English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, the manner of England's governance. The first and second wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament; the war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I. In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was only established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688; the term "English Civil War" appears most in the singular form, although historians divide the conflict into two or three separate wars.
These wars were not restricted to England as Wales was a part of the Kingdom of England and was affected accordingly, the conflicts involved wars with, civil wars within, both Scotland and Ireland. The war in all these countries is known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". Unlike other civil wars in England, which focused on who should rule, this war was more concerned with the manner in which the kingdoms of England and Ireland were governed; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica called the series of conflicts the "Great Rebellion", while some historians – Marxists such as Christopher Hill – have long favoured the term "English Revolution". The two sides had their geographical strongholds, such that minority elements were fled; the strongholds of the royalty included the countryside, the shires, the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. On the other hand, all the cathedral cities sided with Parliament.
All the industrial centers, the ports, the economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England were parliamentary strongholds. Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populous and rebellious seemed to go hand in hand". Many of the officers and veteran soldiers of the English Civil War studied and implemented war strategies, learned and perfected in other wars across Europe, namely by the Spanish and the Dutch during the Dutch war for independence which began in 1568; the main battle tactic came to be known as pike and shot infantry, in which the two sides would line up, facing each other, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre, carrying matchlock muskets. The brigades would arrange themselves in lines of musketeers, three deep, where the first row would kneel, the second would crouch, the third would stand, allowing all three to fire a volley simultaneously. At times there would be two groups of three lines allowing one group to reload while the other group arranged themselves and fired.
Mixed in among the musketeers were pikemen carrying pikes that were between 12 feet and 18 feet long, whose primary purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. Positioned on each side of the infantry were the cavalry, with a right-wing led by the lieutenant-general, a left-wing by the commissary general; the Royalist cavaliers' skill and speed on horseback led to many early victories. Prince Rupert, the leader of the king's cavalry, learned a tactic while fighting in the Dutch army where the cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry firing their pistols just before impact. However, with Oliver Cromwell and the introduction of the more disciplined New Model Army, a group of disciplined pikemen would stand their ground in the face of charging cavalry and could have a devastating effect. While the Parliamentarian cavalry were slower than the cavaliers, they were better disciplined; the Royalists had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge leaving their forces scattered and tired.
Cromwell's cavalry, on the other hand, was trained to operate as a single unit, which led to many decisive victories. The English Civil War broke out less than forty years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603. Elizabeth's death had resulted in the succession of her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland, to the English throne as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms; as King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was genuinely affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money. In spite of this, James's personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-Parliamentary sources of income; this extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the su
V. E. Walker
Vyell Edward Walker was an English cricketer and administrator. Teddy Walker was born in Southgate and educated at Harrow School, he was the fifth of seven cricket playing brothers. They played a major part in establishing the Middlesex County Cricket Club, founded in 1864, their cricket ground in Southgate is maintained by the Walker Trust to this day. Walker was a right-handed batsman and an underarm slow right arm bowler who represented Marylebone Cricket Club, a Middlesex XI and Middlesex County Cricket Club. In 1859 for an All-England Eleven against Surrey County Cricket Club at The Oval he scored 20 not out took all 10 of the Surrey wickets. In the second innings he took another 4 wickets; this was in a season. He took 10 for 104 for Middlesex against Lancashire in 1865. A fine driving bat and the leading lob bowler of his day as well as a great captain of Middlesex and the Gentlemen, he captained the county club and served as President of the Marylebone Cricket Club and of Middlesex County Cricket Club.
He died at Arnos Grove, aged 68. Middlesex County Cricket Club The Walkers of Southgate Cricinfo Cricket Archive Middlesex County Cricket Club Official website Cricinfo page on V. E. Walker
Islington is a district in Greater London and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's High Street to Highbury Fields, encompassing the area around the busy High Street, Upper Street, Essex Road, Southgate Road to the east. Islington grew as a sprawling Middlesex village along the line of the Great North Road, has provided the name of the modern borough; this gave rise to some confusion, as neighbouring districts may be said to be in Islington. This district is bounded by Liverpool Road to the west and City Road and Southgate Road to the south-east, its northernmost point is in the area of Canonbury. The main north-south high street, Upper Street splits at Highbury Corner to Holloway Road to the west and St. Paul's Road to the east; the Angel business improvement district, an area centered around the Angel tube station, exists within southern Islington district and northern portions of two other districts in the London Borough of Islington – Finsbury and Pentonville.
Islington was named by the Saxons Giseldone Gislandune. The name means "Gīsla's hill" from the Old English personal name dun; the name mutated to Isledon, which remained in use well into the 17th century when the modern form arose. In medieval times, Islington was just one of many small manors thereabouts, along with Bernersbury, Neweton Berewe or Hey-bury and Canonesbury; some roads on the edge of the area, including Essex Road, were known as streets by the medieval period indicating a Roman origin, but little physical evidence remains. What is known is that the Great North Road from Aldersgate came into use in the 14th century, connecting with a new turnpike up Highgate Hill; this was along the line of modern Upper Street, with a toll gate at The Angel defining the extent of the village. The Back Road, the modern Liverpool Road, was a drovers' road where cattle would be rested before the final leg of their journey to Smithfield. Pens and sheds were erected along this road to accommodate the animals.
The first recorded church, St Mary's, was erected in the twelfth century and was replaced in the fifteenth century. Islington lay on the estates of the Dean and Chapter of St Pauls. There were substantial medieval moated manor houses in the area, principally at Canonbury and Highbury. In 1548, there were 440 communicants listed and the rural atmosphere, with access to the City and Westminster, made it a popular residence for the rich and eminent; the local inns harboured sheltered recusants. The Royal Agricultural Hall was built in 1862 on the Liverpool Road site of William Dixon's Cattle Layers; the hall was 75 ft high and the arched glass roof spanned 125 ft. It was built for the annual Smithfield Show in December of that year but was popular for other purposes, including recitals and the Royal Tournament, it was the primary exhibition site for London until the 20th century and the largest building of its kind, holding up to 50,000 people. It was requisitioned for use by the Mount Pleasant sorting office during World War II and never re-opened.
The main hall has now been incorporated into the Business Design Centre. The hill on which Islington stands has long supplied the City of London with water, the first projects drawing water through wooden pipes from the many springs that lay at its foot, in Finsbury; these included Sadler's London Spa and Clerkenwell. By the 17th century these traditional sources were inadequate to supply the growing population and plans were laid to construct a waterway, the New River, to bring fresh water from the source of the River Lea, in Hertfordshire to New River Head, below Islington in Finsbury; the river was opened on 29 September 1613 by the constructor of the project. His statue still stands; the course of the river ran to the east of Upper Street, much of its course is now covered and forms a linear park through the area. The Regent's Canal passes through Islington, for much of which in an 886-metre tunnel that runs from Colebrook Row east of the Angel, to emerge at Muriel Street near Caledonian Road.
The stretch is marked above with a series of pavement plaques so walkers may find their way from one entrance to the other. The area of the canal east of the tunnel and north of the City Road was once dominated by much warehousing and industry surrounding the large City Road Basin and Wenlock Basin; those old buildings that survive here are now residential or small creative work units. This stretch has one side accessed from the towpath; the canal was constructed in 1820 to carry cargo from Limehouse into the canal system. There is no tow-path in the tunnel so bargees had to walk their barges through, braced against the roof. Commercial use of the canal has declined since the 1960s. In the 17th and 18th centuries the availability of water made Islington a good place for growing vegetables to feed London; the manor became a popular excursion destination for Londoners, attracted to the area by its rural feel. Many public houses were therefore built to serve the needs of both the excursionists and travellers on the turnpike.
By 1716, there were 56 ale-house keepers in Upper Street offering pleasure and tea gardens, activities such as archery, skittle alleys and bowling. By the 18th century and dancing were offered, together with billiards, firework displays and balloon ascents; the King's Head Tavern, now a Victorian building with a theatre, has remained on the same site, opposite the parish c
Sussex County Cricket Club
Sussex County Cricket Club is the oldest of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Sussex, its limited overs team is called the Sussex Sharks. The club was founded in 1839 as a successor to the various Sussex county cricket teams, including the old Brighton Cricket Club, representative of the county of Sussex as a whole since the 1720s; the club has always held first-class status. Sussex have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England; the club colours are traditionally blue and white and the shirt sponsors are Aerotron for the Specsavers County Championship, Parafix for Royal London One-Day Cup matches and Boundless for NatWest Blast T20 matches. Its home ground is Hove. Sussex play matches around the county at Arundel and Eastbourne. Sussex won its first official County Championship title in 2003 and subsequently became the dominant team of the decade, repeating the success in 2006 and 2007.
In 2006 Sussex achieved "the double", beating Lancashire to clinch the C&G Trophy, before winning the County Championship following an emphatic victory against Nottinghamshire at Trent Bridge, in which Sussex defeated their hosts by an innings and 245 runs. Sussex won the title for the third time in five years in 2007, when in a nail-biting finale on the last day of the season, Sussex defeated Worcestershire early in the day and had to wait until past five o'clock as title rivals Lancashire narrowly failed to beat Surrey – prompting relieved celebrations at the County Cricket Ground, Hove. Sussex enjoyed further limited overs success with consecutive Pro40 wins in 2008 and 2009 as well as beating Somerset at Edgbaston to lift the 2009 Twenty20 Cup; the south coast county ended the decade having won ten trophies in ten years. On 1 November 2015, Sussex County Cricket Club merged with the Sussex Cricket Board to form a single governing body for cricket in Sussex, called Sussex Cricket Limited.
County Championship – 2003, 2006, 2007 Division Two – 2001, 2010 Friends Provident Trophy – 1963, 1964, 1978, 1986, 2006 Pro40 National League – 1982, 2008, 2009 Division Two – 1999, 2005Twenty20 Cup – 2009 Second XI Championship – 1978, 1990, 2007 Second XI Trophy – 2005 Sussex, along with Kent, is believed to be the birthplace of cricket. It is believed that cricket was invented by children living on the Weald in Anglo-Saxon or Norman times. See: History of cricket to 1725 The first definite mention of cricket in Sussex relates to ecclesiastical court records in 1611 which state that two parishioners of Sidlesham in West Sussex failed to attend church on Easter Sunday because they were playing cricket, they were made to do penance. Cricket became established in Sussex during the 17th century and the earliest village matches took place before the English Civil War, it is believed that the earliest county teams were formed in the aftermath of the Restoration in 1660. In 1697, the earliest "great match" recorded was for 50 guineas apiece between two elevens at a venue in Sussex.
It was an inter-county match and has been classified as the earliest known top-class match in cricket history. Matches involving the two great Sussex patrons Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond and Sir William Gage, 7th Baronet were first recorded in 1725; the earliest known use of Sussex in a match title occurred in 1729. From 1741, Richmond patronised the famous Slindon Cricket Club, whose team was representative of the county. After the death of Richmond in 1751, Sussex cricket declined until the emergence of the Brighton club at its Prince of Wales Ground in 1790; this club sustained cricket in Sussex through the Napoleonic Wars and, as a result, the county team was strong in the 1820s when it included the great bowlers Jem Broadbridge and William Lillywhite. For information about Sussex county teams before the formation of Sussex CCC, see: Sussex county cricket teams On 17 June 1836, the Sussex Cricket Fund was set up to support county matches, after a meeting in Brighton; this led directly to the formation on 1 March 1839 of Sussex County Cricket Club, England's oldest county club.
Sussex CCC played its initial first-class match versus Marylebone Cricket Club at Lord's on 10 & 11 June 1839. The Sussex crest depicts a mythological, footless bird called the Martlet, is similar to Coat of arms of Sussex. Capped players have six martlets on their sweaters, the crest with gold trimming on their caps. In total, Sussex CCC have played at 17 grounds, 4 of which have been in Hove; the first County match was played at Eaton Road on 6 June 1872 against Gloucestershire. The main venue for the Club's First and Second XI is The County Ground in Hove, although matches are played at the grounds at Arundel and Horsham. Other grounds for first class matches have included Sheffield Park, Worthing and Hastings. No. Denotes the player's squad number, as worn on the back of their shirt. Denotes players with international caps. * denotes a player, awarded a county cap. Director of Cricket: Keith Greenfield Head coach: Jason Gillespie Academy Director: Carl Hopkinson Asst. Coach: Jon Lewis Batting coach: Michael Yardy Bowling coach: Jon Lewis Spin Bowling Coach: n/a Fielding coach: n/a Mental conditioning coach: n/a Fitness trainer: n/a Head Physiotherapist: n/a Masseur: n/a This list includes those Sussex players who have played in Test cricket since 1877, One Day International cricket since 1971, or
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period. It began in 1660 when the English and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II; this followed the Interregnum called the Protectorate, that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The term Restoration is used to describe both the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, the period of several years afterwards in which a new political settlement was established, it is often used to cover the whole reign of Charles II and the brief reign of his younger brother James II. In certain contexts it may be used to cover the whole period of the Stuart monarchs as far as the death of Queen Anne and the accession of the Hanoverian George I in 1714; the Commonwealth, which preceded the English Restoration, might have continued if Oliver Cromwell's son Richard, made Lord Protector on his father's death, had been capable of carrying on his father's policies. Richard Cromwell's main weakness was. After seven months, an army faction known as the Wallingford House party removed him on 6 May 1659 and reinstalled the Rump Parliament.
Charles Fleetwood was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety and of the Council of State, one of the seven commissioners for the army. On 9 June 1659, he was nominated lord-general of the army. However, his leadership was undermined in Parliament, which chose to disregard the army's authority in a similar fashion to the post-First Civil War Parliament. A royalist uprising was planned for 1 August 1659. However, Sir George Booth gained control of Cheshire. Booth held Cheshire until the end of August; the Commons, on 12 October 1659, cashiered General John Lambert and other officers, installed Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the Speaker. The next day Lambert ordered that the doors of the House be shut and the members kept out. On 26 October a "Committee of Safety" was appointed, of which Lambert were members. Lambert was appointed major-general of all the forces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood being general; the Committee of Safety sent Lambert with a large force to meet George Monck, in command of the English forces in Scotland, either negotiate with him or force him to come to terms.
It was into this atmosphere that Monck, the governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland. Lambert's army began to desert him, he returned to London alone. Monck marched to London unopposed; the Presbyterian members, excluded in Pride's Purge of 1648, were recalled, on 24 December the army restored the Long Parliament. Fleetwood was deprived of his command and ordered to appear before Parliament to answer for his conduct. On 3 March 1660, Lambert was sent to the Tower of London, he tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill, but he was recaptured by Colonel Richard Ingoldsby, a participant in the regicide of Charles I who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime. Lambert was incarcerated and died in custody on Guernsey in 1694. On 4 April 1660, Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda, in which he made several promises in relation to the reclamation of the crown of England.
Monck organised the Convention Parliament. On 8 May it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649. "Constitutionally, it was as if the last nineteen years had never happened." Charles returned from exile, landing at Dover on 25 May. He entered London on his 30th birthday. To celebrate His Majesty's Return to his Parliament, 29 May was made a public holiday, popularly known as Oak Apple Day, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. Some contemporaries described the Restoration as "a divinely ordained miracle"; the sudden and unexpected deliverance from usurpation and tyranny was interpreted as a restoration of the natural and divine order. The Cavalier Parliament convened for the first time on 8 May 1661, it would endure for over 17 years being dissolved on 24 January 1679. Like its predecessor, it was overwhelmingly Royalist, it is known as the Pensionary Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King.
The leading political figure at the beginning of the Restoration was Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. It was the "skill and wisdom of Clarendon" which had "made the Restoration unconditional". Many Royalist exiles were rewarded. Prince Rupert of the Rhine returned to the service of England, became a member of the privy council, was provided with an annuity. George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, returned to be the Captain of the King's guard and received a pension. Marmaduke Langdale returned and was made "Baron Langdale". William Cavendish, Marquess of Newcastle and was able to regain the greater part of his estates, he was invested in 1666 with the Order of the Garter, was advanced to a dukedom on 16 March 1665. The Indemnity and Oblivion Act, which became law on 29 August 1660, pardoned all past treason against the crown, but excluded those involved in the trial and execution of Charles I. Thirty-one of the 59 commissioners (
The Hambledon Club was a social club, famous for its organisation of 18th century cricket matches. By the late 1770s it was the foremost cricket club in England; the origin of the club, based near Hambledon in rural Hampshire, is unclear but it had been founded by 1768. Its basis was a local parish cricket team, in existence before 1750 and achieved prominence in 1756 when it played a series of three matches versus Dartford, which had itself been a major club for at least 30 years. At this time, the parish team was sometimes referred to as "Squire Land's Club", after Squire Thomas Land, the main organiser of cricket teams in the village before the foundation of the club proper. Thomas Land seems to have withdrawn from the scene in about 1764, it is believed. Land was interested in hunting and maintained a pack of hounds that earned him recognition as "one of the most celebrated fox-hunters in Great-Britain". Land is mentioned in the Hambledon Club Song written by Reverend Reynell Cotton in about 1771.
Cotton was not too concerned about Land having left the club: Then why should we fear either Sackville or Mann, Or repine at the loss of both Bayton and Land? From the mid-1760s, Hambledon's stature grew till by the late 1770s it was the foremost cricket club in England. In spite of its relative remoteness, it had developed into a private club of noblemen and country gentry, for whom one of cricket's attractions was the opportunity it offered for betting. Although some of these played in matches, professional players were employed; the club produced several famous players including John Small, Thomas Brett, Richard Nyren, David Harris, Tom Taylor, Billy Beldham and Tom Walker. It was the inspiration for the first significant cricket book: The Cricketers of My Time by John Nyren, the son of Richard Nyren; the Hambledon Club was social and, as it was multi-functional, not a cricket club as such. Rather it is seen as an organiser of matches. Arguments have taken place among historians about whether its teams should be termed Hampshire or Hambledon.
A study of the sources indicates that the nomenclature changed and both terms were applicable. The subject is complicated by a reference to the Kent versus Hampshire & Sussex match at Guildford Bason on 26 and 28 August 1772. According to the source, "Hampshire & Sussex" was synonymous with "Hambledon Club". Sussex cricket was not prominent during the Hambledon period and this could have been because Hambledon operated a team representing two counties. There were Sussex connections at Hambledon such as John Bayton, Richard Nyren, William Barber and Noah Mann. In 1782 the club moved from its original ground at Broadhalfpenny Down to Windmill Down, about half a mile away towards the village of Hambledon; the Bat and Ball Inn had been requisitioned as a munitions dump by the military, Windmill Down provided as an alternative. However, after a couple of seasons playing on the steep sloping and exposed new ground the club agitated for a move to a more suitable location and Ridge Meadow was purchased as a permanent replacement.
Ridge Meadow is still the home of Hambledon C. C. today. Hambledon's great days ended in the 1780s with a shift in focus from the rural counties of Kent and Hampshire to metropolitan London where Lord's was established as the home of the new Marylebone Cricket Club in 1787; however for the decade up to 1793, Hambledon remained a meeting place for like-minded Royal Navy Officers such as Captains Erasmus Gower, Robert Calder, Charles Powell Hamilton, Mark Robinson, Sir Hyde Parker and Robert Linzee. In May 1791 Lord Hugh Seymour became president of the Club but soon afterwards these officers all returned to sea. Membership declined during the 1790s. On 29 August 1796, fifteen people attended a meeting and amongst them, according to the official minutes, was "Mr Thos Pain, Authour of the rights of Man"! It was a joke for Thomas Paine was under sentence of death for treason and exiled in revolutionary Paris; the last meeting was held on 21 September 1796 where the minutes read only that "No Gentlemen were present".
The club had a famous round of six toasts: 6. The Queen's mother 5, her Majesty the Queen 4. The Hambledon Club 3. Cricket 2; the Immortal Memory of Madge 1. The President; the enigmatic "Madge" is a "what", not a "who". Indeed, it is believed to be a common, but crude, contemporary reference to the vagina. A description of the revival and, the whole history of the Hambledon Club can be read in The Glory Days of Cricket by Ashley Mote; the original ground is at Broadhalfpenny Down, opposite the Bat and Ball Inn, in Hyden Farm Lane, near Clanfield, where now the Broadhalfpenny Brigands Cricket Club play. The current Hambledon Cricket Club ground is nearer Hambledon village at Ridge Meadow, just off the road to Broadhalfpenny Down, about half a mile from the village. On Saturday 8 September 2007 the clubhouse was burnt to the ground. Mote, Ashley; the Glory Days of Cricket. Robson. Nyren, John. Ashley Mote, ed; the Cricketers of my Time. Robson
White Conduit Fields
White Conduit Fields in Islington was an early venue for cricket and several major matches are known to have been played there in the 18th century. It was the original home of forerunner of Marylebone Cricket Club; the cricket field was adjacent to the former White Conduit House south of the modern junction between Dewey Street and Barnsbury Road. The earliest match known to have been played at White Conduit Fields was the controversial encounter on Monday, 1 September 1718, between London Cricket Club and the Rochester Punch Club; this game provoked a legal case when the Rochester players walked off in an attempt to save their stake money, London winning at the time. The case focused on the terms of the wager rather than the rules of the sport and the judge ordered the game to be played out, it was concluded in July 1719 at the same venue and London won by 21 runs. London's 21-run victory is the earliest known definite result of any cricket match; the next known match was on 19 August 1719, between London and Kent.
Kent won and the contemporary report concludes with: "The Kentish men won the wager". London and Kent met again on Saturday, 9 July 1720, this time London won. There was no definite use of White Conduit Fields again until 1773. There are two known matches which took place in the Islington area in 1722 and 1730 but their precise locations are unrecorded or indeterminate, they may have been played near White Conduit Fields. The first took place on 18 July 1722 between London and Dartford. Knowledge of the match is via a letter in The Weekly Journal dated 21 July 1722; the exact venue may have been White Conduit Fields. The match was abandoned following a dispute; the letter said: "A Match at Cricket was made between the little Parish of Dartford in Kent, the Gentlemen known by the name of the London Club". Teams styled "London" were in existence but this is the first reference to an actual "London Club". On Wednesday, 12 August 1730, a London v Kent match began at a place called "Frog Lane" in Islington.
The source records that "being obliged by their articles to leave off at seven o’clock, they could not finish it". London had a lead of 30 runs when play ended and it was decided to complete the match on Tuesday, 18 August, at Kennington Common. There is no surviving record of the resumption. White Conduit Fields fell into disuse after 1720 because the London cricketers preferred to play at Kennington Common and the Artillery Ground. Apart from a solitary match in 1773 between a London XI and a team called "England", the venue remained unrecorded until the formation of the White Conduit Club around 1780, it became a major venue again from 1784 to 1786 when at least four matches involving the WCC were played there. It is believed that the club members were dissatisfied with the venue because it was "too open" and so they sought a more private location, they authorised Thomas Lord, one of the ground staff bowlers, to do the necessaries and find another venue. Before the 1787 season, the club moved to what is now called Lord's Old Ground in Marylebone and White Conduit Fields was abandoned.
The venue has disappeared under the spread of urban development. The Regent's Canal was cut through the land in the years after 1810 and passed directly under White Conduit House; the cricket field was long supposed to have been in the vicinity of King's Cross railway station. In 2005, researchers attempted to discover its whereabouts and concluded that the site was bounded by the modern streets of Cloudesley Road to the north, Barnsbury Road to the west, Tolpuddle Street to the south and as far as Liverpool Road to the east. There exists a White Conduit Street in this area. ACS. A Guide to Important Cricket Matches Played in the British Isles 1709 – 1863. Nottingham: ACS. Buckley, G. B.. Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket. Cotterell. Buckley, G. B.. Fresh Light on pre-Victorian Cricket. Cotterell. Haygarth, Arthur. Scores & Biographies, Volume 1. Lillywhite. McCann, Tim. Sussex Cricket in the Eighteenth Century. Sussex Record Society. Maun, Ian. From Commons to Lord's, Volume One: 1700 to 1750. Roger Heavens.
ISBN 978 1 900592 52 9. Waghorn, H. T.. Cricket Scores, etc.. Blackwood. Waghorn, H. T.. The Dawn of Cricket. Electric Press. Wilson, Martin. An Index to Waghorn. Bodyline. Leach, John. "From Lads to Lord's – White Conduit Club". Stumpsite. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011