1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Korean Americans are Americans of Korean heritage or descent from South Korea, with a small minority from North Korea, China and the Post-Soviet states. The Korean American community comprises about 0.6% of the United States population, or about 1.8 million people, is the fifth largest Asian American subgroup, after the Chinese American, Filipino American, Indian American, Vietnamese American communities. The U. S. is home to the second largest Korean diaspora community in the world after the People's Republic of China. According to the 2010 Census, there were 1.7 million people of Korean descent residing in the United States, making it the country with the second largest Korean population living outside Korea. The ten states with the largest estimated Korean American populations were California, New York, New Jersey, Texas, Illinois, Maryland and Colorado. Hawaii was the state with the highest concentration of Korean Americans, 23,200 people; the two metropolitan areas with the highest Korean American populations as per the 2010 Census were the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area and the Greater New York Combined Statistical Area.
The Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area ranks third, with 93,000 Korean Americans clustered in Howard and Montgomery Counties in Maryland and Fairfax County in Virginia. Southern California and the New York City metropolitan area have the largest populations of Koreans outside of the Korean Peninsula. Among Korean Americans born in Korea, the Los Angeles metropolitan area had 226,000 as of 2012; the percentage of Korean Americans in Bergen County, New Jersey, in the New York City Metropolitan Area, 6.3% by the 2010 United States Census, is the highest of any county in the United States. All of the nation's top ten municipalities by percentage of Korean population as per the 2010 Census are located within Bergen County, while the concentration of Korean Americans in Palisades Park, New Jersey, in Bergen County, is the highest of any municipality in the United States, at 52% of the population. Between 1990 and 2000, Georgia was home to the fastest-growing Korean community in the U. S. growing at a rate of 88.2% over that decade.
There is a significant Korean American population in the Atlanta metropolitan area in Gwinnett County, Fulton County. According to the statistics of the Overseas Korean Foundation and the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 107,145 South Korean children were adopted into the United States between 1953 and 2007. In a 2005 United States Census Bureau survey, an estimated 432,907 ethnic Koreans in the U. S. were native-born Americans, 973,780 were foreign-born. Korean Americans that were naturalized citizens numbered at 530,100, while 443,680 Koreans in the U. S. were not American citizens. While people living in North Korea cannot—except under rare circumstances—leave their country, there are many people of North Korean origin living in the U. S. a substantial portion who fled to the south during the Korean War and emigrated to the United States. Since the North Korean Human Rights Act of 2004 allowed North Korean defectors to be admitted as refugees, about 130 have settled in the U.
S. under that status. One of the first Korean Americans was Seo Jae-pil, or Philip Jaisohn, who came to America shortly after participating in an abortive coup with other progressives to institute political reform in 1884, he became a citizen in 1890 and earned a medical degree in 1892 from what is now George Washington University. Throughout his life, he strove to educate Koreans in the ideals of freedom and democracy, pressed the U. S. government for Korean independence. He died during the Korean War, his home is now a museum, cared for by a social services organization founded in his name in 1975. A prominent figure among the Korean immigrant community is Ahn Chang Ho, pen name Dosan, a Protestant social activist, he came to the United States in 1902 for education. He founded the Friendship Society in the Mutual Assistance Society, he was a political activist during the Japanese occupation of Korea. There is a memorial built in his honor in downtown Riverside and his family home on 36th Place in Los Angeles has been restored by University of Southern California.
The City of Los Angeles has declared the nearby intersection of Jefferson Boulevard and Van Buren Place to be "Dosan Ahn Chang Ho Square" in his honor. The Taekwondo pattern Do-san was named after him. Another prominent figure among the Korean immigrant community was a Methodist, he came to the United States in 1904 and earned a bachelor's degree at George Washington University in 1907, a master's degree at Harvard University, a Ph. D. from Princeton University in 1910. In 1910, he became a political activist, he became the first president of the Republic of Korea. In 1903, the first group of Korean laborers came to Hawaii on January 13, now known annually as Korean-American Day, to fill in gaps created by problems with Chinese and Japanese laborers. Between 1904 and 1907, about 1,000 Koreans entered the mainland from Hawaii through San Francisco. Many Koreans dispersed along the Pacific Coast as farm workers or as wage l
The Delaware Valley is the valley through which the Delaware River flows. By extension, this toponym is used to refer to Greater Philadelphia or Philadelphia metropolitan area, which straddles the Lower Delaware River just north of its estuary; the Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area is located at the southern part of the Northeast megalopolis and as such, the Delaware Valley can be described as either a metropolitan statistical area, or as a broader combined statistical area. The Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area is composed of several counties in southeastern Pennsylvania and southwestern New Jersey, one county in northern Delaware, one county in northeastern Maryland; the MSA has a population of over 6 million. Philadelphia, being the region's major commercial and industrial center, wields a rather large sphere of influence that affects the counties that surround it; some of the Delaware Valley's most well-known contributions to human civilization involve the region's higher education and medical institutions.
