Aspen Mountain (Colorado)
Aspen Mountain is a mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 10,705-foot peak is located in White River National Forest, 1.4 miles south-southeast of downtown Aspen in Pitkin County, United States. The north face of the mountain is the location of the Aspen Mountain ski area, one of four adjacent ski areas operated collectively as Aspen/Snowmass. Aspen Mountain is not high, relative to other mountains in Colorado, but nonetheless looms over the town of Aspen because of the proximity of the town, founded as a silver mining camp in 1879 during the Colorado Silver Boom; the mountain flank was the site of intense mining activity in the late 1880s and early 1890s, with many remains of mining activity below and on the surface of the mountain. In the middle 20th century it became the site of recreational downhill skiing. In 1946, the newly formed Aspen Skiing Company, founded by Walter Paepcke, built the first chairlift to the top of the mountain and opened the ski area that bears the name of the mountain.
Nowadays, people use a modern gondola, to get to the top of the mountain. Aspen Mountain is alternatively called Ajax by the locals. List of Colorado mountain ranges List of Colorado mountain summits List of Colorado fourteeners List of Colorado 4000 meter prominent summits List of the most prominent summits of Colorado List of Colorado county high points
Dolores County, Colorado
Dolores County is the seventh-least populous of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,064; the county seat is Dove Creek. It is thought that the area has been the site of human habitation since at least 2500 B. C. Dolores County's western portions were densely populated between 900 and 1300 AD. Population estimates of as many as 10,000 population, with villages of hundreds of rooms, have been made by archaeologists and other researchers, but this population was destroyed or migrated elsewhere following a drought and severe societal upheaval in the 14th century, for centuries thereafter, both the western and eastern mountainous areas of the county were occupied by nomads, including the Ute and the Navajo Indians. Like much of southwestern Colorado, Dolores County is rich in Indian sites of the Anasazi. According to the Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores County contains at least 816 recorded archaeological sites as of 1989, with many more inventoried since that time.
The county contains a portion of a site of regional historic interest, the Dominguez-Escalante Trail of 1776. The trail marks a historic 1,800-mile trip, intended to discover an overland route between Santa Fe, New Mexico and Monterey, California; the Expedition camped on Dove Creek in the western portion of the county. The Old Spanish Trail passed through the western portion of the County. Anglo trappers worked the mountains of eastern Dolores County as early as 1832-33, gold was discovered in the County in 1866, but it was not until the area was taken from the Ute and removed from the Ute Reservation by the Brunot Agreement of 1878 that large-scale minerals exploration and mining began in the county, although the Pioneer Mining District was established in 1876 in the Rico area. The development of the area was spurred by the discovery of large silver deposits near Rico in 1879, the Rio Grande Southern Railroad was constructed through the County to connect Durango and Ridgway in 1890-92 The RGS served the eastern end of Dolores County until 1952 when it was abandoned.
Rico's high point was in 1892, when the mining district population was more than 5,000. The 1893 Silver Panic hit the town hard; the mountainous area of Dolores County went through a series of booms and busts through the 20th Century. The low point of the community came in 1974 with an estimated population of 45. Efforts are underway in the early 21st Century to again begin major mining activities in the region. Dove Creek was a way station on the Old Spanish Trail from the mid 19th century, for caravans and travelers moving between Santa Fe, Salt Lake City, northern California and Nevada; the western portion of the county was used, beginning in the 1870s, for cattle ranching, but the lush grass soon suffered from overgrazing and fire suppression, allowing the massive expansion of sagebrush and juniper. Homesteading in the area became common beginning in 1914, dryland farming expanded throughout the Great Sage Plain. Today dryland farming of pinto beans and winter wheat is still a mainstay of the county's economy.
But the development of irrigation using water from the Dolores Project in the 1980s, with the construction of McPhee Reservoir, has changed the history and population of the county. Dolores County was created by the Colorado legislature on February 19, 1881, from the western portions of Ouray County, was named for the Dolores River, which heads up in the county and passes through the county in the Dolores Canyon; the complete Spanish name was Rio de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores, as reported by Father Silvestre Vélez de Escalante in 1776. Set in Rico, the first county courthouse was a 23x48 foot two storage log cabin, but was replaced by a stone and brick courthouse completed in 1883; the county seat was moved to Dove Creek in 1946, the current courthouse built in 1957. In 2009, Dolores County achieved notoriety as the most economically depressed county in Colorado. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,068 square miles, of which 1,067 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water.
