Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development and this field examines change across three major dimensions, physical development, cognitive development, and socioemotional development. Developmental psychology examines the influences of nature and nurture on the process of human development, many researchers are interested in the interaction between personal characteristics, the individuals behavior and environmental factors, including social context and the built environment. Ongoing debates include biological essentialism vs. neuroplasticity and stages of development vs. dynamic systems of development, influential developmental psychologists from the 20th century include Urie Bronfenbrenner, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Barbara Rogoff, Esther Thelen, and Lev Vygotsky. Watson and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are typically cited as providing the foundations for modern developmental psychology, in the mid-18th century Jean Jacques Rousseau described three stages of development, infants and adolescence in Emile, Or, On Education.
Rousseaus ideas were taken up strongly by educators at the time, stanley Hall, who attempted to correlate ages of childhood with previous ages of mankind. James Mark Baldwin who wrote essays on topics that included Imitation, A Chapter in the Natural History of Consciousness and Mental Development in the Child, Baldwin was heavily involved in the theory of developmental psychology. Sigmund Freud, whose concepts were developmental, had a significant impact on public perceptions, Sigmund Freud believed that we all had a conscious and unconscious level. In the conscious we are aware of our mental process, the preconscious involves information that, though not currently in our thoughts, can be brought into consciousness. Lastly, the unconscious includes mental processes we are unaware of and he believed there is tension between the conscious and unconscious, because the conscious tries to hold back what the unconscious tries to express. To explain this he developed three personality structures, the id, and superego, the id, the most primitive of the three, functions according to the pleasure principle, seek pleasure and avoid pain.
The superego plays the critical and moralizing role, and the ego is the organized, based on this, he proposed five universal stages of development, that each are characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the childs psychosexual energy. The first is the stage, which occurs from birth to 12 months of age. During the oral stage the libido is centered in a babys mouth, the baby is able to suck. The second is the stage, from one to three years of age. During the anal stage, the child defecates from the anus, the third is the phallic stage, which occurs from three to five years of age. During the phallic stage, the child is aware of their sexual organs, the fourth is the latency stage, which occurs from age five until puberty. During the latency stage, the sexual interests are repressed
Biologically, a child is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty. The legal definition of child generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a younger than the age of majority. There are many issues that affect children, such as childhood education, child poverty, dysfunctional families, child labor, hunger. Children can be raised by parents, by fosterers, guardians or partially raised in a day care center. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines child as a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child and this is ratified by 192 of 194 member countries. Biologically, a child is generally anyone between birth and puberty, some English definitions of the word child include the fetus. In many cultures, a child is considered an adult after undergoing a rite of passage, recognition of childhood as a state different from adulthood began to emerge in the 16th and 17th centuries. Society began to relate to the not as a miniature adult but as a person of a lower level of maturity needing adult protection, love.
This change can be traced in paintings, In the Middle Ages, in the 16th century, images of children began to acquire a distinct childlike appearance. From the late 17th century onwards, children were playing with toys. Every child goes through stages of social development. An infant or very young child will play alone happily, if another child wanders onto the scene, he or she may be physically attacked or pushed out of the way. Next, the child can play with another child, gradually learning to share, the group grows larger, to three or four children. By the time a child enters kindergarten, he or she can join in. Children with ADHD and learning disabilities may need help to develop social skills. The impulsive characteristics of an ADHD child may lead to poor peer relationships, children with poor attention spans may not tune into social cues in their environment, making it difficult for them to learn social skills through experience. The age at which children are considered responsible for their society-bound actions has changed over time.
In Roman times, children were regarded as not culpable for crimes, in the 19th century, children younger than seven years old were believed incapable of crime
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Piagets theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. It was first created by the Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget, the theory deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire and use it. Piagets theory is known as a developmental stage theory. To Piaget, cognitive development was a reorganization of mental processes resulting from biological maturation. Moreover, Piaget claimed that development is at the center of the human organism. Piagets earlier work received the greatest attention, child-centered classrooms and open education are direct applications of Piagets views. Despite its huge success, Piagets theory has some limitations that Piaget recognized himself, for example, Piaget noted that reality is a dynamic system of continuous change and, as such, is defined in reference to the two conditions that define dynamic systems. Specifically, he argued that reality involves transformations and states, transformations refer to all manners of changes that a thing or person can undergo.
States refer to the conditions or the appearances in which things or persons can be found between transformations, for example, there might be changes in shape or form, in size, or in placement or location in space and time. Thus, Piaget argued, if human intelligence is to be adaptive, operative intelligence is the active aspect of intelligence. It involves all actions, overt or covert, undertaken in order to follow, figurative intelligence is the more or less static aspect of intelligence, involving all means of representation used to retain in mind the states that intervene between transformations. That is, it involves perception, mental imagery, drawing, at any time, operative intelligence frames how the world is understood and it changes if understanding is not successful. Piaget stated that this process of understanding and change involves two basic functions and accommodation, through his study of the field of education, Piaget focused on two processes, which he named assimilation and accommodation.
To Piaget, assimilation meant integrating external elements into structures of lives or environments, assimilation is how humans perceive and adapt to new information. It is the process of fitting new information into pre-existing cognitive schemas, assimilation in which new experiences are reinterpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas. It occurs when humans are faced with new or unfamiliar information, in contrast, accommodation is the process of taking new information in ones environment and altering pre-existing schemas in order to fit in the new information. This happens when the schema does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation. Accommodation is imperative because it is how people will continue to interpret new concepts, frameworks, Piagets understanding was that assimilation and accommodation cannot exist without the other
Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. Fitness is defined as the quality or state of being fit, around 1950, perhaps consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term fitness increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten. Modern definition of fitness describe either a person or machines ability to perform a function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations. This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and attractiveness which has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries, regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to person who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability, i. e. strength or endurance. A well rounded fitness program will improve a person in all aspects of fitness, rather than one, a comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual typically focuses on one or more specific skills, and on age- or health-related needs such as bone health.
Many sources cite mental and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness and this is often presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical and mental fitness. Physical fitness can prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging, working out can help some people sleep better and possibly alleviate some mood disorders in certain individuals. Developing research has demonstrated many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans was created by the Office of Disease Prevention and this publication suggests that all adults should avoid inactivity to promote good health mentally and physically. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, additional health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity beyond this amount. Specific or task-oriented fitness is an ability to perform in a specific activity with a reasonable efficiency, for example.
Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sport, examples are,100 m sprint, in a sprint the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race, an example of how to do this would be interval training. Middle distance running, athletes require both speed and endurance to gain out of this training. The hard working muscles are at their peak for a period of time as they are being used at that level for longer period of time. Marathon, in case the athlete must be trained to work aerobically. Many fire fighters and police officers undergo regular fitness testing to determine if they are capable of the demanding tasks required of the job. Members of armed forces will often be required to pass a fitness test – for example soldiers of the US Army must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is a descriptive dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, in 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the edition was published. Since 2000, an edition of the dictionary has been underway. The first electronic version of the dictionary was available in 1988. The online version has been available since 2000, and as of April 2014 was receiving two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will probably appear in electronic form, Nigel Portwood, chief executive of Oxford University Press. As a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than merely their present-day usages, therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used.
The format of the OEDs entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects and this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. As of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained approximately 301,100 main entries, the dictionarys latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, as entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000, put in 2007, run in 2011. Despite its impressive size, the OED is neither the worlds largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language, the Dutch dictionary Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal is the worlds largest dictionary, has similar aims to the OED and took twice as long to complete. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838, the official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, and its first edition was published in 1780.
The Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716, trench suggested that a new, truly comprehensive dictionary was needed. On 7 January 1858, the Society formally adopted the idea of a new dictionary. Volunteer readers would be assigned particular books, copying passages illustrating word usage onto quotation slips, the same year, the Society agreed to the project in principle, with the title A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. He withdrew and Herbert Coleridge became the first editor, on 12 May 1860, Coleridges dictionary plan was published and research was started
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death, other concerns include fear of death, anxiety, grief, emotional pain, sympathy, solitude, or saudade. The potential for an afterlife is of concern for some humans, the word death comes from Old English deað, which in turn comes from Proto-Germanic *dauthuz. This comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *dheu- meaning the Process, when a person has died, it is said they have passed away, passed on, expired, or are gone, among numerous other socially accepted, religiously specific and irreverent terms. Bereft of life, the person is a corpse, cadaver, a body, a set of remains, and when all flesh has rotted away. The terms carrion and carcass can be used, though more often connote the remains of non-human animals. As a polite reference to a person, it has become common practice to use the participle form of decease, as in the deceased. The ashes left after a cremation are sometimes referred to by the neologism cremains, senescence refers to a scenario when a living being is able to survive all calamities, but eventually dies due to causes relating to old age.
Almost all animals who survive external hazards to their biological functioning eventually die from biological aging, some organisms experience negligible senescence, even exhibiting biological immortality. These include the jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii, the hydra, and the planarian, unnatural causes of death include suicide and homicide. From all causes, roughly 150,000 people die around the world each day, physiological death is now seen as a process, more than an event, conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible. Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of vital signs, in general, clinical death is neither necessary nor sufficient for a determination of legal death. A patient with working heart and lungs determined to be dead can be pronounced legally dead without clinical death occurring. As scientific knowledge and medicine advance, formulating a precise definition of death becomes more difficult.
The concept of death is a key to understanding of the phenomenon. There are many approaches to the concept. For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, One of the challenges in defining death is in distinguishing it from life. As a point in time, death would seem to refer to the moment at which life ends, determining when death has occurred requires drawing precise conceptual boundaries between life and death
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a childs body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction. It is initiated by signals from the brain to the gonads, the ovaries in a girl. In response to the signals, the gonads produce hormones that stimulate libido and the growth and transformation of the brain, muscle, skin, hair and sex organs. Physical growth—height and weight—accelerates in the first half of puberty and is completed when a body has been developed. Until the maturation of their capabilities, the pre-pubertal physical differences between boys and girls are the external sex organs. On average, girls begin puberty around ages 10–11, boys around ages 11–12, girls usually complete puberty around ages 15–17, while boys usually complete puberty around ages 16–17. In the 21st century, the age at which children, especially girls, reach puberty is lower compared to the 19th century. Puberty which starts earlier than usual is known as precocious puberty, Puberty which starts than usual is known as delayed puberty.
Two of the most significant differences between puberty in girls and puberty in boys are the age at which it begins, and the sex steroids involved, the testosterones. Although there is a range of normal ages, girls typically begin the process of puberty at age 10 or 11. Girls usually complete puberty by ages 15–17, while boys usually complete puberty by ages 16–17, girls attain reproductive maturity about four years after the first physical changes of puberty appear. In contrast, boys accelerate more slowly but continue to grow for about six years after the first visible pubertal changes, any increase in height beyond the post-pubertal age is uncommon. For boys, an androgen called testosterone is the sex hormone. While testosterone is produced, all changes are characterized as virilization. The conversion of testosterone to estradiol depends on the amount of body fat, the male growth spurt begins later, accelerates more slowly, and lasts longer before the epiphyses fuse. Although boys are on average 2 centimetres shorter than girls before puberty begins, the hormone that dominates female development is an estrogen called estradiol.
While estradiol promotes growth of the breasts and uterus, it is the principal hormone driving the growth spurt and epiphyseal maturation. Estradiol levels rise earlier and reach higher levels in women than in men, the hormonal maturation of females is considerably more complicated than in boys
Collins English Dictionary
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English. It is published by HarperCollins in Glasgow, by the third edition, they increasingly used the Bank of English established by Hanks at COBUILD to provide typical definitions rather than examples composed by the lexicographer. The current edition is the 12th edition, which was published in October 2014, the previous edition was the 11th edition, which was published in October 2011. A special 30th Anniversary 10th edition was published in 2010, with editions published once every 3–4 years. The unabridged Collins English Dictionary was published on the web on 31 December 2011 on CollinsDictionary. com, along with the dictionaries of French, Spanish. The site includes example sentences showing word usage from the Collins Bank of English Corpus, word frequencies and trends from the Google Ngrams project and this followed an earlier launch of a discussion forum for neologisms in 2004. In May 2015, CollinsDictionary. com added 6500 new Scrabble words to their Collins Official Scrabble Wordlist, the words are based on terms related to and influenced by slang, social media, food and more.
Collins COBUILD Advanced Dictionary CollinsDictionary. com – Collins English Dictionary, American English Dictionary, French, German and Spanish
Adult development encompasses the changes that occur in biological and interphonal domains of human life from the end of adolescence until the end of ones life. These changes may be gradual or rapid, and can reflect positive, changes occur at the cellular level and are partially explained by biological theories of adult development and aging. Biological changes influence psychological and interpersonal/social developmental changes, which are described by stage theories of human development. Stage theories typically focus on “age-appropriate” developmental tasks to be achieved at each stage, erik Erikson and Carl Jung proposed stage theories of human development that encompass the entire life span, and emphasized the potential for positive change very late in life. The concept of adulthood has legal and socio-cultural definitions, the legal definition of an adult is a person who has reached the age at which they are considered responsible for their own actions, and therefore legally accountable for them.
This is referred to as the age of majority, which is age 18 in most cultures and this may or may not coincide with the legal definition. Jeanne Louise Calment exemplifies successful aging as the longest living person and her long life can be attributed to her genetics and her active lifestyle and optimistic attitude. She enjoyed many hobbies and physical activities and believed that laughter contributed to her longevity and she poured olive oil on all of her food and skin, which she believed contributed to her long life and youthful appearance. Changes in adulthood have been described by a number of theories and metatheories, Life span development is an overarching framework that considers individual development from conception to old age. The framework considers the accumulation of developmental gains and losses. According to this theory, life span development has multiple trajectories and causes, individual variation is a hallmark of this theory – not all individuals develop and age at the same rate and in the same manner.
Erik Erikson developed stages of ego development that extended through childhood, adolescence and he was trained in psychoanalysis and was highly influenced by Freud, but unlike Freud, Erikson believed that social interaction is very important to the individuals psychosocial development. His stage theory consists of 8 stages in life from birth to old age, during each stage, one developmental task is dominant, but may be carried forward into stages as well. According to Erikson, individuals may experience tension when advancing to new stages of development and it offers a standard method of examining the universal pattern of development. The archaic stage is characterized by consciousness, while the monarchic stage represents the beginning of logical. Youth, Maturing sexuality, growing consciousness, and a realization that the days of childhood are gone forever. People strive to gain independence, find a mate, and raise a family, middle Life, The realization that you will not live forever creates tension.
If you desperately try to cling to youth, you will fail in the process of self-realization, Jung believed that in midlife, one confronts ones shadow
Youth is the time of life when one is young, but often means the time between childhood and adulthood. It is defined as the appearance, vigor, Youth is an experience that may shape an individuals level of dependency, which can be marked in various ways according to different cultural perspectives. Personal experience is marked by an individuals cultural norms or traditions, around the world, the English terms youth, teenager and young person are interchanged, often meaning the same thing, but they are occasionally differentiated. Youth can be referred to as the time of life when one is young and this involves childhood, and the time of life which is neither childhood nor adulthood, but rather somewhere in between. Youth identifies a particular mindset of attitude, as in He is very youthful, for certain uses, such as employment statistics, the term sometimes refers to individuals from the ages of 14 to 21. However, the term refers to a specific age range during a specific developmental period in a persons life.
The UN recognizes that this varies without prejudice to other age groups listed by states such as 18-30. A useful distinction within the UN itself can be made between teenagers and young adults, while seeking to impose some uniformity on statistical approaches, the UN itself is aware of contradictions between approaches in its own statutes. Hence under the 15-24 definition children are defined as those under the age of 14 while under the 1979 Convention on the Rights of the Child, those under the age of 18 are regarded as children. The UN states they are aware that several definitions exist for youth within UN entities such as Youth Habitat 15-32, - Robert Kennedy Youth is the stage of constructing the self-concept. The self-concept of youth is influenced by several such as peers, gender. It is the time of a life in which they make choices which will affect their future. In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the youth is associated with young men from 15 to 30 or 35 years of age. Youth in Nigeria includes all members of the Federal Republic of Nigeria aged 18–35, many African girls experience youth as a brief interlude between the onset of puberty and marriage and motherhood.
But in urban settings, poor women are considered youth much longer. Varying culturally, the constructions of youth in Latin America. In Vietnam, widespread notions of youth are sociopolitical constructions for both sexes between the ages of 15 and 35, in Brazil, the term youth refers to people of both sexes from 15 to 29 years old. This age bracket reflects the influence on Brazilian law of international organizations like the World Health Organization and it is shaped by the notion of adolescence that has entered everyday life in Brazil through a discourse on childrens rights