In linguistics, a light verb is a verb that has little semantic content of its own and forms a predicate with some additional expression, a noun. Common verbs in English that can function as light verbs are do, have and take. Other names for light verb include delexical verb, vector verb, explicator verb, thin verb, empty verb and semantically weak verb. While light verbs are similar to auxiliary verbs regarding their contribution of meaning to the clauses in which they appear, light verbs fail the diagnostics that identify auxiliary verbs and are therefore distinct from auxiliaries. Light verb constructions challenge theories of compositionality because the words that form such constructions do not together qualify as constituents although the word combinations qualify as catenae. Most light verb constructions in English are sometimes called stretched verbs; some light verb constructions include a preposition, e.g. They did the review of my paper first. Sam did the cleaning yesterday. Who got such intense criticism?
Susan is getting much support from her family. I am going to have a nice nap, she had a smoke. We had a boring conversation. Are you giving a presentation at the conference? They gave the kids a hard time. Who will give you a hug? Who made such a severe mistake? I made the first request. Sam has taken a shower. Why is Larry taking a nap? We should take a break soon. Have you taken advantage of that opportunity. I haven't taken that into consideration; the light verbs are underlined, the words in bold together constitute the light verb constructions. Each of these constructions is the main predicate of the sentence. Note that the determiner a is NOT part of the light verb construction. We know that it is not part of the light verb construction because it is variable, e.g. I took a long/the first/two/the best nap; the light verb contributes little content to its sentence. Many light verb constructions are similar in meaning to a corresponding full verb, e.g. a. Sam did a revision of his paper. – Light verb construction b.
Sam revised his paper. -Full verba. Larry wants to have a smoke. – Light verb construction b. Larry wants to smoke. – Full verba. Jim made an important claim that.... – Light verb construction b. Jim claimed that... – Full verb a. Mary is taking a nap. – Light verb construction b. Mary is napping. – Full verbAlternative formulations such as these lead to the insight that light verb constructions are predicates just like the corresponding full verb alternatives. There can be, nuanced differences in meaning across these alternative formulations; the light verb constructions produce possibilities for modification that are less available with the corresponding full verb alternatives. Many verbs that serve as light verbs can serve as auxiliary verbs and/or full verbs depending on the context in which they appear. Light verbs are similar to auxiliary verbs insofar as they contribute functional content to the clauses in which they appear. Light verbs, are not auxiliary verbs, nor are they full verbs. Light verbs differ from auxiliary verbs in English insofar as they do not pass the syntactic tests that identify auxiliary verbs.
The following examples illustrate that light verbs fail the inversion and negation diagnostics that identify auxiliary verbs: a. He did call Susan yesterday. B. Did he call Susan yesterday? – The auxiliary did inverts with the subject. C, he did not call Susan yesterday. -- The auxiliary did. He did the review of my paper yesterday. B. *Did he the review of my paper yesterday? – The light verb did cannot invert with the subject. C. *He did not the review of my paper yesterday. – The light verb did cannot take not as a postdependent.a. He has opened the window. B. Has he opened the window? – The auxiliary has inverts with the subject. C, he has not opened the window. – The auxiliary has takes not as a postdependent.a. She had a smoke. B. *Had she a smoke? – The light verb had cannot invert with the subject. C. *She had not a smoke. – The light verb had cannot take not as a postdependent. Light verbs differ from full verbs in that light verbs lack the semantic content that full verbs have. Full verbs are the core of a predicate, whereas light verbs form a predicate with another expression with full semantic content.
This distinction is more difficult to illustrate, but it can be seen in the following examples involving reflexive pronouns: a. Jim1 took a picture of himself1. – The light verb took requires the reflexive pronoun to appear. B. *Jim1 took a picture of him1. – The light verb took prohibits the simple pronoun from appearing.a. Jim1 took a picture of himself1 to school. – The full verb took allows the reflexive pronoun to appear. B. Jim1 took a picture of him1 to school. – The full verb took allows the simple pronoun to appear.a. Sally1 gave a description of herself1. – The light verb gave requires the reflexive pronoun to appear. B. *Sally1 gave a description of her1. – The light verb gave prohibits the simple pronoun from appearing.a. Sally1 gave me a description of herself1. – The full verb gave allows the reflexive pronoun to appear b. Sally1 gave me a description of her1. – The full verb gave allows the simple pronoun to appear. The indices indicate coreference; the reflexive pronoun must appear with the light verb, whereas the full verb allows the simple pronoun to appear as well.
