Anthony Chabot Regional Park
Anthony Chabot Regional Park is a regional park in Oakland, Alameda County, California in the United States. It is part of the East Bay Regional Park District system, covers 5,067 acres in the San Leandro Hills adjacent to Oakland, San Leandro and Castro Valley. Popular activities include hiking and horseback riding. A gun range operated by the Chabot Gun Club was shut down in 2016, following complaints about pollution; the terrain of the park is steep, consisting of grasslands and eucalyptus groves. The park is adjacent to Lake Chabot Regional Park, Redwood Regional Park, Dunsmuir Ridge Open Space, the Upper San Leandro Reservoir. There are trails for hiking, horseback riding, cycling that connect to other regional parks. Trailheads are located along Skyline Boulevard in Oakland; the park houses two equestrian centers for private horse boarding and lessons: Chabot Equestrian Center and Skyline Ranch Equestrian Center. A marksmanship range was operated within the park by the non-profit Chabot Gun Club.
The range closed after operating 53 years, due to pollution caused by shell casings. Redwood Canyon Public Golf Course, a marina with rental boats, picnic areas are located at adjacent Lake Chabot Regional Park. Camping is a major activity in the park with seven group camps. Anthony Chabot Family Campground is open year round and features 53 drive-to tent campsites, 10 walk-to tent campsites, 12 RV/trailer campsites; some campsites offer views overlooking Lake Chabot. The park's seven group campsites are for groups ranging in size from 11 to 300 campers. Bort Meadow Group Camp, with a capacity of 300 allows equestrian camping. Anthony Chabot Regional Park opened in 1952 as Grass Valley Regional Park named for the dominant geographic feature of the northern part of the park, Grass Valley. In 1965 the park was renamed in honor of Anthony Chabot, the builder of Lake Chabot and Oakland's first public water system; the lands that make up the park were ancestral land of the Jalquin, an Ohlone and Bay Miwok speaking tribe.
The lands were divided by the Mexican land grants in the 1840s, the southern portion of the park to Rancho San Lorenzo and the northern portion to Rancho San Antonio. In the 1860s American settlers ranched the area including the 525-acre Grass Valley Ranch located in the area, today Bort Meadow. Cattle grazing continues in Grass Valley. Extensive coast redwood logging occurred in Anthony Chabot Regional Park and neighboring Redwood Regional Park from the late 1800s to early 1900s. While all the original coast redwoods in Anthony Chabot Regional Park were logged, many regrowth trees are over 100 years old. Various water companies, predecessors to the East Bay Municipal Utility District, consolidated much of the land for watershed purposes. Beginning around 1910, the water companies were responsible for planting the large eucalyptus plantations that are still a dominant feature in the park; some water company land was leased to ranchers in the 1900s, including the family of Manuel Maciel, an Azorean immigrant.
The Maciel family, ranched the land in the area, now the Anthony Chabot Family Campground and marksmanship range. The main access road to these facilities is named Marciel Road in the family's honor. In the area of Big Bear Staging Area along Redwood Road was the Big Bear Tavern. While no traces remain, this was the site. In 1940, Lu Watters formed the Yerba Buena Jazz Band as a way to reject big band music of the era which he viewed to be bland. Jam sessions were held at the Big Bear Tavern where crowds of up to 400 could assemble on the dance floor; the tavern is memorialized by the band's song "Big Bear Stomp". A ropes course, archery range, motorcycle park were once located at the park. On March 1, 2016, the East Bay Regional Park District Board of Directors voted unanimously to shut down the marksmanship range operated by the Chabot Gun Club; the range, in operation since 1963, ceased operations on September 5, 2016. A service station film set was built along Redwood Road at the Big Bear Staging Area in Anthony Chabot Regional Park for a chase scene in Clint Eastwood's True Crime.
Ebparks.org - East Bay Regional Park District's Anthony Chabot Regional Park page "Anthony Chabot campground map". Anthony Chabot Park map: "text side". "north side". "south side"
Mission Peak Regional Preserve is a public park east of Fremont, operated by the East Bay Regional Park District. It is the northern summit on a ridge that includes Monument Peak. Mission Peak has symbolic importance, is depicted on the logo of the City of Fremont; this park borders and overlooks Silicon Valley, is popular with local hikers, sightseers from the Bay Area, tourists from beyond for its vista and strenuous climb. The "Mission Peeker" marker pole at the summit is the most famous and geo-tagged landmark in the City of Fremont: a stream of sightseers takes photographs alongside the landmark; the Stanford Avenue entrance receives up to two thousand visitors per day on weekends. Visitor numbers surged after 2010, it is the most popular attraction in Fremont. A full six-mile round-trip ascent on a popular trail takes two to five hours for walkers, one to one-and-a-half hours for bicyclists and runners. Difficulty with the midday sun, such as dehydration, is common. Guidelines recommend carrying two liters of water per person, extra water for dogs, sun protection.
Signs prohibit off-trail shortcuts which can cause erosion, some shortcuts have barbed wire fencing to reduce trespassing. Three trails climb the mountain's western faces; the Hidden Valley Trail which draws the lion's share of visitors and the Peak Meadow Trail both ascend the western face from Stanford Avenue. They have an elevation change of 2,100 ft, with panoramic views of the Bay Area but are sun exposed with little shade; the Stanford Avenue entrance restrooms. No food, water bottles or supplies are sold at the park; the Park District is directing visitors to the Mission Peak Trail. This has an elevation change of 2,100 ft, is 10% longer than the Hidden Valley Trail; the Peak Trail entrance has a water fountain. Paid parking at Ohlone College is not congested, nor are the miles-long pedestrian trails inside the park proper. Most access the park from one of two nearby freeways, 680 and 880; the Warm Springs BART station, AC Transit buses offer service to Ohlone College and the intersection of Mission Blvd.
The two least popular approaches originate from Sunol Regional Wilderness and Ed R. Levin County Park in Milpitas; the Sunol route climbs 2,200 ft over five miles, a gentler grade than Hidden Valley Trail which climbs 2,100 ft over three miles. The Levin County Park route first climbs 2,200 ft from the Park HQ to Monument Peak over three miles, from there Mission Peak is another three miles to the north along a flat trail; this route passes beside the tallest of the three peaks. Mount Allison is about 170 ft higher than Mission Peak, but not open to the public. Monument Peak is 2,594 ft. Depending on weather conditions, Bay Area peaks including Mount Diablo, Mount Hamilton, Mount Tamalpais can be seen. Furthermore, the peak provides good views of Oakland, San Jose, San Francisco and Newark. On clear days, the Sierra Nevada range are visible 100 miles to the east. Mission Peak connects to a network of regional trails and contains part of the Bay Area Ridge Trail, under construction and has gaps to the north of Mission Peak.
The Eagle Spring Backpack campsite is just east of the summit. Sculptor and park ranger Leonard Page along with a crew of six erected the iconic "Mission Peeker" on December 27, 1990; the pole is over six feet in height, the foundation is two feet deep with 120 pounds of concrete. The sculptor's purpose was to promote environmental awareness. Sealed inside the steel tube are a crystal with traditional cultural uses, an Ohlone charmstone replica, a bottle of 1990 zinfandel wine whose yeast overshoot represents world population trends, five time capsules with articles and photographs; the time capsules were intended to be opened in a century or more, after 2090, focus on rainforest preservation, AIDS, homelessness. They offer images from popular culture of Bart Simpson, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Gary Larsen's Far Side cartoons; the cultural meaning of monuments change, the use of this artifact has evolved over a quarter century. Though designed in 1988 as an "interpretive post", with sight tubes pointing to other Bay Area landmarks and cities, the "peeker" function has since been rendered archaic and its environmental message is not known.
The marker now functions as a standalone cultural monument, draws thousands of weekly sightseers and tourists that make it the most photographed artifact in southern Alameda County and the top tourist attraction in Fremont. Snapchat has a geofilter image of the pole representing Fremont; the pole has become a contested cultural symbol. In 2014, iconoclastic local residents, the Recreation Department of the City of Fremont and the Stewardship Division of EBRPD discussed razing the landmark to dissuade sightseers. Controversy surrounds access to Mission Peak. Parking is congested near the free 40-space Stanford Avenue lot. Most visitors enter there, the congestion spills over to nearby public streets on weekends; the East Bay Regional Park District cut park service hours by 30% in late 2014, in part to divert visitors away from the Stanford Avenue entrance. The Stanford opening was delayed to 6:30 am instead of the former 5:00 am, generating a crowd of sunrise viewers who assemble at the gate before it opens on weekends.
In 2015 they discussed further restrictions including a per person daily use fee, parking permits to restrict public street parking while favoring local residents
A gantry crane is a crane built atop a gantry, a structure used to straddle an object or workspace. They can range from enormous "full" gantry cranes, capable of lifting some of the heaviest loads in the world, to small shop cranes, used for tasks such as lifting automobile engines out of vehicles, they are called portal cranes, the "portal" being the empty space straddled by the gantry. The terms gantry crane and overhead crane are used interchangeably, as both types of crane straddle their workload; the distinction most drawn between the two is that with gantry cranes, the entire structure is wheeled. By contrast, the supporting structure of an overhead crane is fixed in location in the form of the walls or ceiling of a building, to, attached a movable hoist running overhead along a rail or beam. Further confusing the issue is that gantry cranes may incorporate a movable beam-mounted hoist in addition to the entire structure being wheeled, some overhead cranes are suspended from a freestanding gantry.
Ship-to-shore gantry cranes are imposing, multi-story structures prominent at most container terminals, used to load intermodal containers on and off container ships. They operate along two rails spaced based on the size of crane to be used. Ship-to-shore crane elementsLateral movement system: A combination of two sets of ten rail wheels; the lateral movement is controlled by a cabin along the landside wheel. During any lateral movement and sirens operate to ensure safety of the crew operating adjacent to the crane; the wheels are mounted to the bottom of the vertical frame/bracing system. Vertical frame and braces: A structurally designed system of beams assembled to support the boom, operating machinery, the cargo being lifted, they display signage describing restrictions and identifiers. Crane boom: A horizontal beam that runs transversely to the berth, it spans from landside of the landside rail wheels to a length over the edge of the berth. The waterside span is based on the size of ship that it can load/unload.
Beams have the ability to be raised for storage purposes. Hook: Device which moves vertically to raise and lower cargo as well as horizontally along the boom's length. For container cranes, a spreader is attached to span the container and lock it safely in place during movement. Operating cabin: Encased setup with glass paneled flooring for operator to view the cargo being moved. Elevators which are located along vertical frame members are used to get crew up and down from the cabin. Storage equipment: For temporary storage options between vessel operations, one steel pin is inserted into anchorage arm dropped from each wheel set into a stow pin assembly; this setup is designed to prevent lateral movement along the rails. During hurricanes and other emergency shut down situations, tie down assemblies are used. Two angled arms are anchored at each end of each set of wheels; this setup prevents longitudinal movement along the rails as well as prevents tipping of the crane due to uplift from high velocity winds.
Ship-to-shore gantry cranes are used in pairs or teams of cranes in order to minimize the time required to load and unload vessels. As container ship sizes and widths have increased throughout the 20th Century, ship-to-shore gantry cranes and the implementation of ship-to-shore gantry cranes has become more unique in order to load and unload vessels while maximizing profitability and minimizing time in port. One example are systems where specialized berths built that accommodate one vessel at a time with ship-to-shore gantry cranes on both sides of the vessel; this allows for more cranes and double the workspace under the cranes to be used for transporting cargo off dock. The first quayside container gantry crane was developed in 1959 by Paceco Corporation. Paceco's name for their line of quayside cranes, "Portainer", has since become something of a genericised trademark, used to refer to any quayside container gantry crane. Full gantry cranes are well suited to lifting massive objects such as ships' engines, as the entire structure can resist the torque created by the load, counterweights are not required.
These are found in shipyards where they are used to move large ship components together for construction. They use a complex system of cables and attachments to support the massive loads undertaken by the full gantry cranes; some full gantry cranes of note are Goliath and Taisun. Samson and Goliath are two full gantry cranes located in the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast have spans of 140 metres and can lift loads of up to 840 tonnes to a height of 70 metres. In 2008, the world's strongest gantry crane, which can lift 20,000 metric tons, was installed in Yantai, China at the Yantai Raffles Shipyard. In 2012, a 22,000-ton capacity crane, the "Honghai Crane" was planned for construction in Qidong City, China. Smaller gantry cranes are available running on rubber tyres so that tracks are not needed. Rubber tyred gantry cranes are essential for moving containers from berths throughout the rest of the yard. For this task they come in large sizes, as pictured to the right, that are used for moving to straddle multiple lanes of rail, road, or container storage.
They are capable of lifting loaded containers to great heights. Smaller rubber tyred gantry cranes come in the form of straddle carriers which are used when moving individual containers or vertical stacks of containers. Portable gantry crane systems, such as rubber tyred gantry cranes, are in high demand in terminals and ports
Southern Pacific Transportation Company
The Southern Pacific was an American Class I railroad network that existed from 1865 to 1998 that operated in the Western United States. The system was operated by various companies under the names Southern Pacific Railroad, Southern Pacific Company and Southern Pacific Transportation Company; the original Southern Pacific began in 1865 as a land holding company. The last incarnation of the Southern Pacific, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, was founded in 1969 and assumed control of the Southern Pacific system; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was acquired by the Union Pacific Corporation and merged with their Union Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific Transportation Company was the surviving railroad as it absorbed the Union Pacific Railroad and changed its name to "Union Pacific Railroad"; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company is now the current incarnation of the Union Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific legacy founded hospitals in San Francisco, Tucson and elsewhere.
In the 1970s, it founded a telecommunications network with a state-of-the-art microwave and fiber optic backbone. This telecommunications network became part of Sprint, a company whose name came from the acronym for Southern Pacific Railroad Internal Networking Telephony; the original Southern Pacific, Southern Pacific Railroad, was founded as a land holding company in 1865 acquiring the Central Pacific Railroad through leasing. By 1900, the Southern Pacific system was a major railroad system incorporating many smaller companies, such as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad and Morgan's Louisiana and Texas Railroad, it extended from New Orleans through Texas to El Paso, across New Mexico and through Tucson, to Los Angeles, through most of California, including San Francisco and Sacramento. Central Pacific lines extended east across Nevada to Ogden and reached north through Oregon to Portland. Other subsidiaries included the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, El Paso and Southwestern Railroad, the Northwestern Pacific Railroad at 328 miles, the 1,331-mile Southern Pacific Railroad of Mexico, a variety of 3 ft narrow gauge routes.
The SP was the defendant in the landmark 1886 United States Supreme Court case Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, interpreted as having established certain corporate rights under the Constitution of the United States; the Southern Pacific Railroad was replaced by the Southern Pacific Company and assumed the railroad operations of the Southern Pacific Railroad. In 1929, Southern Pacific/Texas and New Orleans operated 13,848 route-miles not including Cotton Belt, whose purchase of the Golden State Route circa 1980 nearly doubled its size to 3,085 miles, bringing total SP/SSW mileage to around 13,508 miles. In 1969, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was established and took over the Southern Pacific Company. By the 1980s, route mileage had dropped to 10,423 miles due to the pruning of branch lines. In 1988, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was taken over by Rio Grande Industries, the parent company that controlled the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. Rio Grande Industries did not merge the Southern Pacific Transportation Company and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad together, but transferred direct ownership of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad to the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, allowing the combined Rio Grande Industries railroad system to use the Southern Pacific name due to its brand recognition in the railroad industry and with customers of both the Southern Pacific Transportation Company and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad.
A long time Southern Pacific subsidiary, the St. Louis Southwestern Railway was marketed under the Southern Pacific name. Along with the addition of the SPCSL Corporation route from Chicago to St. Louis, the total length of the D&RGW/SP/SSW system was 15,959 miles. Rio Grande Industries was renamed Southern Pacific Rail Corporation. By 1996, years of financial problems had dropped Southern Pacific's mileage to 13,715 miles; the financial problems caused the Southern Pacific Transportation Company to be taken over by the Union Pacific Corporation. The Union Pacific Corporation merged the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, the St. Louis Southwestern Railway and the SPCSL Corporation into their Union Pacific Railroad, but did not merge the Southern Pacific Transportation Company into the Union Pacific Railroad. Instead, the Union Pacific Corporation merged the Union Pacific Railroad into the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in 1998; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company became the current incarnation of the Union Pacific Railroad.
Like most railroads, the SP painted most of its steam locomotives black during the 20th century, but after 1945 SP painted the front of the locomotive's smokebox silver (almost
Contra Loma Regional Park
Contra Loma Regional Park is a 780-acre regional park in Contra Costa County, California. It is part of the East Bay Regional Parks system, it includes an 80-acre reservoir. The U. S. Bureau of Reclamation is updating its long-term plan for the Contra Loma Regional Park and the adjacent Antioch Community Park; the previous plan was written in 1975. The reservoir, owned by the Contra Costa Water District, is available for year-round fishing and a lifeguarded swim lagoon for summertime swimming. Fishing is allowed. There is an access fee; the reservoir contains catfish and striped bass, bluegill and red-eared sunfish. Biking is allowed. Alcoholic drinks are prohibited everywhere in the park. Contra Loma Reservoir and Recreation Area. Draft Resource Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement. U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. May 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Port of Oakland
The Port of Oakland is a major container ship facility located in Oakland, California, in the San Francisco Bay. It was the first major port on the Pacific Coast of the United States to build terminals for container ships, it is now the fifth busiest container port in the United States, behind Long Beach, Los Angeles and Savannah. Development of an intermodal container handling system in 2002 culminated over a decade of planning and construction to produce a high volume cargo facility that positions the Port of Oakland for further expansion of the West Coast freight market share; the estuary, 500 feet wide, had a depth of two feet at mean low tide. In 1852, the year of Oakland's incorporation as a town by the California State Legislature, large shipping wharves were constructed along the Oakland Estuary, dredged to create a viable shipping channel. 22 years in 1874, the dredged shipping channel was deepened to make Oakland a deep water port. In the late 19th century, the Southern Pacific was granted exclusive rights to the port, a decision the city soon came to regret.
In January 1906, a small work party in the employ of the Western Pacific Railroad, which had just begun construction, hastily threw a crossing over the SP line to connect the WP mainline with trackage built on an area of landfill. This act, protested by the SP and upheld in court, broke the railroad's grip on the port area; the courts ruled that all landfill since the date of the agreement did not belong to the SP. This ruling made the modern Port of Oakland possible. On May 6, 1915, the Admiral Dewey became the first vessel to dock at the foot of Clay street. Captain J. Daniels, master of the vessel, was greeted by Commissioner of Public Works Harry S. Anderson and Harbor Manager W. W. Keith, the two men who had so much to do with the upbuilding of the city's waterfront, were the first aboard the boat. "Captain do you realize that you are the commander of the first big vessel that has tied up to what will be the busiest wharf on the Pacific Coast?" Anderson asked that official. "I do realize that, Mr. Anderson."
Returned Captain Daniels, "and I assure you that I appreciate the honor. I've been many years on the sea, but I have never docked a ship at a better wharf than this."-Source Oakland Tribune May 7, 1915. The project in 1921 dug a channel thirty feet deep at mean low water from the bay to Brooklyn Basin, a distance of four and three quarters miles, a channel twenty-five feet deep around the basin and eighteen feet to San Leandro Bay, an added distance of four miles. However, the port was not named the Port of Oakland until 1927, under the leadership of the newly organized Board of Port Commissioners. Under the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1922, the project produced the channel thirty feet deep and 800 feet wide through the shoal south of Yerba Buena Island narrowing to 600 feet at the end of the Oakland jetties, widening of the estuary channel to 600 feet to Webster Street, dredging of the south channel basin to thirty feet and a turning basin thirty feet to Park street, at a cost to the federal government of $6 million.
In 1962, the Port of Oakland began to admit container ships. Container traffic increased the amount of cargo loaded and unloaded in the Port. By the late 1960s, the Port of Oakland was the second largest port in the world in container tonnage; however and navigation restrictions in San Francisco Bay limited its capacity, by the late 1970s it had been supplanted by the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach as the major container port on the West Coast. During an expansion of the Port in the late 1960s, fill material was added to what remained of the old Southern Pacific mole; the fill came from the concurrent excavation of the Berkeley Hills Tunnel during the construction of the BART system. The BART trunk line crosses over part of the port, the east portal of the Transbay Tube that carries BART trains from Oakland to San Francisco lies within the Port. One of the main limitations to growth was the inability to transfer containers to rail lines, all cranes operating between ocean vessels and trucks.
In the 1980s the Port of Oakland began the evaluation of development of an intermodal container transfer capability, i.e. facilities that would allow trans-loading of containers from vessels to either trucks or rail modes. The Port retained VZM, Korve Engineering and Earth Metrics to perform engineering and environmental studies to allow detailed engineering to proceed. In 1987, on behalf of the Oakland Port Commission, Allen Broussard led a group of 72 lawyers, port officials including: then-port commissioner Carole Ward Allen, city officials on a 3-week long trip to China meeting the Mayor of Shanghai, Jiang Zemin Completion of the resulting rail intermodal facility occurred in 2002; that brought the cumulative investment of port expansion to over $1.4 billion since 1962, half of which comprised the intermodal facility. In the early first decade of the 21st century, the new intermodal rail facility along with severe congestion at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach caused some trans-Pacific shippers to move some of their traffic to the Port of Oakland.
The Port is now reaping the benefits of investment in post-panamax cranes and the transfer of military property, which has now been used for expansion. Deepening of the port from 42 feet to 50 feet to accommodate larger ships has been completed; the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach and Tacoma were 50 feet deep. The $432 million pr