The Delaware Valley has been influential upon American industry. The region are leaders in higher education, medicine and many others. With a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation; the area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history in the arts, where Philadelphia alone has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city, including many influential people involved in politics such as Benjamin Franklin and Joe Biden, the American Revolution. Philadelphia is famously known as "The Birthplace of America" as the Declaration of Independence and Constitution were both drafted and signed there. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution, has since promoted itself as "The First State"; the Delaware Valley was home to many other instrumental moments in the American Revolution, including the First and Second Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battles of Germantown and Red Bank, the Siege of Fort Mifflin, the winter of 1777–78 at Valley Forge, the Philadelphia Convention, many others.
Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals in the Revolutionary War, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. Today, the area is home to some of the most prestigious universities in the world, such as the University of Pennsylvania, Drexel University, Villanova University, Saint Joseph's University, University of Delaware, Temple University; the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is ranked as the best business school in the world. In geology and geography, a strict sense of the term would incorporate the Delaware River's main drainage basin, so encompass major tributaries such as the Schuylkill River and Lehigh River and their valleys or sub-basins; these extensions apply culturally with decreasing degree decreased by proximal distance because the ease of land travel enables a great deal of daily interaction. In the course of their work, U. S. government agencies have reached various definitions of the Delaware Valley and the Greater Philadelphia Area.
The Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission serves Philadelphia, four suburban Pennsylvania counties, four New Jersey counties. The Office of Management and Budget defines metropolitan statistical area, which are regions with high population densities at their cores and close economic ties throughout their respective areas. Philadelphia is located in the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of the counties served by the DVRPC except for Mercer County, includes New Castle County, Cecil County and Salem County, New Jersey; the OMB groups one or more MSAs into larger combined statistical areas, which reflect commuting patterns. MSAs and CSAs are not formal administrative divisions, but serve as useful tools for understanding the extent of metropolitan areas such as the Delaware Valley; the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area includes all of the counties from the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as Berks County, Kent County, Atlantic County, New Jersey, Mercer County, New Jersey, Cape May County, New Jersey, Cumberland County, New Jersey.
Some counties, such as Hunterdon County, New Jersey, are not geographically defined in the area, but consider themselves part of it anyway. According to 2016 estimates from the United States Census Bureau, the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area ranks as the seventh-largest MSA in the United States with 6,070,500 people. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington MSA had a gross domestic product of $431 billion, the ninth-largest among U. S. metropolitan areas. 2016 Census Bureau estimates rank the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area as the ninth-largest CSA in the United States, with 7,179,357 people. The Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area's population of 6 million people is comparable to that of countries such as Lebanon and Nicaragua; the MSA's nominal gross domestic product of $431 billion is comparab
Interstate 295 (Delaware–Pennsylvania)
Interstate 295 in Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania is an auxiliary Interstate Highway, designated as a bypass around Philadelphia and a partial beltway of Trenton, New Jersey. The route begins at a junction with I-95 south of Wilmington and runs to an interchange with I-95 in Bristol Township, Pennsylvania; the highway heads east from I-95 and crosses the Delaware River from Delaware to New Jersey on the Delaware Memorial Bridge concurrent with U. S. Route 40. Upon entering New Jersey, I-295 splits from the New Jersey Turnpike and US 40, runs parallel to the Turnpike for most of its course in the state. After a concurrency with US 130 in Gloucester County, I-295 has an interchange with I-76 and Route 42 in Camden County; the freeway continues northeast toward Trenton, where it intersects I-195 and Route 29 before bypassing the city to the east and west, crossing the Delaware River on the Scudder Falls Bridge into Pennsylvania. In Pennsylvania, I-295 is signed as an east-west road and heads south to its western terminus at I-95.
Three portions of I-295 predate the Interstate Highway System: the Delaware Memorial Bridge and its approach, built in 1951, a section in Salem County built in 1953, the part concurrent with US 130, built in two sections that opened in 1948 and 1954. The route was designated on these sections in New Jersey in 1958 and in Delaware in 1959; the portion of I-295 connecting to I-95 in Delaware opened in 1963 while most of the route in New Jersey was finished by the 1980s. The part of I-295 near the interchange with I-195 and Route 29 was finished in 1994. I-95 was supposed to continue northeast from just east of exit 72 near Trenton on the proposed Somerset Freeway, but this plan was canceled. I-295 ended in New Jersey at US 1 in Lawrence Township, becoming I-95 heading south into Philadelphia. By July 2018, it was extended along the former I-95 in New Jersey and Bucks County, Pennsylvania to end at I-95 at the Pennsylvania Turnpike, with no access between I-295 and the latter road. I-295 begins at I-95, I-495, US 202, Delaware Route 141 near Newport and heads east over the Delaware River on the Delaware Memorial Bridge into New Jersey.
The highway intersects the southern terminus of the New Jersey Turnpike and runs northeast through suburban areas of South Jersey parallel to the turnpike, providing a bypass of Philadelphia and Camden. I-295 turns north and bypasses Trenton to the east and turns west at the US 1 junction in Lawrence Township; the route heads west around the north side of Trenton and crosses the Delaware River on the Scudder Falls Bridge into Pennsylvania. Here, I-295 becomes an east-west road and heads south to its western terminus at I-95 in Bristol Township; the portion of I-295 running through New Jersey is sometimes referred to as the Camden Freeway by the New Jersey Department of Transportation. As part of the Interstate Highway System, the entire length of I-295 is a part of the National Highway System. I-295 begins at an interchange with I-95, I-495, US 202, DE 141 south of the town of Newport in New Castle County, Delaware; the northbound beginning of I-295 has direct ramps from both directions of I-95, southbound I-495, southbound DE 141, while the southern end of I-295 had direct ramps to both directions of I-95, northbound I-495, northbound DE 141.
From this junction, the highway heads southeast on an eight-lane freeway maintained by the Delaware River and Bay Authority that passes to the northeast of suburban neighborhoods in Wilmington Manor. I-295 passes over the Jack A. Markell Trail and reaches an interchange with US 13/US 40. Here, US 40 splits from US 13 by heading east concurrent with I-295; the road has an eastbound ramp to Landers Lane before it passes between residential neighborhoods and has an interchange with DE 9 north of the city of New Castle. This interchange provides access to Veterans Memorial Park, where a war memorial honoring veterans from Delaware and New Jersey is located. Past DE 9, the median of the freeway widens to include the DRBA headquarters, with direct access to and from the southbound lanes while northbound access is provided by way of DE 9. After this, the southbound direction comes to a toll plaza for the Delaware Memorial Bridge. I-295/US 40 continues east and passes over Norfolk Southern's New Castle Secondary before crossing the Delaware River on the twin-span Delaware Memorial Bridge.
Upon reaching the east bank of the Delaware River, I-295/US 40 enters Pennsville Township in Salem County, New Jersey and heads east-southeast through industrial areas. The freeway comes to an interchange with the southern terminus of US 130 and the western terminus of Route 49, at which point it meets the southern terminus of the New Jersey Turnpike. Here, I-295 splits onto its own freeway maintained by NJDOT while US 40 continues along the New Jersey Turnpike for a short distance before it splits to the southeast. A short distance the roadway enters Carneys Point Township and CR 551 merges onto I-295, with the four-lane freeway heading northeast; the highway comes to a junction with Route 140, where CR 551 splits from I-295 by continuing east along Route 140. I-295 features a rest area in the northbound direction; the freeway continues northeast and comes to a northbound weigh station before it reaches the Route 48 exit. The highway runs through a mix of farmland and woodland and enters Oldmans Township, where it comes to an interchange providing access to CR 643.
I-295 crosses Oldmans Creek into Logan Township in Gloucester County and passes near some residential development and warehouses as it comes to the Center Square Road exit. The road crosses Raccoon Creek and reaches an interchange serving US 322/CR 536. Following this, the
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif