A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, in some nations' air forces or marines. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank, it originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank; however different countries use other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations; the various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are known as field officers or field-grade officers, below them are company-grade officers. There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.
In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe, it is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general; the other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a colonel general rank; the rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries used two brigade command ranks, why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.
In some nations, the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; the serjeant major was the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant major as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a creation; the armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system, in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt. Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: Adjutant general Commandant-general Inspector general General-in-chief General of the Army General of the Air Force General of the Armies of the United States, a title created for General John J. Pershing, subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington Generaladmiral Air general and aviation general Wing general and group general General-potpukovnik Director general Director general of national defence Controller general Prefect general Master-General of the Ordnance – senior British military position.
Police Director General. Commissioner Admiral In addition to militarily educated generals, there are generals in medicine and engineering; the rank of the most senior chaplain, is usually considered to be a general officer rank. In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix, is the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank, it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal; the rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e. th
Felpham is a village and civil parish in the Arun District of West Sussex, England. Although sometimes considered part of the urban area of greater Bognor Regis, it is a village and civil parish in its own right, having an area of 4.26 km² with a population of 9611 people, still growing. The population at the 2011 Census was 9,746. Felpham lies on the B2259 coastal road; the 12th century Anglican parish church is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. There is a Methodist church close to the three-way junction of Felpham Way, Flansham Lane and Middleton Road, in the east of the village. Felpham was in existence long before Bognor Regis, having been mentioned in the Domesday Book of the 11th century, under the hundred of Binstead: "St Edward's Abbey holds and held Felpham before 1066..." Its value before 1066 was said to be £10. William Blake, introduced to the village by his friend William Hayley, lived in Felpham for three years while writing his Milton: A Poem in Two Books; the poem contains his famous words about "England's green and pleasant land", today known as the anthem "Jerusalem", which were inspired by Blake's "evident pleasure" in the Felpham countryside.
The cottage where he lived is depicted in the illustrations for the poem. It lies within the original village, close to the Fox public house. Of the village he wrote: Away to sweet Felpham for heaven is there: The Ladder of Angels descends through the air On the turrett its spiral does descend Through the village it winds, at my cot it does end; the "turrett" in the verse is Hayley's house, east of the church, which he built around 1800. It was in Felpham that Blake had his altercation with the drunken soldier John Scofield, trespassing in his garden; this led to Blake's trial for sedition because of Scofield's allegation. Blake has a road named after him, Blake's Road, the road on which his former residence is sited, a memorial window dedicated to him in St Mary's Church. Blake's host, was famous in his day for having turned down the offer of the position of poet laureate in 1790; the village has a village hall, called the Memorial Hall, built in remembrance to the fallen from the First World War and a church community hall called St Mary's Centre.
Great expansion of the village took place between 1930 and 1960 when three gated housing estates were developed, again in the 1970s when two public housing developments took place on farmland between Felpham and its neighbouring village of Middleton-on-Sea. In December 2006 planning permission was granted for further development, this time on farmland to the north. Felpham has three primary schools, Bishop Tufnell CE Infant and Bishop Tufnell CE Junior Schools and Downview Primary School. A third infant and junior school is planned to be added as part of the current housing plans. Felpham Community College, the main school in the area, operates its own youth wing, it is situated next door to the Arun Leisure Centre. Felpham has a recreation ground, King George's Field, named after King George V. Felpham Colts Football Club is the largest youth football club in West Sussex; the club is independent and not attached to any of the large local senior football teams. It has 26 teams competing in local football leagues and has been in existence since 1973.
The club's teams can be found training at King George V Field on Saturday mornings and playing at Shrubbs Field in nearby Middleton-on-Sea and King George V Field on Sundays. Predators Youth started in 1994 with only a few players and has grown to 14 youth teams a women's team and a successful adults team. Predators is one largest youth and adults football clubs in West Sussex and they play and train within the Bognor Regis area; the Felpham & Middleton Country Dance Club is one of the oldest extant English country dance clubs in England. Felpham Church Hall was the starting point for the 2008 Scout Overland Hike. Arun Gymnastics Club which caters for all ages and abilities. Gymnasts have competed and had success at local and national level that's to its trained coaches. Felpham Parish Council Felpham location map and 1867 Directory notes
Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Gloucester with his council.... After this had the king a large meeting, deep consultation with his council, about this land. Sent he his men over all England into each shire, it was written in Medieval Latin, was abbreviated, included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, which allowed William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest; the assessors' reckoning of a man's holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive and without appeal. The name "Domesday Book" came into use in the 12th century; as Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario: for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity.
That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement"... because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. The manuscript is held at The National Archives at London. In 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online; the book is an invaluable primary source for historical economists. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the British Isles. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works; these were "Little Domesday", "Great Domesday" No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing. County Durham is missing; the omission of the other counties and towns is not explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be conquered. "Little Domesday" – so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's – is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock.
It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in "Great Domesday". Both volumes are organised into a series of chapters listing the fees, held by a named tenant-in-chief of the king, namely religious institutions, Norman warrior magnates and a few Saxon thegns who had made peace with the Norman regime; some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him. Only a few of the holdings of the large magnates were held in demesne, most having been subinfeudated to knights military followers of the tenant-in-chief which latter thus became their overlord; the fees listed within the chapter concerning a particular tenant-in-chief were ordered, but not in a systematic or rigorous fashion, by the Hundred Court under the jurisdiction of which they were situated, not by geographic location.
As a review of taxes owed, it was unpopular. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands, it should be borne in mind that under the feudal system the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, under his allodial title. He was thus the ultimate overlord and the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. Holdings of Bishops followed of the abbeys and religious houses of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants, Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores were treated separately; this principle applies more to the larger volume: in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places. Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of t
Charles Leonard Kunz was an American-born British musician popular during the British dance band era, who became the wizard of the piano. Kunz was born in Allentown, the only son of Margaret T. and Leonard Kunz, a master baker who played the French horn. He made his debut made his first appearance as a prodigy aged seven. During World War I he led his own resident band, while working in a munitions factory, he came to the United Kingdom in 1922 as a pianist in a small dance band. He was to remain there until his death from a heart attack in 1958, he is buried in Streatham Vale Cemetery. He was such a distinctive and popular pianist that he abandoned his orchestra to concentrate on his piano playing, both at music hall venues and on the BBC. Two of Britain's most famous female vocalists were with his orchestra in the 1930s: Vera Lynn and Welsh songstress Dorothy Squires, his best known crooner was George Barclay. Kunz was the pianist in a dance band, led by the drummer, Ed Krick; the band came to London in 1921 to play a residency in the London Trocadero.
The band returned without Kunz to Pennsylvania after a successful run at the'Troc' and, until 1998, still got together for sessions for retirement homes, renamed as'The B Flats'. His debut as a soloist came in 1934 at the Holborn Empire, London followed by countless variety theatres in Britain and the Continent, after playing in hotels and ballrooms; the same year saw the beginning of what was to become a continuous output of solo records of "Charlie Kunz Medleys". His signature tune was "Clap Hands, Here Comes Charlie", his closing theme was "Pink Elephants" He became the highest paid pianist in the world, earning up to £1,000 a week, his piano transcriptions sold in the teaching of piano-playing. Kunz's playing style was a relaxed flowing interpretation of popular melodies played with subtle soft and loud accents, which he called "melody and rhythm with expression", he was married three times: 1) Amanda Dysher 2) Eva Dorothy "Nin" Lloyd, a fashion model 3) Pat Sparkes Kunz has inspired many young musicians.
Hawaiian musician Kala'e Camarillo uses Charlie Kunz as a stage name. He is buried in Streatham Park Cemetery in London. "Internet Archive Search: Charlie Kunz - archive.org". Retrieved 29 April 2012. "British Pathé Search: Charlie Kunz - britishpathe.com". Retrieved 1 May 2012. Charlie Kunz Charlie Kunz Discography Charlie Kunz Biography - AllMusic
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Barnham railway station
Barnham railway station is in West Sussex, serving the village of Barnham, around 5 miles north of Bognor Regis. It is located on the West Coastway Line between Brighton and Southampton, 63 miles 22 chains down the line from London Bridge via Redhill; the station and the majority of trains serving it are operated by Southern. The other operator is Great Western Railway; the station is served by Southern 313 and 377s, Great Western Railway 158s. Barnham is the junction station for the short branch to Bognor Regis, it is a well-used interchange for passengers between slow and fast services. It has services to London Victoria via Gatwick Airport, Portsmouth, Southampton and the occasional long-distance services to the West Country. Trains travelling from east to west sometimes divide at Barnham. Platform 1 - Bognor Regis from Barnham & Littlehampton, London Victoria via Horsham Platform 2 - Westbound services towards Chichester and Southampton, Bognor Regis from London Platform 3 - Eastbound services towards Littlehampton, LondonThe off-peak service pattern is as follows: 2tph to Brighton 4tph to London Victoria 2tph to Littlehampton 4tph to Bognor Regis 2tph to Southampton Central 1tph to Portsmouth & Southsea 2tph to Portsmouth HarbourThere are two services per day, operated by Great Western Railway to Bristol Temple Meads via Southampton Central and Bath Spa, with one continuing to Great Malvern via Gloucester, Cheltenham Spa and Worcester Foregate Street.
Ticket office Quick ticket Departure boards Coffee Shop Waiting Room Sheltered seating around whole station Taxi Rank Telephones Toilets Car Park Bus stop Southern Train Crew Depot On 1 August 1962, an electric multiple unit was derailed when points switched under it due to an electrical fault. Thirty-eight people were injured; the cause was an electrical short circuit due to a metal washer, left behind after maintenance, which caused a false feed to the points motor under unusual circumstances with a high power load from 3 trains accelerating simultaneously. Adrian Vaughan commented. Before his book had been published, the Clapham Junction disaster occurred, with a similar cause. Train times and station information for Barnham railway station from National Rail
Holly Louise Colvin is a retired English cricketer and former member of the England women's cricket team. She holds the record of being the youngest Test cricketer of either sex to play for England. A right-hand bat and slow left arm bowler, Colvin attended Westbourne House School, West Sussex as a batsman and started playing for the 1st XI in year 7 and averaging over 100. After Westbourne House, Colvin followed in the footsteps of England women's captain Clare Connor by playing in the boys' team at Brighton College. Competing in the Lord's Taverners under-15 Cup in 2004, Colvin and fellow Brightonian Sarah Taylor were the only girls amongst the 1,000 participating teams. Colvin and Taylor's involvement in the competition caused controversy within the MCC, with president Robin Marlar calling their inclusion "absolutely outrageous", he proceeded to argue that, "if there's an 18-year-old who can bowl at 80mph and he's been brought up properly he shouldn't want to hurt a lady at any cost". Richard Cairns, headmaster of Brighton College, dismissed the comments as "show a huge generation gap".
They bowl at me just as fast and hit the ball just as hard". On a cricket tour to Sri Lanka in December 2004, she was one of the last people to play at the Galle International Stadium before it was flattened by the tsunami of Boxing Day that year. In December 2006, Colvin was named as'Female Pupil of the Year' by The Telegraph's'School Sport Matters' campaign, receiving the award at Lord's from Olympic gold-medallist Kelly Holmes. Colvin played for Sussex County Cricket Club from May 2005 to July 2008, she was part of the Sussex teams that won the women's County Championship in 2005, again in 2008. The West Sussex Cricket League has named a trophy after her, awarded annually to the most-improved young female cricketer in the county. Colvin's first involvement with international cricket came in August 2005, when the England team was preparing to face the Australian women's international team at the Hove County Cricket Ground, she was invited to bowl against the English team in the nets to give them practice against a left-arm spinner, who the Australian team was fielding in the form of Shelley Nitschke.
After the practice session, Colvin was asked to be available for the four-day match by team coach Richard Bates. Team captain Clare Connor admitted that her inclusion was "pure hunch", believing that the dry, dusty wicket would be favourable to spin bowling. Bates explained to The Times that "the pitch a little worn, we felt that Holly could help us exploit it". Colvin made her England debut on 9 August 2005, becoming at 15 years and 336 days the youngest cricketer to play Test cricket for England, she took three wickets in her inaugural game, dismissing Kate Blackwell and Julia Price in two consecutive balls and nearly taking Julie Hayes for a hat-trick. Reminiscing over the experience in February 2008, Colvin remarked that "I think I was fortunate... I had no idea who I was playing against – all these big names that were coming up against me and I had pretty much no idea", she described her near-hat-trick as a "pretty special ". Although Bates said that "she might have to wait a few years before she gets another chance ", Colvin became a regular member of England's international teams.
By August 2007, she had two Test eleven One Day Internationals to her credit. In the Women's Quadrangular Series in India in 2006, Colvin took three wickets for 47 against New Zealand, 3 for 50 in the 3rd–4th playoff to secure the England team 3rd place. On 10 August 2007, Colvin took a wicket and a catch in her inaugural Twenty20 match, against New Zealand at Taunton. Despite being the smallest member of the squad – a photograph published by the BBC shows her fitting comfortably inside a cricket bag – she proved her worth in the three-match series, taking wickets in both subsequent games. In February 2008, Colvin played her third international Test match, on tour in Australia, as part of the England Women's Team defending the Ashes won in 2005. Colvin admitted, she claimed that the team were "definitely looking to win... we’ve got more to lose". The England Team won the match by six wickets retaining the Ashes trophy. Colvin set, her best bowling analysis in ODI cricket was exceeded on 1 September 2008 when she took 4 for 20 against India in the second match of the series at Taunton.
As of March 2013, Colvin has participated in four Test matches, 66 One Day Internationals, 43 Twenty20 matches. She was an integral part of the England attack during the 2009 Women's Cricket World Cup, taking 9 wickets at 18 in the competition and hitting the winning runs in a tense finish in the final against New Zealand, she was the highest wicket taker, with 9 for 106, in the inaugural Women's World Twenty20 in England in 2009. Colvin gained 10 A* GCSE passes, three As in AS-level exams, 4 As in her A-levels. In 2009, she started studying natural sciences at Durham University, to, attached one of England's six University Centres of Cricketing Excellence. Holly Colvin at ESPNcricinfo ECB profile