Middle Persian

Middle Persian or Pahlavi known by its endonym as Pārsīk, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the literary language of the Sasanian Empire. For some time after the Sasanian collapse, Middle Persian continued to function as a prestige language, it descended from Old Persian, the language of Achaemenid Empire, is the linguistic ancestor of Modern Persian. "Middle Iranian" is the name given to middle stage of development of the numerous Iranian languages and dialects. The middle stage of Iranian languages begins around 450 BCE and ends around 650 CE. One of those Middle Iranian languages is Middle Persian, i.e. the middle stage of the language of the Persians, an Iranian peoples of Persia proper, which lies in the south-western highlands on the border with Babylonia. The Persians called their language Parsik, meaning "Persian". Another Middle Iranian language was Parthian, i.e. the language of the northwestern Iranian peoples of Parthia proper, which lies along the southern/south-eastern edge of the Caspian sea and is adjacent to the boundary between western and eastern Iranian languages.

The Parthians called their language Parthawik, meaning "Parthian". Via regular sound changes Parthawik became Pahlawik, from which the word'Pahlavi' evolved; the -ik in parsik and parthawik was a regular Middle Iranian appurtenant suffix for "pertaining to". The New Persian equivalent of -ik is -i; when the Arsacids came to power in the 3rd-century BCE, they inherited the use of written Greek as the language of government. Under the cultural influence of the Greeks, some Middle Iranian languages, such as Bactrian had begun to be written in Greek script, but yet other Middle Iranian languages began to be written in a script derived from Aramaic. This occurred because written Aramaic had been the written language of government of the former Achaemenids, the government scribes had carried that practice all over the empire; this practice had led to others adopting Imperial Aramaic as the language of communications, both between Iranians and non-Iranians, as well as between Iranians. The transition from Imperial Aramaic to Middle Iranian took place slowly, with a slow increase of more and more Iranian words so that Aramaic with Iranian elements changed into Iranian with Aramaic elements.

Under Arsacid hegemony, this Aramaic-derived writing system for Iranian languages came to be associated with the Parthians in particular, thus the writing system came to be called pahlavi "Parthian" too. Aside from Parthian, Aramaic-derived writing was adopted for at least four other Middle Iranian languages, one of, Middle Persian. In the 3rd-century CE, the Parthian Arsacids were overthrown by the Sassanids, who were natives of the south-west and thus spoke Middle Persian as their native language. Under Sassanid hegemony, the Middle Persian language became a prestige dialect and thus came to be used by non-Persian Iranians. In the 7th-century, the Sassanids were overthrown by the Arabs. Under Arab influence, Iranian languages began be written in Arabic script, while Middle Persian began to evolve into New Persian and the name parsik became Arabicized farsi. Not all Iranians were comfortable with these Arabic-influenced developments, in particular, members of the literate elite, which in Sassanid times consisted of Zoroastrian priests.

Those former elites vigorously rejected what they perceived as'Un-Iranian', continued to use the "old" language and Aramaic-derived writing system. In time, the name of the writing system, pahlavi "Parthian", began to be applied to the "old" Middle Persian language as well, thus distinguishing it from the "new" language, farsi. Consequently,'pahlavi' came to denote the Zoroastrian written, late form of Middle Persian. Since all surviving Middle Persian literature is in this particular late form of written Zoroastrian Middle Persian, in popular imagination the term'Pahlavi' became synonymous with Middle Persian itself; the ISO 639 language code for Middle Persian is pal, which reflects the post-Sasanian era use of the term Pahlavi to refer to the language and not only the script. In the classification of the Iranian languages, the Middle Period includes those languages which were common in Iran from the fall of the Achaemenid Empire in the fourth century BCE up to the fall of the Sasanian Empire in the seventh century CE.

The most important and distinct development in the structure of Iranian languages of this period is the transformation from the synthetic form of the Old Period to an analytic form: nouns and adjectives lost their case inflections prepositions were used to indicate the different roles of words. Many tenses began to be formed from a composite form the language developed a split ergative morphosyntactic alignment The modern-day descendant of Middle Persian is New Persian; the changes between late Middle and Early New Persian were gradual, in the 10th-11th centuries, Middle Persian texts were still intelligible to speakers of Early New Persian. However, there are definite differences that had taken place by the 10th century: Sound changes, such as the dropping of unstressed initial vowels the epenthesis of vowels in initial consonant clusters the loss of -g when word final change of initial w- to either b- or Changes in the verbal system, notably the loss of distinctive subjunctive and optative forms, the increasing use of verbal prefixes to express verbal moods a transition from split ergative back to consistent nominative-accu

Ottorino Respighi

Ottorino Respighi was an Italian violinist and musicologist, best known for his trilogy of orchestral tone poems: Fountains of Rome, Pines of Rome, Roman Festivals. His musicological interest in 16th-, 17th- and 18th-century music led him to compose pieces based on the music of these periods, he wrote several operas, the most famous being La fiamma. Ottorino Respighi was born on 9 July 1879 at 8 Via Guido Reni, an apartment building to the side of Palazzo Fantuzzi in Bologna, Italy, he was the youngest child of Ersilia Respighi. His brother Alberto died at age nine, he had a sister, Amelia; the Respighis were a musical family. Giuseppe was a piano teacher who encouraged his son's musical inclinations and taught him basic piano and violin at an early age. Not long into his violin lessons, Respighi quit after his teacher whacked him on the hand with a ruler when he had played a passage incorrectly, he resumed lessons several weeks with a more patient teacher. His piano skills, were a hit-and-miss affair but his father arrived home one day surprised to find his son performing the Symphonic Studies by Robert Schumann.

Respighi had learned to play the piece in secret. Respighi was schooled at Ginnasio Guinizelli for two years. In 1892, he enrolled at Liceo Musicale where he studied the violin and viola with Federico Sarti for seven years. Among his earliest completed and dated compositions were the Piccola Ouverture and Preludio for orchestra. Four years into his course, Respighi took composition with Giuseppe Martucci and music history with Luigi Torchi, he received a diploma for the violin in 1899, finished his studies in 1901 with a course in advanced composition. By this time, he had developed an interest in languages as demonstrated by his large book collection that contained atlases and dictionaries. In 1900, Respighi accepted the role of principal violist in the orchestra of the Russian Imperial Theatre in Saint Petersburg, Russia during its season of Italian opera. During his visit he met with Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, whose orchestrations he admired, studied orchestration and composition with him.

Respighi studied orchestration with the composer for five months. After a period in Germany in 1902, Respighi returned to Bologna to continue his studies in composition, which earned him a second diploma. From 1903 to 1908, his principal activity was as first violinist in the Mugellini Quintet, a touring five-piece founded by composer Bruno Mugellini. In 1909, Respighi's second opera Semirâma premiered, was a considerable success. However, he fell asleep during the post-performance banquet from exhaustion of writing out the orchestral parts. In 1913, Respighi settled in Rome, he spent some time performing in Germany before returning to Italy and turning his attention to composition. Although many sources indicate he studied with Max Bruch during his time in Germany, his wife Elsa Respighi asserted that this was not the case. In 1913, he was appointed professor of composition at the Conservatorio di Santa Cecilia, a position he held for the rest of his life. Following Italy's entry into World War I in 1915, Respighi's position as Professor of the Liceo Musicale allowed him to avoid military service.

After travelling to more peaceful surroundings for the summer, Respighi returned to Rome to continue teaching. One of his new students in his fugue and composition classes was Elsa Olivieri Sangiacomo. In 1921, the couple relocated to a flat in Rome. A turning point in Respighi's career arrived in March 1917 with the premiere of Fountains of Rome, his first of three orchestral tone poems inspired by Rome; the piece depicts four of the city's fountains at different times of the day. Respighi was disappointed with the reception it gained at the premiere and deemed the work a failure, which fuelled his effort to start on a follow-up. Fountains of Rome earned Respighi greater recognition after he allowed Arturo Toscanini to conduct the piece for a series of concerts in Milan in February 1918, its success led Respighi to have it published soon after. Apolitical by nature, Respighi attempted to steer a neutral course once Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922, his established international fame allowed him some level of freedom, but at the same time encouraged the regime to exploit his music for political purposes.

Respighi vouched for more outspoken critics such as Toscanini, allowing them to continue to work under the regime. In 1923, Respighi became the first director of the Conservatorio di Santa Cecilia, he resigned from the position in 1925 to focus on composition. In 1925, he collaborated with Sebastiano Arturo Luciani on an elementary textbook entitled Orpheus, he was elected to the Royal Academy of Italy in 1932. In December 1925, Respighi arrived in New York City for his first performances in the United States, his first public performance was the solo part for the premiere of his piano concerto, Concerto in the Mixolydian Mode, at Carnegie Hall on 31 December. The concert was a success. In May 1927, Respighi and his wife travelled to Brazil to engage in a concert series of his own music in Rio de Janeiro; the musical style and local custom inspired Respighi, who told the press of his intention to return in the following year with a five-part orchestral suite based on his visit. Respighi did return to Rio, in June 1928, but the composition was finalised in the form of an orchestral work in three movements enti

Illinois State Police

The Illinois State Police is the state police force of Illinois. Established in 1922, the Illinois State Police have over 3,000 personnel and 21 districts; the main facilities of the Illinois State Police Academy, which were constructed in 1968, are located in Springfield. Prior to 1968, training was conducted at the Illinois State Fairgrounds. ISP maintains the Illinois sex offender registry, administers the state's AMBER Alert program, issues Illinois Firearm Owner Identification Cards and Concealed Carry Licenses; the Illinois State Police is responsible for driving and physically protecting the Governor of Illinois. In 2005, officers and duties of the Illinois Department of Central Management Services Police were merged into the Illinois State Police. Sec. 11-907. Operation of vehicles and streetcars on approach of authorized emergency vehicles. Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emergency vehicle making use of audible and visual signals meeting the requirements of this Code or a police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible or visual signal, the driver of every other vehicle shall yield the right-of-way and shall drive to a position parallel to, as close as possible to, the right-hand edge or curb of the highway clear of any intersection and shall, if necessary to permit the safe passage of the emergency vehicle and remain in such position until the authorized emergency vehicle has passed, unless otherwise directed by a police officer and the operator of every streetcar shall stop such car clear of any intersection and keep it in such position until the authorized emergency vehicle has passed, unless otherwise directed by a police officer.

This Section shall not operate to relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway. Upon approaching a stationary authorized emergency vehicle, when the authorized emergency vehicle is giving a signal by displaying alternately flashing red and white, blue, or red and blue lights or amber or yellow warning lights, a person who drives an approaching vehicle shall: proceeding with due caution, yield the right-of-way by making a lane change into a lane not adjacent to that of the authorized emergency vehicle, if possible with due regard to safety and traffic conditions, if on a highway having at least 4 lanes with not less than 2 lanes proceeding in the same direction as the approaching vehicle; as used in this subsection, "authorized emergency vehicle" includes any vehicle authorized by law to be equipped with oscillating, rotating, or flashing lights under Section 12-215 of this Code, while the owner or operator of the vehicle is engaged in his or her official duties.

A person who violates subsection of this Section commits a business offense punishable by a fine of not less than $100 or more than $10,000. It is a factor in aggravation if the person committed the offense while in violation of Section 11-501 of this Code. Imposition of the penalties authorized by this subsection for a violation of subsection of this Section that results in the death of another person does not preclude imposition of appropriate additional civil or criminal penalties. If a violation of subsection of this Section results in damage to the property of another person, in addition to any other penalty imposed, the person's driving privileges shall be suspended for a fixed period of not less than 90 days and not more than one year. If a violation of subsection of this Section results in injury to another person, in addition to any other penalty imposed, the person's driving privileges shall be suspended for a fixed period of not less than 180 days and not more than 2 years. If a violation of subsection of this Section results in the death of another person, in addition to any other penalty imposed, the person's driving privileges shall be suspended for 2 years.

The Secretary of State shall, upon receiving a record of a judgment entered against a person under subsection of this Section: suspend the person's driving privileges for the mandatory period. As of 2006, the Illinois State Police is organized into several divisions: Governor of Illinois Director, State Police First Deputy Director Operations Division: performs all of the functions of highway safety and criminal investigation. Regional Commands I - IV Operational Services Command Statewide Evidence Vault Special Operations Command Riverboat Gaming Command Intelligence Command Communication Services Bureau Forensic Services Division: provides the state with specialty crime scene services including DNA and fingerprint identification as well as computerized ballistics matching. Forensic Sciences Command Crime Scene Services Command Administration Division: includes facility administration, communication services and logistics functions that are vital to ISP. Support Services Administrative Services Bureau Bureau of Identification Logistics Bureau State Police Academy Technology Services Program Administration Bureau Information Services Bureau Firearms Services Bureau Internal Investigations Division: performs a similar function as other internal affairs divisions as well as investigation of wrongdoing in other agencies in the Illinois executive br