Dolores County, like other counties in Colorado along its border with Utah, is split into two geographically distinct regions, in fact, under normal travel conditions, it is necessary to leave the county to travel between the two regions. The western portion of the county is the northern portion of the Great Sage Plain low and flat, consists of irrigated and dryland farming areas; the central portion of the county has higher open grasslands with forested hills and canyons, used for livestock raising. The eastern portion of the county is located in the highest peaks of the San Juan Mountains, around the old mining and modern tourist town of Rico, except for cattle grazing in the San Juan National Forest, has no agriculture, in part because its elevations range from 9,000 to 14,000+. Rico is developing in many ways as a
Lizard Head Wilderness
The Lizard Head Wilderness is a wilderness area in southwest Colorado. It is jointly managed by the Uncompahgre and San Juan National Forests, it is 10 miles southwest of the town of Telluride and is named for a prominent rock formation, said to look like a lizard's head. Lizard Head itself is a volcanic spire of crumbling rock. Due to the steepness of the cliffs and the poor quality of the rock for fixing ropes, only experienced mountaineers should attempt to summit the spire. Another 37 miles of trails in this infrequently visited wilderness, are strenuous and should be attempted by more advanced backpackers; the area includes three prominent fourteeners: El Diente Peak, Wilson Peak, Mount Wilson. The area includes the headwaters of the west fork of the Dolores River
Telluride is the county seat and most populous town of San Miguel County in the southwestern portion of the U. S. state of Colorado. The town is a former silver mining camp on the San Miguel River in the western San Juan Mountains; the first gold mining claim was made in the mountains above Telluride in 1875 and early settlement of what is now Telluride followed. The town itself was founded in 1878 as "Columbia", but due to confusion with a California town of the same name, was renamed Telluride in 1887, for the gold telluride minerals found in other parts of Colorado; these telluride minerals were never found near Telluride, but the area's mines for some years provided zinc, copper and other gold ores. Telluride sits in a box canyon. Steep forested mountains and cliffs surround it, with Bridal Veil Falls situated at the canyon's head. Numerous weathered ruins of old mining operations dot the hillsides. A free gondola connects the town with its companion town, Mountain Village, Colorado, at the base of the ski area.
Telluride and the surrounding area have featured prominently in popular culture, it is the subject of several popular songs. It is known for its ski resort and slopes during the winter, as well as an extensive festival schedule during the summer; the Telluride Historic District, which includes a significant portion of the town, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is one of Colorado's 20 National Historic Landmarks. The town population was 2,325 in the 2010 United States Census. Gold was first discovered in Colorado near present-day Denver, setting off the Pike's Peak gold rush of 1858; the Smuggler gold vein above Telluride, placer gold in the San Miguel River, were discovered in 1875. John Fallon made the first claim in Marshal Basin above Telluride in 1875 and early settlement of Telluride followed; the town itself was founded in 1878. Telluride was named "Columbia", but due to confusion with Columbia, the name was changed by the post office in 1887; the town was named after valuable ore compounds of the chemical element tellurium, a metalloid element which forms natural tellurides, the most notable of which are telluride ores of gold and silver.
Although gold telluride minerals were never found in the mountains near Telluride, the area's mines were rich in zinc, copper and ores which contained gold in other forms. Telluride began because of its isolated location. In 1881, a toll road was opened by Otto Mears which allowed wagons to go where only pack mules could go before; this increased the number of people in Telluride, but it was still expensive to get gold-rich ore out of the valley. In June 1889, Butch Cassidy, before becoming associated with his gang, "the wild bunch", robbed the San Miguel Valley Bank in Telluride; this was his first major recorded crime. He exited the bank with $24,580, became famous as a bank robber. In 1891, the Rio Grande Southern railroad begun by Mears, arrived in Telluride building a two stall engine house, water facilities, a section house and a bunkhouse, sidings and a depot, it continued further up the valley to end its Telluride branch at Pandora, serving the mines and the town until 1952. The cheaper and consistent transportation for passengers and freight allowed miners and goods to flow into the San Miguel town and ore to flow out to the mills and foundries elsewhere.
This brought a brief but unprecedented boom to Telluride before the Panic of 1893. Around the turn of the 20th century, there were serious labor disputes in the mines near Telluride; the Colorado National Guard was called out and there were deaths on both sides. Unions were formed as miners joined the Western Federation of Miners in 1896. 1899 brought big changes as union strike action led most mines to grant miners $3 a day for an 8-hour day’s work plus a boarding pay of $1 a day. At this time, workers were putting in 10 - to the mines ran 24 hours a day. Work conditions were treacherous, with mines above 12,000 ft, a lack of safety measures, bitter weather in winter months; the boarding houses were precariously placed on the mountainsides. Telluride's labor unrest occurred against the backdrop of a statewide struggle between miners and mine owners. Bulkeley Wells was one mine operator hostile to the union; the Telluride Miners' Union was led by Vincent St. John; the disappearance of mine guard William J. Barney, which Wells declared a "murder", created much intrigue and national interest.
The accusations, animosity and expulsions which followed were part of an ongoing struggle throughout Colorado's mining communities which came to be called the Colorado Labor Wars. In 1891, Telluride's L. L. Nunn joined forces with George Westinghouse to build the Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant, an alternating current power plant, near Telluride; the plant supplied power to the Gold King Mine 3.5 miles away. This was the first successful demonstration of long-distance transmission of industrial-grade alternating current power and used two 100-hp Westinghouse alternators, one working as a generator producing 3,000 volt, 133 Hertz, single-phase AC, the other used as an AC motor; this hydroelectric AC power plant predated the Westinghouse plant at Niagara Falls by 4 years. Nunn and his brother Paul built power plants in Colorado, Idaho, Montana and the Ontario Power plant at Niagara Falls on the Canadian side. Nunn developed a keen interest in education as part of his electrical power companies, in conjunction with Cornell University built the Telluride House at Cornell in 1909 to educate promising students in electr
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Snowmass Peak in the U. S. state of Colorado dominates the view from Snowmass Lake. It is mistaken for Snowmass Mountain, the thirty-fourth highest mountain peak in the state, as well as for Hagerman Peak. Snowmass Peak is not a peak but the lower end of Hagerman Peak's east ridge. Natural forced perspective causes the optical illusion that Snowmass Peak is higher than Hagerman Peak though it is 221 ft shorter than Hagerman's summit; this illusion combined with its striking rise behind Snowmass Lake justifies it being a named point on USGS topographical maps. It is located in the Elk Mountains, within the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness of the White River National Forest, it lies along the border between Pitkin and Gunnison counties, west of Aspen and southwest of the town of Snowmass Village. The route used to climb Snowmass Peak is the Trail Rider Pass trail to Hagerman Peak; this trail can be accessed by Snowmass Creek approach off Divide Road Snowmass Village or the Geneva Lake trail. It is possible to reach the summit between Hagerman Peak and Snowmass Mountain, but is much more difficult.
List of Colorado mountain ranges List of Colorado mountain summits List of Colorado fourteeners List of Colorado 4000 meter prominent summits List of the most prominent summits of Colorado List of Colorado county high points
San Miguel County, Colorado
San Miguel County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,359; the county seat is Telluride. The county is named for the San Miguel River. San Miguel County was given the Spanish language name for "Saint Michael" due to the nearby San Miguel River. On 27 February 1883, Ouray County was split to form San Miguel County; the San Miguel County portion was to retain the name Ouray County with the new portion called Uncompahgre County. Mining operators in the San Juan mountain area of Colorado formed the San Juan District Mining Association in 1903, as a direct result of a Western Federation of Miners proposal to the Telluride Mining Association for the eight-hour day, approved in a referendum by 72 percent of Colorado voters; the new association consolidated the power of thirty-six mining properties in San Miguel and San Juan counties. The SJDMA refused to consider any reduction in hours or increase in wages, helping to provoke a bitter strike.
In 1875, the Smuggler gold vein was discovered near Telluride. The Smuggler-Union and Liberty Bell mines combined produced over a hundred tons of gold by 1920, third in the state of Colorado. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,289 square miles, of which 1,287 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water. Montrose County - north Ouray County - east San Juan County - southeast Dolores County - south San Juan County, Utah - west Lizard Head Wilderness Mount Sneffels Wilderness Old Spanish National Historic Trail Telluride National Historic District Uncompahgre National Forest Great Parks Bicycle Route San Juan Skyway National Scenic Byway Unaweep/Tabeguache Scenic and Historic Byway Western Express Bicycle Route As of the census of 2000, there were 6,594 people, 3,015 households, 1,423 families residing in the county; the population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 5,197 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.57% White, 0.29% Black or African American, 0.85% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.37% from other races, 1.11% from two or more races.
8.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,015 households out of which 22.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.30% were married couples living together, 5.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 52.80% were non-families. 32.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.77. In the county, the population was spread out with 17.60% under the age of 18, 9.90% from 18 to 24, 43.30% from 25 to 44, 25.80% from 45 to 64, 3.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 120.80 males. For every 100 females age eighteen 18 and over, there were 126.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $48,514, the median income for a family was $60,417. Males had a median income of $35,922 versus $30,278 for females; the per capita income for the county was $35,329.
About 6.60% of families and 10.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.10% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. Mountain Village Norwood Ophir Placerville Sawpit Telluride Tomboy Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in San Miguel County, Colorado San Miguel County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society