This distinction has to do with the extent of the predicate. The main predicate reaches down into the noun phrase when the light verb appears, whe
Siddha is a term, used in Indian religions and culture. It means "one, accomplished", it refers to perfected masters who have achieved a high degree of physical as well as spiritual perfection or enlightenment. In Jainism, the term is used to refer the liberated souls. Siddha may refer to one who has attained a siddhi, paranormal capabilities. Siddhas may broadly refer to siddhars, ascetics, sadhus, or yogis because they all practice sādhanā; the Svetasvatara presupposes a Siddha body. In Jainism, the term siddha is used to refer the liberated souls who have destroyed all karmas and have obtained moksha, they are above Arihantas. Siddhas do not have a body, they reside in the Siddhashila, situated at the top of the Universe. They have no passions and therefore are free from all temptations, they do not have any karmas and they do not collect any new karmas. According to Jains, Siddhas have eight specific qualities. Ancient Tamil Jain Classic'Choodamani Nigandu' describes the eight characteristics in a poem, given below."கடையிலா ஞானத்தோடு காட்சி வீரியமே இன்ப மிடையுறு நாமமின்மை விதித்த கோத்திரங்களின்மை அடைவிலா ஆயுஇன்மை அந்தராயங்கள் இன்மை உடையவன் யாவன் மற்று இவ்வுலகினுக்கு இறைவனாமே" "The soul that has infinite knowledge, infinite vision or wisdom, infinite power, infinite bliss, without name, without association to any caste, infinite life span and without any change is God."
The following table summarizes the eight supreme qualities of a liberated soul. Because of the quality of Sūksmatva, the liberated soul is beyond sense-perception and its knowledge of the substances is direct, without the use of the senses and the mind; the quality of avagāhan means that the liberated soul does not hinder the existence of other such souls in the same space. A soul after attaining Siddhahood stays there till infinity. Siddhas are dwell in Siddhashila with the above-mentioned eight qualities. Thiruvalluvar in his Tamil book Thirukural refers to the eight qualities of God, in one of his couplet poems. In Hinduism, the first usage of the term Siddha occurs in the Maitreya Upanishad in chapter Adhya III where the writer of the section declares "I am Siddha." In Tamil Nadu, South India, a siddha refers to a being who has achieved a high degree of physical as well as spiritual perfection or enlightenment. The ultimate demonstration of this is that siddhas attained physical immortality.
Thus siddha, like siddhar, refers to a person who has realised the goal of a type of sadhana and become a perfected being. In Tamil Nadu, South India, where the siddha tradition is still practiced, special individuals are recognized as and called siddhas who are on the path to that assumed perfection after they have taken special secret rasayanas to perfect their bodies, in order to be able to sustain prolonged meditation along with a form of pranayama which reduces the number of breaths they take. Siddha were said to have special powers including flight; these eight powers are collectively known as attamasiddhigal. In Hindu cosmology, Siddhaloka is a subtle world, they are endowed with the eight primary siddhis at birth. The 18 siddhars are listed below. In the Hindu philosophy, siddha refers to a Siddha Guru who can by way of Shaktipat initiate disciples into Yoga. A Siddha, in Tamil Siddhar or Chitthar, means "one, accomplished" and refers to perfected masters who, according to Hindu belief, have transcended the ahamkara, have subdued their minds to be subservient to their Awareness, have transformed their bodies into a different kind of body dominated by sattva.
This is accomplished only by persistent meditation. In Hindu theology, Siddhashrama is a secret land deep in the Himalayas, where great yogis and sages who are siddhas live; the concept is similar to Tibetan mystical land of Shambhala. Siddhashrama is referred in many Indian Puranas including Ramayana and Mahabharata. In Valmiki's Ramayana it is said that Viswamitra had his hermitage in Siddhashrama, the erstwhile hermitage of Vishnu, when he appeared as the Vamana avatar, he takes Rama and Lakshmana to Siddhashrama to exterminate the rakshasas who are disturbing his religious sacrifices. Whenever siddha is mentioned, the 84 siddhas and 9 nathas are remembered, it is this tradition of siddha, known as the Nath tradition. Siddha is a term used for both mahasiddhas and naths So a siddha may mean a siddha, a mahasiddha or a nath; the three words are used interchangeably. A list of eighty-four siddhas is found in a manuscript dated Lakshmana Samvat 388 of a medieval Maithili work, the Varnaratnākara written by Jyotirishwar Thakur, the court poet of King Harisimhadeva of Mithila.
An interesting feature of this list is that the names of the most revered naths are incorporated in this list along with Buddhist siddhācāryas. The names of the siddhas found in this list are: In the first upadeśa of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, a 15th-century text, a list of yogis is found, who are described as the Mahasiddh
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient, non-theistic, Indian religion. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of 24 victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 8th century BC and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology; the main religious premises of Jainism are anekāntavāda, aparigraha and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā, asteya and aparigraha; these principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles.
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most basic prayer in Jainism. Jainism has Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; the Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions except Kanji Panth sub-tradition, with laypersons supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources. Jainism has between five million followers, with most Jains residing in India. Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname and the United States. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, Diwali; the principle of ahimsa is a fundamental tenet of Jainism. It believes that one must abandon all violent activity, without such a commitment to non-violence all religious behavior is worthless. In Jain theology, it does not matter how correct or defensible the violence may be, one must not kill any being, "non-violence is one's highest religious duty".
Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable. Its theology teaches that one must neither kill another living being, nor cause another to kill, nor consent to any killing directly or indirectly. Furthermore, Jainism emphasizes non-violence against all beings not only in action but in speech and in thought, it states that instead of hate or violence against anyone, "all living creatures must help each other". Violence negatively affects and destroys one's soul when the violence is done with intent, hate or carelessness, or when one indirectly causes or consents to the killing of a human or non-human living being; the idea of reverence for non-violence is founded in Hindu and Buddhist canonical texts, it may have origins in more ancient Brahmanical Vedic thoughts. However, no other Indian religion has developed the non-violence doctrine and its implications on everyday life as has Jainism.
The theological basis of non-violence as the highest religious duty has been interpreted by some Jain scholars not to "be driven by merit from giving or compassion to other creatures, nor a duty to rescue all creatures", but resulting from "continual self-discipline", a cleansing of the soul that leads to one's own spiritual development which affects one's salvation and release from rebirths. Causing injury to any being in any form creates bad karma which affects one's rebirth, future well being and suffering. Late medieval Jain scholars re-examined the Ahiṃsā doctrine when one is faced with external threat or violence. For example, they justified violence by monks to protect nuns. According to Dundas, the Jain scholar Jinadatta Suri wrote during a time of Muslim destruction of temples and persecution that "anybody engaged in a religious activity, forced to fight and kill somebody would not lose any spiritual merit but instead attain deliverance". However, such examples in Jain texts that condone fighting and killing under certain circumstances are rare.
The second main principle of Jainism is anekāntavāda or anekantatva, a word derived from anekānta and vada. The anekāntavāda doctrine states that reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is Naya, explained as "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth. From Truth, according to Mahāvīra, language returns and not the other way round. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete". In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced. Since reality is many-sided the great error, according to Jainism, is ekānta where some relative truth is treated as an absolute truth to the exclusion of others.
The anekāntavāda premise of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññapha
Abahaṭṭha is a stage in the evolution of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages. The eastern group consists of languages such as Bengali, Maithili and Odia. Abahatta is called Apabhramsa Avahatta, Apabhramsha Abahatta or Purvi Apabhramsa. Abahatta is considered to follow the Apabhraṃśa stage, i.e. those Apabhraṃśas derived from Magadhi Prakrit. Abahatta, which existed from the 6th century to 14th century, was contemporaneous with some Apabhraṃśas as well as the early modern languages such as Old Oriya, Old Bengali, Old Maithili and Old Assamese. Many poets composed both in Abahatta and a modern language such as the Charyapada poets, who wrote dohas or short religious verses in Abahatta; the Abahattha stage is characterized by Loss of affixes and suffixes Loss of grammatical gender Increased usage of short vowels Nasalisation at the end or in the middle of words The substitution of h for sIn the history of the Bengali language, the Abahatta stage was followed by the Old Bengali language by c.
1100. Bhowmik, Dulal. "Abahattha". In Islam, Sirajul. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
The Tripiṭaka or Tipiṭaka, is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures. The version canonical to Theravada Buddhism is referred to in English as the Pali Canon. Mahayana Buddhism holds the Tripiṭaka to be authoritative but, unlike Theravadins, it includes in its canon various derivative literature and commentaries that were composed much later; the Tripiṭaka was composed between about 500 BCE to about the start of the common era written down for the first time in the 1st century BCE. The Dipavamsa states that during the reign of Valagamba of Anuradhapura the monks who had remembered the Tripiṭaka and its commentary orally now wrote them down in books, because of the threat posed by famine and war; the Mahavamsa refers to the writing down of the canon and the commentaries at this time. Each Buddhist sub-tradition had its own Tripiṭaka for its monasteries, written by its sangha, each set consisting of 32 books, in three parts or baskets of teachings: Vinaya Piṭaka, Sūtra Piṭaka, Abhidharma Piṭaka.
The structure, the code of conduct and moral virtues in the Vinaya basket have similarities to some of the surviving Dharmasutra texts of Hinduism. Much of the surviving Tripiṭaka literature is in Pali, with some in Sanskrit as well as other local Asian languages. Tripiṭaka or Tipiṭaka translates as'Three Baskets'. The'three baskets' were the receptacles of the palm-leaf manuscripts in which were preserved the Sutta Piṭaka, the Vinaya Piṭaka and the Abhidhamma Piṭaka, the three divisions that constitute the Pali Canon; these terms are spelled without diacritics as Tripiṭaka and Tipiṭaka in scholarly literature. The dating of the Tripiṭaka is unclear. Max Muller states that the current structure and contents of the Pali Canon took shape in the third century BCE after which it continued to be transmitted orally from generation to generation until being put into written form in the 1st century BCE. According to A. K. Warder, the Tibetan historian Bu-ston said that around or before the 1st century CE there were eighteen schools of Buddhism and their Tripiṭakas were written down by then.
However, except for one version that has survived in full and others, of which parts have survived, all of these texts are lost to history or yet to be found. The Tripiṭaka was compiled and put into writing for the first time during the reign of King Walagambahu of Sri Lanka. According to Sri Lankan sources more than 1000 monks who had attained Arahantship were involved in the task; the place where the project was undertaken was in Aluvihare, Sri Lanka. The resulting texts were translated into four related Indo-European languages of South Asia: Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit, sometime between 1st century BCE and 7th century CE. Portions of these were translated into a number of East Asian languages such as Chinese and Mongolian by ancient visiting scholars, which though extensive are incomplete. Wu and Chia state that emerging evidence, though uncertain, suggests that the earliest written Buddhist Tripiṭaka texts may have arrived in China from India by the 1st century BCE; the Tripiṭaka is composed of three main categories of texts that collectively constitute the Buddhist canon: the Sutta Piṭaka, the Vinaya Piṭaka, the Abhidhamma Piṭaka.
The Sūtra Piṭaka is older than the Vinaya Piṭaka, the Abhidharma Piṭaka represents a tradition of scholastic analysis and systematization of the contents of the Sutta Piṭaka originating at least two centuries after the other two parts of the canon. The Vinaya Piṭaka appears to have grown as a commentary and justification of the monastic code, which presupposes a transition from a community of wandering mendicants to a more sedentary monastic community. Within the Sūtra Piṭaka it is possible to detect older and texts. Rules and regulations of monastic life that range from dress code and dietary rules to prohibitions of certain personal conducts; the Buddha delivered all his sermons in Magadhan, the local language of north-eastern India where the Buddha was born and educated. These sermons were rehearsed orally during the meeting of the First Buddhist council just after the Parinibbana of the Buddha; the teachings continued to be transmitted orally until they were written down in the first century BCE.
Philosophical and psychological analysis and interpretation of Buddhist doctrine. Each of the Early Buddhist Schools had their own recensions of the Tripiṭaka. According to some sources, there were some Indian schools of Buddhism that had five or seven piṭakas; the Mahāsāṃghika Vinaya was translated by Buddhabhadra and Faxian in 416 CE, is preserved in Chinese translation. The 6th century CE Indian monk Paramārtha wrote that 200 years after the parinirvāṇa of the Buddha, much of the Mahāsāṃghika school moved north of Rājagṛha, were divided over whether the Mahāyāna sūtras should be incorporated formally into their Tripiṭaka. According to this account, they split into three groups based upon the relative manner and degree to which they accepted the authority of these Mahāyāna texts. Paramārtha states that the Kukkuṭika sect did not accept the Mahāyāna sūtras as buddhavacana, while the Lokottaravāda sect and the Ekavyāvahārika sect did accept the Mahāyāna sūtras as buddhavacana. In the 6th century CE, Avalokitavrata writes of the Mahāsāṃghikas using
The Punjab spelled Panjab, is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region focus on historical accounts; until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south; the people of the Punjab today are called Panjabis, their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Hinduism; the main religions of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Other religious groups are Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Ravidassia; the Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Scythians, has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Kushans, Timurids, Pashtuns and others.
Historic foreign invasions targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions. The Punjab region is referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The origin of the word Punjab can be traced to the Sanskrit "pancha-nada", which means "five rivers", is used as the name of a region in the Mahabharata; the name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words, Panj and āb, introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India, more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire. Punjab thus means "The Land of Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Ravi and Beas. All are tributaries of the Sutlej being the largest; the Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamia. There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.
The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh. Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert. Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore and Ludhiana; the older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
In India the wider definition includes parts of Jammu Division. Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas: the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir; the formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres per year; the upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains; the Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are young, are eroding rapidly; the Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which are fertile. According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu and parts of Delhi.
The third definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region; the climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance. There are two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C; the monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing