Galician-Portuguese known as Old Portuguese or as Medieval Galician when referring to the history of each modern language, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. Alternatively, it can be considered a historical period of the Portuguese languages. Galician-Portuguese was first spoken in the area bounded in the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean and by the Douro River in the south, comprising Galicia and northern Portugal, but it was extended south of the Douro by the Reconquista, it is the common ancestor of modern Portuguese, Galician and Fala varieties, all of which maintain a high level of mutual intelligibility. The term "Galician-Portuguese" designates the subdivision of the modern West Iberian group of Romance languages. Galician-Portuguese developed in the region of the former Roman province of Gallaecia, from the Vulgar Latin, introduced by Roman soldiers and magistrates during the time of the Roman Empire. Although the process may have been slower than in other regions, the centuries of contact with Vulgar Latin, after a period of bilingualism extinguished the native languages, leading to the evolution of a new variety of Latin with a few Gallaecian features.
Gallaecian and Lusitanian influences were absorbed into the local Vulgar Latin dialect, which can be detected in some Galician-Portuguese words as well as in placenames of Celtic and Iberian origin. In general, the more cultivated variety of Latin spoken by the Hispano-Roman elites in Roman Hispania had a peculiar regional accent, referred to as Hispano ore and agrestius pronuntians; the more cultivated variety of Latin coexisted with the popular variety. It is assumed that the Pre-Roman languages spoken by the native people, each used in a different region of Roman Hispania, contributed to the development of several different dialects of Vulgar Latin and that these diverged over time evolving into the early Romance Languages of Iberia, it is believed. An early form of Galician-Portuguese was spoken in the Kingdom of the Suebi and by the year 800 Galician-Portuguese had become the vernacular of northwestern Iberia; the first known phonetic changes in Vulgar Latin, which began the evolution to Galician-Portuguese, took place during the rule of the Germanic groups, the Suebi and Visigoths.
And the Galician-Portuguese "inflected infinitive" and the nasal vowels may have evolved under the influence of local Celtic languages. The nasal vowels would thus be a phonologic characteristic of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Roman Gallaecia, but they are not attested in writing until after the 6th and 7th centuries; the oldest known document to contain Galician-Portuguese words found in northern Portugal is called the Doação à Igreja de Sozello and dated to 870 but otherwise composed in Late/Medieval Latin. Another document, from 882 containing some Galician-Portuguese words is the Carta de dotação e fundação da Igreja de S. Miguel de Lardosa. In fact, many Latin documents written in Portuguese territory contain Romance forms; the Notícia de fiadores, written in 1175, is thought by some to be the oldest known document written in Galician-Portuguese. The Pacto dos irmãos Pais discovered, has been said to be older, but despite the enthusiasm of some scholars, it has been shown that the documents are not written in Galician-Portuguese but are in fact a mixture of Late Latin and Galician-Portuguese phonology and syntax.
The Noticia de Torto, of uncertain date, the Testamento de D. Afonso II are most Galician-Portuguese; the earliest poetic texts date from c. 1195 to c. 1225. Thus, by the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th there are documents in prose and verse written in the local Romance vernacular. In Galicia the oldest document showing traces of the underlying Romance language is a royal charter by king Silo of Asturias, dated in 775: it uses substrate words as arrogio and lagena, now arroio and laxe, presents the elision of unstressed vowels and the lenition of plosive consonants; as for the oldest document written in Galician-Portuguese in Galicia, it is a document from the monastery of Melón dated in 1231, since the 1228-dated Charter of the Boo Burgo of Castro Caldelas is a latter translation of a Latin original. Galician-Portuguese had a special cultural role in the literature of the Christian kingdoms of Crown of Castile comparable to the Catalan Language of the Crown of Aragon, or that of Occitan in France and Italy during the same historical period.
The main extant sources of Galician-Portuguese lyric poetry are these: The four extant manuscripts of the Cantigas de Santa Maria Cancioneiro da Ajuda Cancioneiro da Vaticana Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti known as Cancioneiro da Biblioteca Nacional Cancioneiro dun Grande de Espanha Pergaminho Vindel Pergaminho Sharrer Os 5 lais de Bretanha Tenzón entre Afonso S
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings and collectively, prefers critical thinking and evidence over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it; the term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature. However, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress, it views humans as responsible for the promotion and development of individuals and emphasizes a concern for man in relation to the world. In modern times, humanist movements are non-religious movements aligned with secularism, today humanism refers to a nontheistic life stance centred on human agency and looking to science rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world; the word "humanism" is derived from the Latin concept humanitas.
It entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning. In the second century AD, a Latin grammarian, Aulus Gellius, complained: Those who have spoken Latin and have used the language do not give to the word humanitas the meaning which it is thought to have, what the Greeks call φιλανθρωπία, signifying a kind of friendly spirit and good-feeling towards all men without distinction; those who earnestly desire and seek after these are most humanized. For the desire to pursue of that kind of knowledge, the training given by it, has been granted to humanity alone of all the animals, for that reason it is termed humanitas, or "humanity". Gellius says that in his day humanitas is used as a synonym for philanthropy – or kindness and benevolence toward one's fellow human beings.
Gellius maintains that this common usage is wrong, that model writers of Latin, such as Cicero and others, used the word only to mean what we might call "humane" or "polite" learning, or the Greek equivalent Paideia. Yet in seeking to restrict the meaning of humanitas to literary education this way, Gellius was not advocating a retreat from political engagement into some ivory tower, though it might look like that to us, he himself was involved in public affairs. According to legal historian Richard Bauman, Gellius was a judge as well as a grammarian and was an active participant the great contemporary debate on harsh punishments that accompanied the legal reforms of Antoninus Pius. "By assigning pride of place to Paideia in his comment on the etymology of humanitas, Gellius implies that the trained mind is best equipped to handle the problems troubling society."Gellius's writings fell into obscurity during the Middle Ages, but during the Italian Renaissance, Gellius became a favorite author.
Teachers and scholars of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric and poetry were called and called themselves "humanists". Modern scholars, point out that Cicero, most responsible for defining and popularizing the term humanitas, in fact used the word in both senses, as did his near contemporaries. For Cicero, a lawyer, what most distinguished humans from brutes was speech, allied to reason, could enable them to settle disputes and live together in concord and harmony under the rule of law, thus humanitas included two meanings from the outset and these continue in the modern derivative, which today can refer to both humanitarian benevolence and to a method of study and debate involving an accepted group of authors and a careful and accurate use of language. During the French Revolution, soon after, in Germany, humanism began to refer to an ethical philosophy centered on humankind, without attention to the transcendent or supernatural; the designation Religious Humanism refers to organized groups that sprang up during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
It is similar to Protestantism, although centered on human needs and abilities rather than the supernatural. In the Anglophone world, such modern, organized forms of humanism, which are rooted in the 18th-century Enlightenment, have to a considerable extent more or less detached themselves from the historic connection of humanism with classical learning and the liberal arts; the first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in 1933. Signatories included the philosopher John Dewey, they identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reason and social and economic justice, they called for science to replace dogma and the supernatural as the basis of morality and decision-making. In 1808 Bavarian educational commissioner Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer coined the term Humanismus to describe the new classical curriculum he planned to offer in German secondary schools, by 1836 the word "humanism" had been absorbed into the English language in this sense; the coinage gained universal acceptance in 1856, when
Pierre de Ronsard
Pierre de Ronsard was a French poet or, as his own generation in France called him, a "prince of poets". Pierre de Ronsard was born at the Manoir de la Possonnière, in the village of Couture-sur-Loir, Vendômois. Baudouin de Ronsard or Rossart was the founder of the French branch of the house, made his mark in the early stages of the Hundred Years' War; the poet's father was Louis de Ronsard, his mother was Jeanne de Chaudrier, of a family both noble and well connected. Pierre was the youngest son. Loys de Ronsard was maître d'hôtel du roi to Francis I, whose captivity after Pavia had just been softened by treaty, he had to quit his home shortly after Pierre's birth; the future poet was educated at home in his earliest years and sent to the Collège de Navarre in Paris at the age of nine. When Madeleine of France was married to James V of Scotland, Ronsard was attached as a page in the Scottish court, where he was encouraged in the idea of making French vernacular translations of classical authors.
A year after the death of the queen, he returned to France. Further travel took him to Flanders and again, for a short time, Scotland, on diplomatic missions under Claude d'Humières, seigneur de Lassigny, until he was attached as secretary to the suite of Lazare de Baïf, the father of his future colleague in the Pléiade and his companion on this occasion, Antoine de Baïf, at the diet of Speyer. Afterwards he was attached in the same way to the suite of the cardinal du Bellay-Langey, his mythical quarrel with François Rabelais dates from this period, his promising diplomatic career was, cut short by an attack of deafness following a 1540 visit, as part of legation to Alsace, that no physician could cure. The institution he chose for the purpose among the numerous schools and colleges of Paris was the Collège Coqueret, the principal of, Jean Daurat — afterwards the "dark star" of the Pléiade, an acquaintance of Ronsard's from having held the office of tutor in the Baïf household. Antoine de Baïf, Daurat's pupil, accompanied Ronsard.
Muretus, a great scholar and by means of his Latin plays a great influence in the creation of French tragedy, was a student here. Ronsard's period of study occupied seven years, the first manifesto of the new literary movement, to apply to the vernacular the principles of criticism and scholarship learnt from the classics, came not from him but from Du Bellay; the Défense et illustration de la langue française of the latter appeared in 1549, the Pléiade may be said to have been launched. It consisted, as its name implies, of seven writers whose names are sometimes differently enumerated, though the orthodox canon is beyond doubt composed of Ronsard, Du Bellay, Baïf, Remy Belleau, Pontus de Tyard, Jodelle the dramatist, Daurat. Ronsard's own work came a little and a rather idle story is told of a trick of Du Bellay's which at last determined him to publish; some single and minor pieces, an epithalamium on Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne de Navarre, a "Hymne de la France", an "Ode a la Paix," preceded the publication in 1550 of the four first books of the Odes of Pierre de Ronsard.
This was followed in 1552 by the publication of his Amours de Cassandre with the fifth book of Odes, dedicated to the 15-year-old Cassandre Salviati, whom he had met at Blois and followed to her father's Château de Talcy. These books excited a violent literary quarrel. Marot was dead, but he left numerous followers, some of whom saw in the stricter literary critique of the Pléiade, in its outspoken contempt of vernacular and medieval forms, in its strenuous advice to French poetry to "follow the ancients," and so forth, an insult to the author of the Adolescence Clémentine and his school, his popularity in his own time was overwhelming and immediate, his prosperity was unbroken. He published his Hymns, dedicated to Margaret de Valois, in 1555. To this same year belongs his most important and interesting Abrégé de l'art poétique français; the rapid change of sovereigns did Ronsard no harm. Charles IX, King of France, who succeeded his brother after a short time, was better inclined to him than Henry and Francis.
He gave him rooms in the palace. Neither was Charles IX a bad poet; this royal patronage, had its disagreeable side. It excited violent dislike to Ronsard on the part of the Huguenots, who wrote constant pasquinades against him, strove to represent him as a libertine and an atheist, set up his follower Du Bartas as his rival. According to some words of his own, they were not contented with this variety of argument, but attempted to have him assassinated. During this period, Ronsard began writing the epic poem the Franciade, a work, never finished and
V2 word order
In syntax, verb-second word order places the finite verb of a clause or sentence in second position with a single constituent preceding it, which functions as the clause topic. V2 word order is common in the Germanic languages and is found in Northeast Caucasian Ingush, Uto-Aztecan O'odham, fragmentarily in Rhaeto-Romansh Sursilvan. Of the Germanic family, English is exceptional in having predominantly SVO order instead of V2, although there are vestiges of the V2 phenomenon. Most Germanic languages do not use V2 order in embedded clauses, with a few exceptions. In particular, German and Afrikaans revert to VF word order after a complementizer. Kashmiri VF order in relative clauses; the following examples from German illustrate the V2 principle: Sentences a–d have the finite verb spielten in second position, with varying constituents in first position. Sentences e and f sentences are unacceptable because the finite verb no longer appears in second position. V2 word order allows any constituent to occupy the first position as long as the second position is occupied by the finite verb.
The V2 principle regulates the position of finite verbs only. Non-finite verbs in V2 languages appear in varying positions depending on the language. In German and Dutch, for instance, non-finite verbs appear after the object in clause final position in main clauses. Swedish and Icelandic, in contrast, position non-finite verbs after the finite verb but before the object; that is, V2 operates on only the finite verb. Germanic languages vary in the application of V2 order in embedded clauses, they fall into three groups. In these languages, the word order of clauses is fixed in two patterns of conventionally numbered positions. Both end with positions for non-finite verb forms, and, adverbials. In main clauses, the V2 constraint holds; the finite verb must be in sentence adverbs in position. The latter include words with meanings such as'not' and'always'; the subject may be position, but when a topical expression occupies the position, the subject is in position. In embedded clauses, the V2 constraint is absent.
After the conjunction, the subject must follow. Thus, the first four positions are in the fixed order conjunction, sentence adverb, finite verb The position of the sentence adverbs is important to those theorists who see them as marking the start of a large constituent within the clause, thus the finite verb is seen as inside that constituent in embedded clauses, but outside that constituent in V2 main clauses. Swedish Danish So-called Perkerdansk is an example of a variety. Norwegian Faroese Unlike continental Scandinavian languages, the sentence adverb may either precede or follow the finite verb in embedded clauses. A slot is inserted here for the following sentence adverb alternative. In these languages there is a strong tendency to place some or all of the verb forms in final position. In main clauses, the V2 constraint holds; as with other Germanic languages, the finite verb must be in the second position. However, any non-finite forms must be in final position; the subject may be in the first position, but when a topical expression occupies the position, the subject follows the finite verb.
In embedded clauses, the V2 constraint does not hold. The finite verb form must be adjacent to any non-finite at the end of the clause, with different word-order in different languages. German grammarians traditionally divide sentences into fields. Subordinate clauses preceding the main clause are said to be in the first field, clauses following the main clause in the final field; the central field contains most or all of a clause, is bounded by left bracket and right bracket positions. In main clauses, the initial element is said to be located in the first field, the V2 finite verb form in the left bracket, any non-finite verb forms in the right bracket. In embedded clauses, the conjunction is said to be located in the left bracket, the verb forms in the right bracket. In German embedded clauses, a finite verb form follows any non-finite forms. German Dutch This analysis suggests a close parallel between the V2 finite form in main clauses and the conjunctions in embedded clauses; each is seen as an introduction to its clause-type, a function which some modern scholars have equated with the notion of specifier.
The analysis is supported in spoken Dutch by the placement of clitic pronoun subjects. Forms such as ie cannot stand alone, unlike the full-form equivalent hij; the words to which they may be attached are those same introduction words: the V2 form in a main clause, or the conjunction in an embedded clause. Equivalent rules exist in vernacular German, for example regarding the reduced pronunciation of du. Hence, this pronoun may be pronounced or following verbs and conjunctions, but not otherwise. Dutch differs from German in its word order in subordinate clauses. In Dutch subordinate clauses two word orders are possible for the verb clusters and are referred to as the "
Francis I of France
Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, Louise of Savoy, he succeeded his father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. Francis was the ninth king from the House of Valois, the second from the Valois-Orléans branch, the first from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch. A prodigious patron of the arts, he initiated the French Renaissance by attracting many Italian artists to work on the Château de Chambord, including Leonardo da Vinci, who brought the Mona Lisa with him, which Francis had acquired. Francis' reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, the beginning of French exploration of the New World. Jacques Cartier and others claimed lands in the Americas for France and paved the way for the expansion of the first French colonial empire. For his role in the development and promotion of a standardized French language, he became known as le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres.
He was known as François du Grand Nez, the Grand Colas, the Roi-Chevalier for his personal involvement in the wars against his great rival the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V. Following the policy of his predecessors, Francis continued the Italian Wars; the succession of Charles V to the Burgundian Netherlands, the throne of Spain, his subsequent election as Holy Roman Emperor, meant that France was geographically encircled by the Habsburg monarchy. In his struggle against Imperial hegemony, he sought the support of Henry VIII of England at the Field of the Cloth of Gold; when this was unsuccessful, he formed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with the Muslim sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, a controversial move for a Christian king at the time. Francis d'Orléans was born on 12 September 1494 at the Château de Cognac in the town of Cognac, which at that time lay in the province of Saintonge, a part of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Today the town lies in the department of Charente. Francis was the only son of Charles d'Orléans, Count of Angoulême, Louise of Savoy and a great-great-grandson of King Charles V of France.
His family was not expected to inherit the throne, as his third cousin King Charles VIII was still young at the time of his birth, as was his father's cousin the Duke of Orléans King Louis XII. However, Charles VIII died childless in 1498 and was succeeded by Louis XII, who himself had no male heir; the Salic Law prevailed in France, thus females were ineligible to inherit the throne. Therefore, the four-year-old Francis became the heir presumptive to the throne of France in 1498 and was vested with the title of Duke of Valois. In 1505, Louis XII, having fallen ill, ordered that his daughter Claude and Francis be married but only through an assembly of nobles were the two engaged. Claude was heiress to the Duchy of Brittany through Anne of Brittany. Following Anne's death, the marriage took place on 18 May 1514. On 1 January 1515, Louis died, Francis inherited the throne, he was crowned King of France in the Cathedral of Reims on 25 January 1515, with Claude as his queen consort. As Francis was receiving his education, ideas emerging from the Italian Renaissance were influential in France.
Some of his tutors, such as François Desmoulins de Rochefort and Christophe de Longueil, were attracted by these new ways of thinking and attempted to influence Francis. His academic education had been in arithmetic, grammar, reading and writing and he became proficient in Hebrew, Italian and Spanish. Francis came to learn chivalry and music and he loved archery, horseback riding, jousting, real tennis and wrestling, he ended up reading philosophy and theology and he was fascinated with art, literature and science. His mother, who had a high admiration for Italian Renaissance art, passed this interest on to her son. Although Francis did not receive a humanist education, he was more influenced by humanism than any previous French king. By the time he ascended the throne in 1515, the Renaissance had arrived in France, Francis became an enthusiastic patron of the arts. At the time of his accession, the royal palaces of France were ornamented with only a scattering of great paintings, not a single sculpture, either ancient or modern.
During Francis' reign, the magnificent art collection of the French kings, which can still be seen at the Louvre Palace, was begun. Francis patronized many great artists of his time, including Leonardo da Vinci. While da Vinci painted little during his years in France, he brought with him many of his greatest works, including the Mona Lisa, these remained in France after his death. Other major artists to receive Francis' patronage included the goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini and the painters Rosso Fiorentino, Giulio Romano, Primaticcio, all of whom were employed in decorating Francis' various palaces, he invited the noted architect Sebastiano Serlio, who enjoyed a fruitful late career in France. Francis commissioned a number of agents in Italy to procure notable works of art and ship them to France. Francis was renowned as a man of letters; when Francis comes up in a conversation among characters in Baldassare Castiglione's Book of the Courtie
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Charles, Duke of Orléans
Charles of Orléans was Duke of Orléans from 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. He was Duke of Valois, Count of Beaumont-sur-Oise and of Blois, Lord of Coucy, the inheritor of Asti in Italy via his mother Valentina Visconti, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, he is now remembered as an accomplished medieval poet owing to the more than five hundred extant poems he produced, written in both French and English, during his 25 years spent as a prisoner of war and after his return to France. Charles was born in Paris. Acceding to the duchy at the age of thirteen after his father had been assassinated, he was expected to carry on his father's leadership against the Burgundians, a French faction which supported the Duke of Burgundy; the latter was never punished for his role in Louis' assassination, Charles had to watch as his grief-stricken mother Valentina Visconti succumbed to illness not long afterwards.
At her deathbed and the other boys of the family were made to swear the traditional oath of vengeance for their father's murder. During the early years of his reign as duke, the orphaned Charles was influenced by the guidance of his father-in-law, Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, for which reason Charles' faction came to be known as the Armagnacs. After war with the Kingdom of England was renewed in 1415, Charles was one of the many French noblemen at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415, he was discovered unwounded but trapped under a pile of corpses, incapacitated by the weight of his own armour. He was taken prisoner by the English, spent the next twenty-four years being moved from one castle to another in England, including the Tower of London, Pontefract Castle – the castle where England's young King Richard II, cousin once removed of the incumbent English King Henry V, had been imprisoned and died 15 years earlier at the age of 33; the conditions of his confinement were not strict.
However, he was not offered release in exchange for a ransom, since the English King Henry V had left instructions forbidding any release: Charles was the natural head of the Armagnac faction and in the line of succession to the French throne, was therefore deemed too important to be returned to circulation. After his capture, his entire library was moved by Yolande of Aragon to Saumur, to prevent it from falling into enemy hands It was during these twenty-four years that Charles would write most of his poetry, including melancholy works which seem to be commenting on the captivity itself, such as En la forêt de longue attente, he is credited with writing the first Valentine's Day poem. The majority of his output consists of two books, one in French and the other in English, in the ballade and rondeau fixed forms. Though once controversial, it is now abundantly clear that Charles wrote the English poems which he left behind when he was released in 1440, his acceptance in the English canon has been slow.
A. E. B. Coldiron has argued that the problem relates to his "approach to the erotic, his use of puns and rhetorical devices, his formal complexity and experimentation, his stance or voice: all these place him well outside the fifteenth-century literary milieu in which he found himself in England."One of his poems Is she not passing fair?, translated by Louisa Stuart Costello, was set to music by Edward Elgar. Claude Debussy set three of his poems to music in his Trois Chansons de Charles d'Orléans, L.92, for unaccompanied mixed choir. Freed in 1440 by the efforts of his former enemies, Philip the Good and Isabella of Portugal, the Duke and Duchess of Burgundy, he set foot on French soil again after 25 years, by now a middle aged man at 46 and "speaking better English than French," according to the English chronicler Raphael Holinshed. Philip the Good had made it a condition that the murder of Charles' father Louis of Orleans by Philip's own father, John the Fearless, would not be avenged.
Charles agreed to this condition prior to his release. Meeting the Duchess of Burgundy after disembarking, the gallant Charles said: "M'Lady, I make myself your prisoner." At the celebration of his third marriage, with Marie of Cleves, he was created a Knight of the Golden Fleece. His subsequent return to Orléans was marked by a splendid celebration organised by the citizens, he made an unsuccessful attempt to press his claims to Asti in Italy, before settling down as a celebrated patron of the arts. He died at Amboise in his 71st year. Charles married three times, his first wife Isabella of Valois, whom he married in Compiègne in 1406, died in childbirth. Their daughter, Joan married John II of Alençon in 1424 in Blois. Afterwards, he married Bonne of Armagnac, the daughter of Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, in 1410. Bonne died; the couple had no issue. On his return to France in 1440, Charles married Marie of Cleves in Saint-Omer and had three children: Marie of Orléans. Married Jean of Foix in 1476.
Louis XII of France Anne of Orléans, Abbess of Fontevrault and Poitiers. Kingdom of France – Duchy of Orléans: Grand Master and Knight of the Order of the Porcupine Duchy of Burgundy: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece Charles appears as "Duke of Orléans" in William Shakespeare's Henry V. In the 2012 television adaptation The Hollow Crown, Charles is played by French actor Stanley Weber and is inaccurately po