Pall Mall, London
Pall Mall is a street in the St James's area of the City of Westminster, Central London. It is a section of the regional A4 road; the street's name is derived from'pall-mall', a ball game played there during the 17th century. The area was built up during the reign of Charles II with fashionable London residences, it became known for high-class shopping in the 18th century, gentlemen's clubs in the 19th. The Reform and Travellers Clubs have survived to the 21st century; the War Office was based on Pall Mall during the second half of the 19th century, the Royal Automobile Club's headquarters have been on the street since 1908. The street is around 0.4 miles long and runs east in the St James's area, from St James's Street across Waterloo Place, to the Haymarket and continues as Pall Mall East towards Trafalgar Square. The street numbers run consecutively from north-side east to west and continue on the south-side west to east, it is part of a major road running west from Central London. London Bus Route 9 runs westwards along Pall Mall, connecting Trafalgar Square to Piccadilly and Hyde Park Corner.
Pall Mall was constructed in 1661, replacing an earlier highway to the south that ran from the Haymarket to the royal residence, St James's Palace. Historical research suggests a road had been in this location since Saxon times, although the earliest documentary references are from the 12th century in connection with a leper colony at St James's Hospital; when St. James's Park was laid out by order of Henry VIII in the 16th century, the park's boundary wall was built along the south side of the road. In 1620, the Privy Council ordered the High Sheriff of Middlesex to clear a number of temporary buildings next to the wall that were of poor quality. Pall-mall, a ball game similar to croquet, was introduced to England in the early-17th century by James I; the game popular in France and Scotland, was enjoyed by James' sons Henry and Charles. In 1630, St James's Field, London's first pall-mall court, was laid out to the north of the Haymarket – St James road. After the Restoration and King Charles II's return to London on 29 May 1660, a pall-mall court was constructed in St James's Park just south of the wall, on the site of The Mall.
Samuel Pepys's diary entry for 2 April 1661 records that he'... went into St. James's Park, where I saw the Duke of York playing at Pelemele, the first time that I saw the sport'; this new court suffered from dust blown over the wall from coaches travelling along the highway. In July 1661 posts and rails were erected; the court for pall-mall was long and narrow, known as an alley, so the old court provided a suitable route for relocating the eastern approach to St James's Palace. A grant was made to Dan O'Neale, Groom of the Bedchamber, John Denham, Surveyor of the King's Works allocating a 1,400-by-23-foot area of land for this purpose; the grant was endorsed'Our warrant for the building of the new street to St James's'. A new road was built on the site of the old pall-mall court, opened in September 1661, it was named Catherine Street, after Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, but was better known as Pall Mall Street or the Old Pall Mall. The pall-mall field was a popular place for recreation and Pepys records several other visits.
By July 1665 Pepys used ` Pell Mell'. In 1662, Pall Mall was one of several streets'thought fitt to be repaired, new paved or otherwise amended' under the Streets and Westminster Act 1662; the paving commissioners appointed to oversee the work included the Earl of St Albans. The terms of the act allowed commissioners to remove any building encroaching on the highway, with compensation for those at least 30 years old; the commissioners determined that the real tennis court and adjoining house at the northeast corner of Pall Mall and St James's Street should be demolished, in 1664 notified Martha Barker, the owner of the Crown lease, to do so. Although Barker rejected £230 compensation, the court was demolished by 1679; the street was developed extensively during 1662–1667. The Earl of St Albans had a lease from the Crown in 1662 on 45 acres of land part of St James's Fields, he laid out the site for the development of St. James's Square, Jermyn Street, Charles Street, St Albans Street, King Street and other streets now known as St James's.
The location was convenient for the royal palaces of Whitehall and St James and the houses on the east and west sides of the square were developed along with those on the north side of Pall Mall, each constructed separately as was usual for the time. Houses were not built along the adjoining part of Pall Mall; the Earl petitioned the King in late 1663 that the class of occupants they hoped to attract to the new district would not take houses without the prospect of acquiring them outright. Despite opposition from the Lord Treasurer, the Earl of Southampton, on 1 April 1665 the King granted the Earl of St Albans the freehold of the St James's Square site, along with all the ground on the north side of Pall Mall between St James's Street and the east side of St James's Square; the freehold of the north side of Pall Mall subsequently passed to other private owners. The Crown kept the freehold of the land south of the street except for No. 79, granted to Nell Gwyn's trustees in 1676 or 1677 by Charles II.
The buildings constructed on the south side of Pall Mall in subsequent years were grander than those on the north owing to stricter design and building standards imposed by the crown commissioners. When the main road wa
Brooklands was a 2.75-mile motor racing circuit and aerodrome built near Weybridge in Surrey, United Kingdom. It opened in 1907 and was the world's first purpose-built motor racing circuit as well as one of Britain's first airfields, which became Britain's largest aircraft manufacturing centre by 1918, producing military aircraft such as the Wellington and civil airliners like the Viscount and VC-10; the circuit hosted its last race in August 1939 and today part of it forms the Brooklands Museum, a major aviation and motoring museum, as well as a venue for vintage car and other transport-related events. The Brooklands motor circuit was the brainchild of Hugh F. Locke King, was the first purpose-built banked motor race circuit in the world. Following the Motor Car Act 1903, Britain was subject to a blanket 20 mph speed limit on public roads: at a time when nearly 50% of the world's new cars were produced in France, there was concern that Britain's infant auto-industry would be hampered by the inability to undertake sustained high-speed testing.
King commissioned Colonel Capel Lofft Holden of the Royal Artillery to design the projected circuit and work began in 1906. Requirements of speed and spectator visibility led to the Brooklands track being built as a 100 ft wide, 2.75 miles long, banked oval. The banking was nearly 30 feet high in places. In addition to the oval, a bisecting "Finishing Straight" was built, increasing the track length to 3.25 miles, of which 1.25 miles was banked. It could host up to 287,000 spectators in its heyday. Owing to the complications of laying tarmacadam on banking, the expense of laying asphalt, the track was built in uncoated concrete; this led in years to a somewhat bumpy ride, as the surface suffered differential settlement over time. Along the centre of the track ran a dotted black line, known as the Fifty Foot Line. By driving over the line, a driver could theoretically take the banked corners without having to use the steering wheel; the track was opened on 17 June 1907 with a luncheon attended by most of Britain's motor manufacturers, followed by an informal inauguration of the track by a procession of 43 cars, one driven by Charles Rolls.
The first competitive event was held on 28–29 June, with three cars competing to break the world record for distance covered in 24 hours, the first race meeting was held on 6 July, attracting over 10,000 spectators. Drawing inspiration from the development at Brooklands, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway was built soon afterwards, held its inaugural race in August 1909; the Brooklands Mountain Circuit was a small section of the track giving a lap 1¼ miles long, running from the Fork to the rear of Members' Hill and back. It was created in 1930 using movable barriers. On 28–29 June 1907, eleven days after the circuit opened, it played host to the world's first 24-hour motor event, with Selwyn Edge leading three specially converted Napier cars around the circuit. A statement of intent had been made in 1906, Selwyn Edge entered into a physical training program to prepare for the event, his car, "804" was extensively modified, having a special fuel tank, bodywork removed, a special windscreen. Over 300 red railway lamps were used to light the track during the night.
Flares were used to mark the upper boundary of the track. Edge drove his car for the full duration, with the drivers of the other two cars taking the more familiar shift approach. During the event Edge covered a distance of 1,581.74 mi at an average speed of 65.91 mph, comfortably beating the existing record of 1,096.187 mi set at Indianapolis in 1905. Women were not allowed to compete for several years. Dorothy Levitt, S. F. Edge's leading driver, was refused entry despite having been the'first English-woman to compete in a motor race' in 1903, holding the'Ladies World Land Speed Record'. Edge completed 2,545 km at a record which stood for 17 years; the first standard race meeting would be held the next week, on 6 July. George E. Stanley broke the one-hour record at Brooklands race track on a Singer motorcycle in 1912, becoming the first rider of a 350 cc motorcycle to cover over 60 miles in an hour; the world record for the first person to cover 100 miles in 1 hour was set by Percy E. Lambert at Brooklands, on 15 February 1913 when driving his 4.5 litre sidevalve Talbot.
He covered 103 miles, 1470 yards in 60 minutes. A contemporary film of his exploits on that day can be viewed at the Brooklands Museum. In July and August 1929, Violette Cordery and her younger sister Evelyn drove her 4.5 litre four-seater Invicta for 30,000 miles in less than 30,000 minutes, averaging 61.57 mph and earning her second Dewar Trophy from the Royal Automobile Club. Brooklands closed to motor racing during World War I, was requisitioned by the War Office and continued its pre-war role as a flying training centre although it was now under military control. Brooklands soon became a major location for the construction and supply of military aeroplanes. Motor racing resumed in 1920 after extensive track repairs and Grand Prix motor racing was established at Brooklands in 1926 by Henry Segrave, after his victories in the 1923 French Grand Prix and the San Sebastián Grand Prix the following year raised interest in the sport in Britain; this first British Grand Prix was won by Louis Wagner and Robert Sénéchal, sharing the drive in a Delage 155B.
The second British Grand Prix was staged there in 1927 and these two events resulted in improve
Cockfosters is a suburb of north London, lying in the London Borough of Enfield and in the London Borough of Barnet. Cockfosters was located pre-1965 in the counties of Middlesex; the name was recorded as far back as 1524, is thought to be either the name of a family, or that of a house which stood on Enfield Chase. One suggestion is that it was'the residence of the cock forester'. Of note in Cockfosters is Trent Park, now a country park. Christ Church, Cockfosters, an Anglican evangelical church, was founded in 1839; the Piccadilly line of the London Underground reached Cockfosters in 1933. The Cock Inn, off Cockfosters Road on Chalk Lane, opened in 1798. Southgate School is located on Sussex Way. Trent C of E Primary School is located on Chalk Lane; the Chickenshed Theatre Company, aka Chickenshed, is located in Cockfosters. It has since moved to its current site, it now produces many shows. It is an inclusive theatre company and started the concept of "inclusive theatre", which means anyone, regardless of background, gender, age or disability, is allowed to both watch and perform in theatre.
Cockfosters has a non-League football club, Cockfosters F. C. which plays at the Cockfosters Sports Ground. Saracens used to play at Chase Side; the ground is still used for Enfield F. C. for the Saracens "B' team, Saracens Storm. It is used as Saracens Amateurs' training ground. Cockfosters Cricket Club and Southgate Compton Cricket Club play at Chalk Lane on fields adjacent to Christ Church, either side of Cockfosters Bowling Club. Trent Country Park covers 320 hectares. An attraction within Trent Park's grounds, installed in 2012, is the treetop adventure park Go Ape. Cockfosters is the name of a 2015 short-story collection by Helen Simpson. One of the short stories features a visit to "lost property" at Cockfosters Underground station; the poet John Betjeman, who taught at Heddon Court School in 1929-30, wrote "The Cricket Master" about his experiences there. The MP for Enfield Southgate from 2005 to 2017, David Burrowes, was born in Cockfosters. George Baillie Duncan ministered at Christ Church and the cricketer Andrew Wingfield Digby was a curate there.
Cameron McVey grew up in Cockfosters. Other transient residents have included the footballers Tommy Docherty and George Eastham, Dave Davies of the Kinks. Professors John Stollery and Ian Jacobs grew up in Cockfosters. Two tube stations are located within Cockfosters: Cockfosters Station is the terminus of the Piccadilly line. Oakwood Station is the next station after Cockfosters. London Buses routes 298, 299, 307, 384, 692, 699, N91 serve Cockfosters. Media related to Cockfosters at Wikimedia Commons
The Safari Rally is a rally race held in East Africa. It was first held from 27 May to 1 June 1953 as the East African Coronation Safari in Kenya and Tanganyika, as a celebration of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. In 1960 it was renamed the East African Safari Rally and kept that name until 1974, when it became the Safari Rally, it was one of the most prestigious and celebrated rallies of its time, as well as one of the toughest. The Safari Rally was notorious for being by far the most difficult rally in the WRC championship to win- some had said that winning this particular rally was the equivalent of winning three other rallies; the arduous conditions such as the changing weather and the rough roads- rife with sharp rocks made life difficult for team personnel- repairs were having to be made to the cars and a lot of time would be lost- and all this work had to be done in sometimes intense heat and humidity. The event adopted the special stage format in 1996. From that edition until 2002, it featured over 1000 km of timed stages, with stages well over 60 km long, unlike most rallies which had under 500 km of total timed distance.
This meant that the winner's total time was above 12 hours in 1996 and decreased to two seconds shy of 8 hours in 2002. The event was part of the World Rally Championship calendar for many years until being excluded after 2002 due to the lack of finance and organisation in 2003; the Kenyan government is trying to get the rally's WRC status restored. Since 2003 the event has been part of the African Rally Championship organised by the FIA, it is known as the KCB Safari Rally after its sponsor, Kenya Commercial Bank. Local driver Shekhar Mehta is the most successful in the event with five outright victories. Notes: IMC = International Championship for Manufacturers, WRC = World Rally Championship, 2LWC = 2-Litre World Cup, ARC = African Rally Championship, IRC = Intercontinental Rally Challenge, KRC = Kenya National Rally Championship The East African Safari Rally is a Classic rally event first held in 2003 to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the first running of the event; the event has since been held biennially.
Safari Rally Safari 3000 KMSF official website African Rally Championship official website Race results since 1970 at Rallybase.nl website World Rally Archive – Safari Rally East African Safari Rally official website
Palmers Green is a suburban area of the London Borough of Enfield in north London, England. It is located within the N13 postcode district, around 8 miles north of Charing Cross, it is home to the largest population of Greek Cypriots outside Cyprus and is nicknamed "Little Cyprus" or "Palmers Greek". Recorded as Palmers grene 1608,'village green associated with a family called Palmer', from the Middle English grene. Palmers Green was once a tiny hamlet in the parish of Edmonton, situated at the junction of Green Lanes and Fox Lane, its population was small, there were no more than a few isolated houses in the mid-17th century. Local records mention a Palmers Field in 1204 and a Palmers Grove in 1340. Palmers Green is mentioned as a highway in 1324. By 1801 the area had grown to a village including two inns. In 1871 the railway line from Wood Green to Enfield was opened and a station was built in Aldermans Hill to serve Palmers Green; the area remained undeveloped for thirty more years, as local landowners refused to sell their large estates for building.
In 1902, large tracts of land were sold for building and the area began to develop rapidly. The first large-scale developments were on the Old Park estate between Fox Lane and Aldermans Hill, the Hazelwood Park Estate between Hazelwood Lane and Hedge Lane. Within the latter development the building that now serves as Hazelwood Infant School and Hazelwood Junior School was built in Hazelwood Lane in 1908. Notable local buildings include Truro House; the former Southgate Town Hall is now flats. The former Pilgrims Rest has been demolished for housing; the Fox public house, in its present guise since 1904, was once the site of the Electric Mouse comedy venue. The poet and novelist Stevie Smith lived in Palmers Green from 1905 until her death in 1971; that same year Joe Strummer shared a flat at 18 Ash Grove with several others. Paul Scott, the author of The Jewel in the Crown, was born in Palmers Green on 25 March 1920. Victoria Cross recipient Alfred Herring lived locally. Local author Douglas Hill was killed by a bus on a zebra crossing at The Triangle in 2007.
The Intimate Theatre was opened in a building, built in 1931 as St Monica's Church Hall. Among the actors who performed there were Richard Attenborough, Vivien Leigh, Roger Moore and David Bowie, it is no longer a repertory theatre and the building is no longer used for theatrical performances, but it is still referred to as the Intimate Theatre. In 1992 the building housed a Radio Cracker studio. In 1988 Palmers Green's only hospital, Greentrees Hospital, was demolished. There is a parade of shops known as Palmers Green Shopping Centre along Green Lanes, with many restaurants, clothing shops, independently owned cafes, beauty salons, branches of Superdrug, Boots UK, Morrisons. Broomfield House, in Broomfield Park, remains a burnt-out shell despite numerous redevelopment proposals and an appearance on the BBC2 programme Restoration; the Conservatory in the park has reopened after a refurbishment. Palmers Green railway station car park is the location of a Sunday farmers' market and of the Waiting Rooms cafe, which hosts live blues music on a Friday evening with performers including "Mad Dog" Dave Barnes and Graham Hine, guitarist of Brett Marvin and the Thunderbolts.
There is a small platform coffee counter and art exhibitions are held in a second waiting room. After more than 20 years of discussion, the North Circular A406 was widened to two lanes each way at Bounds Green, with various junction improvements; some major congestion still exists on the A406. Continuous segregated cycle lanes, junction improvements and rearranged on-street parking on and around Green Lanes have been created by Enfield Council following a successful bid for Mini Holland funding from the Mayor of London via TfL; the lanes extend as far south as the A406. The aim is to encourage more commuter, school journeys and leisure cycling than was possible under the previous road layout, which combined four lane sections subject to speeding and other dangers to cyclists. Less than one year into their full opening, automated cycle counts at September 2018 suggest 10-12k trips by bike per month within Palmers Green. Public access to the New River canal has been improved with waterside paths and access gates.
According to the 2011 census, 64% of the ward's population is white. 6% was Indian and 5% of'Any other ethnic group'. The main foreign languages are Turkish, spoken by 795 people, Greek, spoken by 605. Green Lanes, the high street of Palmers Green, is featured in the "Knight Bus" sequence in the film Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Palmers Green is mentioned in Jona Lewie's song "You'll Always Find Me in the Kitchen at Parties"; the song's lyrics were written by Lewie's friend Keef Trouble, a fellow member of Brett Marvin and the Thunderbolts. The reference to Palmers Green was prompted by the fact that Trouble had split up with his girlfriend and was at a party thrown by his friend Charles "Charlie Farley" Hallinan near The Fox public house in Palmers Green. Jona Lewie amended the words, but still mentioned the "do in Palmers Green". In his second autobiographical book, “Snakes and Ladders”, Dirk Bogarde writes of joining the army at the same time as a man he refers to as
Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.
The London–Sydney Marathon was a car rally from the United Kingdom to Australia. It was first run in 1968, a second event was organised in 1977 and a third in 1993 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the original. Three further rallies have subsequently been contested in 2000, 2004 and 2014; the original event was won by Colin Malkin and Brian Coyle, driving a Hillman Hunter. Fifty-six cars finished; the original Marathon was the result of a lunch in late 1967, during a period of despondency in Britain caused by the devaluation of the pound. Sir Max Aitken, proprietor of the Daily Express and two of his editorial executives, Jocelyn Stevens and Tommy Sopwith, decided to create an event which their newspaper could sponsor, which would serve to raise the country's spirits; such an event would, it was felt, act as a showcase for British engineering and would boost export sales in the countries through which it passed. The initial UK£10,000 winner's prize offered by the Daily Express was soon joined by a £3,000 runners-up award and two £2,000 prizes for the third-placed team and for the highest-placed Australians, all of which were underwritten by the Daily Telegraph newspaper and its proprietor Sir Frank Packer, eager to promote the Antipodean leg of the rally.
An eight-man organising committee was established to create a suitably challenging but navigable route. Jack Sears, organising secretary and himself a former racing driver, plotted a 7,000-mile course covering eleven countries in as many days, arranged that the P&O liner S. S. Chusan would ferry the first 72 cars and their crews on the nine-day voyage from India, before the final 2,600 miles across Australia: The remaining crews departed Bombay at 3 am on Thursday 5 December, arriving in Fremantle at 10 am on Friday 13 December before they restarted in Perth the following evening. Any repairs attempted on the car during the voyage would lead to the crew's exclusion. Roger Clark established an early lead through the first genuinely treacherous leg, from Sivas to Erzincan in Turkey, averaging 60 mph in his Lotus Cortina for the 170 mile stage. Despite losing time in Pakistan and India, he maintained his lead to the end of the Asian section in Bombay, with Simo Lampinen's Ford Taunus second and Lucien Bianchi's DS21 in third.
However, once into Australia, Clark suffered several setbacks. A piston failure dropped him to third, would have cost him a finish had he not been able to cannibalise fellow Ford Motor Company driver Eric Jackson's car for parts. After repairs were effected, he suffered. Encountering a Cortina by the roadside, he persuaded the reluctant owner to sell his rear axle and resumed once more, although at the cost of 80 minutes' delay while it was replaced; this left Lucien Bianchi and co-driver Jean-Claude Ogier in the lead ahead of Gilbert Staepelaere/Simo Lampinen in the German Ford Taunus, with Andrew Cowan in the Hillman Hunter 3rd. Staepelaere's Taunus hit a gate post, breaking a track rod; this left Paddy Hopkirk's Austin 1800 in third place. Approaching the Nowra checkpoint at the end of the penultimate stage with only 98 miles to Sydney, the Frenchmen were involved in a head-on collision which wrecked their Citroën and hospitalised the pair. Hopkirk, the first driver on the scene stopped to tend to the injured and extinguish the flames in the burning cars.
Andrew Cowan, next on the scene slowed but was waved through with the message that everything was under control. Hopkirk rejoined the rally, neither he nor Cowan lost penalties in this stage. So Andrew Cowan, who had requested "a car to come last" from the Chrysler factory on the assumption that only half a dozen drivers would reach Sydney, took victory in his Hillman Hunter and claimed the £10,000 prize. Hopkirk finished second, while Australian Ian Vaughan was third in a factory-entered Ford XT Falcon GT. Ford Australia won the Teams' Prize with their three Falcons GTs, placing 6th and 8th; the success of the 1968 marathon spawned the World Cup rallies although after the controversial 1974 event no further World Cup event would be held. While the original event was to prove a triumph for the Rootes Group, the 1977 edition, this time sponsored by Singapore Airlines, was dominated by Mercedes-Benz; the German marque claimed a 1–2 finish and had two other cars in the top eight, with Andrew Cowan in a 280E repeating his success of nine years previous, followed home by teammate Tony Fowkes in a similar car.
Paddy Hopkirk, this time driving a Citroën CX, took the final podium spot. Nick Brittan, a competitor in the original event in a Lotus Cortina, established his company as an organiser of modern endurance rallies with a 25th anniversary re-run of the marathon in 1993, he persuaded 21 drivers who had competed in 1968 to return, including Andrew Cowan and Roger Clark, altogether 106 teams from 17 countries entered. Cowan drove the same car as the first time, having his Hillman Hunter loaned to him by the Scottish Automobile Club museum, while other competitors drove pre-1970 era cars; the entry fee was £12,900, the estimated cost of participating was put at £45,000. The 16,000 km rally had three major differences to its ancestor. First, the changing political climate in the Middle East meant that several countries such as Iran and Afghanistan were now out of bounds, although in Europe and Australia much of the original route was retraced; the old scheduled open road sections were replaced with more modern timed special stages for safety reasons.
With the demise of the great passenger liners there would be no great voyage across the Indian Ocean to Australia, Brittan instead negotiating for two Antonov An-124 cargo plane