewistown it flows southeast, in a winding course, receiving Tuscarora Creek from the south and passing through a gap in the Tuscarora Mountain ridge; the Juniata River is joined by three creeks in Millerstown in northeast Perry County. It receives Cocolamus Creek.7 miles southeast, Raccoon Creek.5 miles southeast, Wildcat Run 2.8 miles southeast of Millerstown. The river receives Buffalo Creek.9 miles northwest of Newport. The Juniata River joins the Susquehanna River in Reed Township, Dauphin County northwest of the Clarks Ferry Bridge; this is northeast of Duncannon and 15 miles northwest of Harrisburg. The word "Juniata" is thought to be a corruption of the Iroquoian word Onayutta, meaning "Standing Stone".
There was a large standing stone. It was 14.5 feet tall and contained carvings recording the history of the local Juniata Tribe. It disappeared in 1754. A second stone was raised by the new settlers but destroyed in 1897. A two-foot fragment of the second stone sits in Juniata College's museum; the first known inhabitants of the river valley were the Onojutta-Haga Indians. The valley was inhabited by the Lenape until a treaty negotiated by William Penn opened the land to east of the Allegheny Ridge to white settlement. In 1755–1756, as a result of Lenape anger over loss of their lands, the white settlement in the valley suffered fierce raids and abductions from Lenape and Shawnee at Kittanning on the Allegheny River. Over 3,000 white settlers were killed in the raids; the burning of Fort Granville at present-day Lewistown in 1756 prompted Pennsylvania governor John Penn to launch a reprisal against the Lenape and Shawnee led by Lt. Col. John Armstrong, who burned Kittanning in September 1756. During the 19th century, the river was paralleled by the Juniata Division Canal, part of the canal system of Pennsylvania and a rival to the Erie Canal.
The state sold the canal to the Pennsylvania Railroad, which abandoned the canal in 1889 after severe flooding. Parts of the original locks from the canal, as well as remnants of a dam 1 mile south of Millerstown, are still visible today; the river is a popular destination for recreational canoeing and fly fishing, in particular for smallmouth bass and channel catfish suited to the river's gentle course. The muskellunge is now a prized catch. Attempts are underway by the state to reintroduce the once-prevalent American shad, which went into decline because of dams on the river. Walleye is another game fish prevalent in the Juniata River; the National Book Award and Pulitzer prize-winning poet Galway Kinnell wrote of the river in a section of The Book of Nightmares, entitled "Dear Stranger, Extant in Memory by the Blue Juniata". The river cuts through several southwest-to-northeast ridges of sandstone between limestone valley floors. Several of the river's tributaries, including Kishacoquillas Creek, are degraded by pollution, but the main stem of the river is considered clean by regional standards.
The only city in the watershed with ten thousand or more residents is Altoona. Steep slopes along much of the river's course have discouraged widespread development. List of rivers of Pennsylvania Bloody Run Canoe Classic Heirline Covered Bridge U. S. Geological Survey: PA stream gaging stations Juniata Clean Water Partnership "The Juniata and Chesapeake Bay"
Little Mahanoy Creek
Little Mahanoy Creek is a 7.5 miles tributary of Mahanoy Creek in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. It joins Mahanoy Creek in the borough of Gordon, its one named tributary is Rattling Run. The creek's watershed has an area of 11.6 square miles. Its watershed is not affected by mining. Compounds found in the waters of the creek include nitrogen, orthophosphates, phosphates and ammonia. Little Mahanoy Creek heads westward past a pond or small lake, it drops steeply through a steep narrow valley between Ashland Mountain and Broad Mountain, which abruptly widens out a short distance downstream. The creek flows on the northern edge of Broad Mountain to the borough of Gordon, where it picks up Rattling Run before flowing into Mahanoy Creek. Rattling Run flows into Little Mahanoy Creek in Gordon, not far from Little Mahanoy Creek's mouth, it rises from springs on the slopes of Broad Mountain. The watershed of Little Mahanoy Creek has an area of 11.6 square miles. Areas in the watershed include the southern side of Ashland Mountain between Frackville and the creek's mouth.
Little Mahanoy Creek flows through a valley between Broad Mountain. The valley is steep and narrow near the creek's headwaters, but becomes broader further downstream, being close to 2.0 miles wide at the mouth. The creek lies over a layer of red shale. Below the shale is a layer of hard and compact sandstone, which has some black, carbon-containing matter in it. Little Mahanoy Creek is one of the only tributaries of Mahanoy Creek, not affected by mining in the area; the other is Schwaben Creek. The average discharge of Little Mahanoy Creek, as measured in late 2008 and early 2009 2.3 cubic feet per second and 14.9 cubic feet per second, with an average of 8.02 cubic feet per second. The discharge increased between September 2008 and April 2009. In the same time period, the water temperature ranged between 39.2 °F and 54.3 °F. The average temperature during that time was 46.2 °F. The measurement in September 2008 was the highest and the measurement in March 2009 was the lowest; the electrical conductivity of the creek 0.169 to 0.295 thousandths of a siemens.
The average conductivity was 0.238 thousands of a siemens. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the waters of Little Mahanoy Creek ranged between 9.8 milligrams per liter and 11.8 milligrams per liter in late 2008 and early 2009. The average concentration was 11.2 milligrams per liter. The creek is alkaline, with pH levels ranging from 7.4 in late 2008 to 8.1 in March 2009. The average pH level between September 2008 and April 2009 was 7.6. In late 2008 and early 2009, the concentration of suspended sediment ranged from 2 to 9 milligrams per liter, with an average of 4.5 milligrams per liter. The total concentration of suspended solids in the creek was less than 5 milligrams per liter, but was 6 milligrams per liter on April 16, 2009; the total concentration of orthophosphates in Mahanoy Creek between September 2008 and April 2009 ranged from 0.029 to 0.112, with an average of 0.055 milligrams per liter. The concentration decreased between late 2008 and early 2009; the concentration of phosphorus ranged between 0.113 milligrams per liter and 0.044 milligrams per liter, with an average of 0.083 milligrams per liter.
The concentration of nitrogen ranged from 1.39 milligrams per liter to 2.61 milligrams per liter, with an average of 0.93 milligrams per liter. The concentration of nitrates ranged from 1.13 to 2.14 milligrams per liter, with an average of 0.78 milligrams per liter. The concentration of ammonia was less than 0.02 milligrams per liter between November 2008 and April 2009. A sawmill was built on Little Mahanoy Creek in 1814. In 1875, the borough of Ashland purchased a tract of land on the creek in Butler Township, two miles downstream of the creek's headwaters. In 1882, some people attempted to pump water from Little Mahanoy Creek to create a reservoir and pipe the water to those who needed it. Little Mahanoy Creek was polluted in 1915. Around that time, it was a source of water for the borough of Ashland. In 1936, the Frackville Sewerage Company attempted to create a sewer in Frackville, but after a controversy about paying for the sewer, it was stopped, causing the pumphouse to discharge into Little Mahanoy Creek.
A number of local court cases resulted from this. Discharging sewage into the creek was banned by 1938. In 2011, there was an Easter egg drop in Little Mahanoy Creek. There were plans to make it an annual tradition. Little Mahanoy Creek is a trout stream, it can be fished in year-round. The trout are stocked in the creek. For instance, 600 trout were stocked in 2001. Rainbow trout have historically been observed in the creek. In 1906, there were 800 fish in the creek, including juvenile fish, yearling fish, adult fish. Crab Run, next tributary of Mahanoy Creek going downstream Shenandoah Creek, next tributary of Mahnaoy Creek going upstream List of rivers in Pennsylvania List of tributaries of Mahanoy Creek
Snyder County, Pennsylvania
Snyder County is a county in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,702; the county seat is Middleburg. Snyder County was formed in 1855 from parts of Union County. Snyder County comprises the Selinsgrove, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Bloomsburg-Berwick-Sunbury, PA Combined Statistical Area. Snyder County was settled in the 1740s by Pennsylvania Germans from Berks and Lancaster counties, became an independent political unit on March 2, 1855, when formed under part of Union County. Snyder County took its name in honor of the famous citizen and political figure Simon Snyder, governor of Pennsylvania for three terms, from 1808 to 1817, made his home in Selinsgrove; the county seat of Middleburg was laid out in 1800 and incorporated in 1864. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 332 square miles, of which 329 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water. It is the fifth-smallest county in Pennsylvania by area.
Snyder County is in the Valley region of the Appalachian Mountains. Two parallel mountain ridges, Shade Mountain and Jacks Mountain, run southwest to northeast; the Susquehanna River is the eastern border. Between the ridges are steep hills rolling hills, flat creek valleys. With over 400 active farms in the county, agriculture plays an important role in the economy and environment. Half the county remains forested with both softwoods and hardwoods; these woods provide a place for wildlife to roam. Union County Northumberland County Juniata County Mifflin County According to the 2010 federal census, there were 39,702 people, 14,414 households, 9,981 families residing in the county; the population density was 113 people per square mile. There were 14,890 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97% White, 1.2% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander. Two percent of the population were Latino. US Veterans – 2,681.
Median household income, 2010–2014 was reported as $48,718, while the per capita income was $23,886. In 2014, the median household income in the USA was $53,700; as of the census of 2000, there were 37,546 people, 13,654 households, 9,981 families residing in the county. The population density was 113 people per square mile. There were 14,890 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.93% White, 0.82% Black or African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander. 0.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 48.2 % were of 17.2 % American and 5.5 % English ancestry. There were 13,654 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.00% were married couples living together, 7.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.90% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 11.20% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 95.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.10 males. The average wage per job reported for 2003 was $26,650. County population in 2003 had risen to 37,965. Jobs in 2003 were 17,907, with a total labor force in 2004 of 19,863; the unemployment rate in 2004 was reported at 4.8%. Average household size in Snyder County in 2004 was 2.58. County poverty demographics According to research by The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, a legislative agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the poverty rate for Snyder County was 13.1% in 2014. The statewide poverty rate was 13.6% in 2014. The 2012 childhood poverty rate by public school district was: Midd-West School District – 47.1% living at 185% or below than the Federal Poverty Level, Selinsgrove Area School District – 39.5%.
According to the US Census Bureau, from 2009-2014 Snyder County saw a 51% increase in the number of families in the federal food assistance program called SNAP. The number of people or families receiving monthly SNAP dollars rose from 1,006 in 2009 to 1,511 people in 2014. Teen pregnancy rateThe Pennsylvania Department of Health reports the annual teens aged 15–19 birth rate. From 2011 to 2015, Snyder County experienced a 17% decline in teen pregnancies. In Pennsylvania the majority of pupils graduate from high school at age 18 years old. Snyder County is home to a large Amish population. 2015 – 228 2014 – 239 2013 – 258 2012 – 263 2011 – 274 The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Snyder County as the Selinsgrove, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census the micropolitan area ranked 15th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 313th most populous in the United States with a population of 39,702. Snyder County is a part of the Bloomsburg–Berwick–Sunbury, PA Combined Statistical Area, which combines the populations of Snyder County, as well as Columbia, Montour and Union Counties in Pennsylvania.
The Combined Statistical Area ranked 8th in the State of Pennsylvania and 115th most populous in the United States with a population of 264,739. The county is Republican in presidential elections; the last Republican nominee to receive less than 60% of
Schwaben Creek is a tributary of Mahanoy Creek in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. Schwaben Creek is 10.7 miles long. The creek has two named tributaries, which both join Schwaben Creek close to its mouth; the tributaries are called Mouse Creek. Schwaben Creek flows through Upper Mahanoy Township, Washington Township, Jackson Township. Nearly all of the creek's watershed is devoted to agricultural land and forests, although there is some development. Painted furniture was made in the Schwaben Creek valley in the 18th and 19th centuries; the creek is in the ridge-and-valley geographical province. Schwaben Creek starts in Mahanoy Township, south of Line Mountain; the creek flows westward through a valley, going past the communities of Leck Kill and Greenbrier before exiting Mahanoy Township. Upon exiting Mahanoy Township, Schwaben Creek flows into Washington Township. Shortly after entering Washington Township, the creek flows northwest to pass by the Himmels Church, where it picks up its tributary Middle Creek.
It flows westward past the community of Rebuck, the Rebuck Church before turning southwest and west again. The creek's valley begins getting wider as it passes St. Peters Church and leaves Washington Township. Schwaben Creek enters Jackson Township, where it bends southwards, picking up Mouse Creek at the community of Red Cross; the creek turns northwest and flows under Pennsylvania Route 225 to enter Mahanoy Creek. Middle Creek is one tributary of Schwaben Creek. Middle Creek flows into Schwaben Creek three quarters of the way from the source to the mouth. Mouse Creek is another tributary of Schwaben Creek, it has a drainage area of 7.1 square miles. The creek joins Schwaben Creek about half a mile from the latter creek's confluence with Mahanoy Creek. Townships in the Schwaben Creek watershed include Upper Mahanoy Township; the total area of the creek's watershed is 22.48 square miles. The watershed has a total of 47.7 miles stream distance. 55% of the land in the Schwaben Creek watershed is devoted to agriculture.
An additional 41% of the land consists of forests. 3% of the land in the watershed is termed "low-intensity development" by the Environmental Protection Agency.2,963 acres of the Schwaben Creek watershed consist of pastures and similar land. 5,019 acres of the watershed are devoted to cropland. 5,950 acres are devoted to forest. 378 acres are devoted to low-intensity development. 49 acres of the watershed are devoted to unpaved roads. 20 acres are labeled as "transition" by the Environmental Protection Agency. 7 acres of the watershed consist of wetlands. The Himmel's Church Covered Bridge crosses Schwaben Creek at Rebuck, it was built in 1874. A total of 30,085 pounds of sediment flow through Schwaben Creek per day; this equates to 10,980,800 pounds per year. 25,561 pounds per day comes from cropland and 2,618 pounds per day come from stream banks. 835 pounds per day come from pastures, 701 pounds per day comes from forests, 310 pounds per day comes from unpaved roads. Land with low intensity development and land in transition are the smallest contributors of sediment to Schwaben Creek, contributing 45 pounds and 15 pounds per day, respectively.
The average annual rainfall over a 19-year period in the Schwaben Creek watershed is 39.3 inches. The average annual runoff over a 19-year period in the watershed is 3.11 inches. All of the streams in the Schwaben Creek watershed are considered "impaired" by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection; the exception is the headwaters of Middle Creek. Schwaben Creek, along with Little Mahanoy Creek, are the only tributaries of Mahanoy Creek that are not affected by the mining industry; the average elevation in the Schwaben Creek watershed is 819 feet above sea level. The creek and its entire watershed is located in the ridge-and-valley physiographic province; the rocks on the surface of the creek's watershed are interbedded sedimentary rock. The main soil group is the C group. Erosion channels are present in impaired parts of the streams in the Schwaben Creek watershed; the streambanks of many streams in the watershed are eroded. A rock formation consisting of coarse white or light gray sandstone on top of a layer of buff and yellow colored rock passes through the Schwaben Creek watershed.
Schwaben Creek used to be known as Himmels Creek, or Greenbriar Creek. Schwaben Creek takes its name from the German region of Swabia; the name reflects the homeland of the area's settlers. A named, but otherwise unrelated, Swabia Creek exists in Berks and Lehigh Counties, about 75 miles east of Schwaben Creek. A large number of furniture pieces were made in the Schwaben Creek valley in the late 18th century and early 1800s; the furniture was made by Pennsylvania German inhabitants, including Johannes Mayer. The types of furniture included blanket chests, chests of drawers, cupboards; the 2013 book Encyclopedia of American Folk Art called the furniture from the Schwaben Creek valley "the most exuberant and unique paint-decorated furniture". An eastward-running road between Sunbury and Paxtang Road was laid out in 1788; the road was 10 miles long and was built by Andrew Reitz, Frederick Knoebel, George Pfeiffer, John Nicholas Hettrick, John Nicholas Snyder, Michael Roth. Schwaben Creek has been recognized as an impaired watershed since 2002.
Schwaben Creek is stocked with trout each year between February 15 and July 31. Livestock have access
Selinsgrove is the largest borough in Snyder County, United States. The population was 5,383 at the 2000 census. Selinsgrove is geographically located in the middle of the Susquehanna River Valley in Central Pennsylvania, along U. S. Routes 11 and 15, 36.4 miles north of Harrisburg and 5.7 miles southwest of Sunbury. It is the home of Susquehanna University. Selinsgrove was founded in 1787 by Captain Anthony Selin; the Penns Creek Massacre on October 16, 1755, was the first Indian hostility event in the region after General Braddock's defeat in the Seven Year War. A marker on the bank of Penns Creek north of Selinsgrove commemorates the massacre of 14 settlers and the capture of 11 more. In response to this and other Indian actions that day, Fort Augusta, Pennsylvania, the largest of Pennsylvania's frontier forts, was built in 1756 as a result of this conflict. Selinsgrove Hall and Seibert Hall at Susquehanna University and Gov. Simon Snyder Mansion on Market Street are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.9 square miles. Selinsgrove borders the Susquehanna River; the portion of the borough, located between Penns Creek and the Susquehanna River is known locally as the "Isle of Que". Selinsgrove is the principal city in the Selinsgrove, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, is part of the larger Bloomsburg-Berwick-Sunbury, PA Combined Statistical Area; as of the census of 2010, there were 5,654 people, 1,767 households, 987 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,790.3 people per square mile. There were 1,912 housing units at an average density of 991.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 94.67% White, 2.73% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.91% Asian, 0.87% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.92% of the population. There were 1,767 households out of which 23.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.1% were non-families.
34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.75. In the borough, the population was spread out with 14.6% under the age of 18, 34.9% from 18 to 24, 18.7% from 25 to 44, 15.0% from 45 to 64, 16.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $31,034, the median income for a family was $42,500. Males had a median income of $29,679 versus $22,115 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $13,401. About 7.8% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.8% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. The average weekly wage for Snyder County in 2005 was $553; this is equivalent to $13.83 per hour or $28,756 per year, assuming a 40-hour week worked the year around.
The largest local employers are housing-related manufacturers and educational institutions including the public schools and Susquehanna University. Educational services and health care/social assistance combined are projected to be about 90.7% of all job growth by 2014 in the central region. Manufacturing of both non-durable and durable goods are expected to lose over 4,000 jobs in the same time period. Construction is the only goods-producing sector projecting job growth, where employment may increase by about 210 jobs. Outside of the community local region employment includes: service jobs in local businesses, area hospitals which include UPMC Susquehanna Sunbury in Sunbury and Evangelical Hospital in Lewisburg; the borough is governed by an elected council of seven residents. The Borough Council meets the first Monday of the month, in the borough building. There is a borough manager and a chief of police; the borough council consists of Democrats and Republicans, but members of the Green Party and Libertarian Party have served.
Budget - In 2017, the Council approved a one mill real estate tax increase to fund a $7,136 million budget. The millage increased from 17 mills to 18 mills. Local government has been challenged by the increasing amount of property, tax exempt. In 2004 it was reported; this includes the land owned by Susquehanna University, the land held by local churches and the campus of the Selinsgrove Area School District. The borough has been facing a continued decrease in the value of the taxable real estate for many years; the borough has requested "payment in lieu of taxes" from the exempt entities with limited success. There have been several successful property tax assessment challenges that have decreased tax revenues. Selinsgrove is located within the 85th Legislative District for the Pennsylvania General Assembly; this office is held by Fred Keller. The Pennsylvania Senate District 27 office is held by Senator John Gordner. Selinsgrove is in the US House of Representatives 10th district, represented by Tom Marino.
US Routes 11, 15 and 522, along with PA Route 35 pass through Selinsgrove. Intercity bus service is provided between the borough and Harrisburg to the south and Williamsport and Elmira, New York to the north by Fullington Trailways. Selinsgrove Area School District is the local public school system; the district operates four schools, with 2,700 students in 2013
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U. S. states of Virginia. The Bay is located in the Mid-Atlantic region and is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Delmarva Peninsula with its mouth located between Cape Henry and Cape Charles. With its northern portion in Maryland and the southern part in Virginia, the Chesapeake Bay is a important feature for the ecology and economy of those two states, as well as others. More than 150 major rivers and streams flow into the Bay's 64,299-square-mile drainage basin, which covers parts of six states and all of Washington, D. C; the Bay is 200 miles long from its northern headwaters in the Susquehanna River to its outlet in the Atlantic Ocean. It is 2.8 miles wide at 30 miles at its widest. Total shoreline including tributaries is 11,684 miles, circumnavigating a surface area of 4,479 square miles. Average depth is 21 feet; the Bay is spanned twice, in Maryland by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge from Sandy Point to Kent Island and in Virginia by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel connecting Virginia Beach to Cape Charles.
Known for both its beauty and bounty, the Bay has become "emptier", with fewer crabs and watermen in past years. Recent restoration efforts begun in the 1990s have been ongoing and show potential for growth of the native oyster population; the health of the Chesapeake Bay improved in 2015, marking three years of gains over the past four years, according to a new report by the University of Maryland. The word Chesepiooc is an Algonquian word referring to a village "at a big river", it is the seventh oldest surviving English place-name in the United States, first applied as "Chesepiook" by explorers heading north from the Roanoke Colony into a Chesapeake tributary in 1585 or 1586. The name may refer to the Chesapeake people or the Chesepian, a Native American tribe who inhabited the area now known as South Hampton Roads in the U. S. state of Virginia. They occupied an area, now the Norfolk, Portsmouth and Virginia Beach areas. In 2005, Algonquian linguist Blair Rudes "helped to dispel one of the area's most held beliefs: that'Chesapeake' means something like'great shellfish bay.'
It does not, Rudes said. The name might have meant something like'great water,' or it might have just referred to a village location at the Bay's mouth." In addition, the name is always prefixed by "the" in usage by local residents: "The Chesapeake", "The Chesapeake Bay" and "The Bay". The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary to the North Atlantic, lying between the Delmarva Peninsula to the east and the North American mainland to the west, it is the ria, or drowned valley, of the Susquehanna River, meaning that it was the alluvial plain where the river flowed when the sea level was lower. It is not a fjord, because the Laurentide Ice Sheet never reached as far south as the northernmost point on the Bay. North of Baltimore, the western shore borders the hilly Piedmont region of Maryland; the large rivers entering the Bay from the west have broad mouths and are extensions of the main ria for miles up the course of each river. The Bay's geology, its present form, its location were created by a bolide impact event at the end of the Eocene, forming the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and the Susquehanna River valley much later.
The Bay was formed starting about 10,000 years ago when rising sea levels at the end of the last ice age flooded the Susquehanna River valley. Parts of the Bay the Calvert County, coastline, are lined by cliffs composed of deposits from receding waters millions of years ago; these cliffs known as Calvert Cliffs, are famous for their fossils fossilized shark teeth, which are found washed up on the beaches next to the cliffs. Scientists' Cliffs is a beach community in Calvert County named for the desire to create a retreat for scientists when the community was founded in 1935. Much of the Bay is shallow. At the point where the Susquehanna River flows into the Bay, the average depth is 30 feet, although this soon diminishes to an average of 10 feet southeast of the city of Havre de Grace, Maryland, to about 35 feet just north of Annapolis. On average, the depth of the Bay is 21 feet, including tributaries; because the Bay is an estuary, it has salt water and brackish water. Brackish water has three salinity zones: oligohaline and polyhaline.
The freshwater zone runs from the mouth of the Susquehanna River to north Baltimore. The oligohaline zone has little salt. Salinity varies from 0.5 ppt to 10 ppt, freshwater species can survive there. The north end of the oligohaline zone is north Baltimore and the south end is the Chesapeake Bay Bridge; the mesohaline zone has a medium amount of salt and runs from the Bay Bridge to the mouth of the Rappahannock River. Salinity there ranges from 10.7 ppt to 18 ppt. The polyhaline zone is the saltiest zone, some of the water can be as salty as sea water, it runs from the mouth of the Rappahannock River to the mouth of the Bay. The salinity ranges from 18.7 ppt to 36 ppt. The climate of the area surrounding the Bay i
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary