An embedded system is a controller programmed and controlled by a real-time operating system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Ninety-eight percent of all microprocessors manufactured are used in embedded systems. Examples of properties of typical embedded computers when compared with general-purpose counterparts are low power consumption, small size, rugged operating ranges, low per-unit cost; this comes at the price of limited processing resources, which make them more difficult to program and to interact with. However, by building intelligence mechanisms on top of the hardware, taking advantage of possible existing sensors and the existence of a network of embedded units, one can both optimally manage available resources at the unit and network levels as well as provide augmented functions, well beyond those available.
For example, intelligent techniques can be designed to manage power consumption of embedded systems. Modern embedded systems are based on microcontrollers, but ordinary microprocessors are common in more complex systems. In either case, the processor used may be types ranging from general purpose to those specialized in certain class of computations, or custom designed for the application at hand. A common standard class of dedicated processors is the digital signal processor. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance; some embedded systems are mass-produced. Embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, complex systems like hybrid vehicles, MRI, avionics. Complexity varies from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to high with multiple units and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure.
One of the first recognizably modern embedded systems was the Apollo Guidance Computer, developed ca. 1965 by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. At the project's inception, the Apollo guidance computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project as it employed the newly developed monolithic integrated circuits to reduce the size and weight. An early mass-produced embedded system was the Autonetics D-17 guidance computer for the Minuteman missile, released in 1961; when the Minuteman II went into production in 1966, the D-17 was replaced with a new computer, the first high-volume use of integrated circuits. Since these early applications in the 1960s, embedded systems have come down in price and there has been a dramatic rise in processing power and functionality. An early microprocessor for example, the Intel 4004, was designed for calculators and other small systems but still required external memory and support chips. In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers Association released a "standard" for programmable microcontrollers, including any computer-based controllers, such as single board computers and event-based controllers.
As the cost of microprocessors and microcontrollers fell it became feasible to replace expensive knob-based analog components such as potentiometers and variable capacitors with up/down buttons or knobs read out by a microprocessor in consumer products. By the early 1980s, memory and output system components had been integrated into the same chip as the processor forming a microcontroller. Microcontrollers find applications. A comparatively low-cost microcontroller may be programmed to fulfill the same role as a large number of separate components. Although in this context an embedded system is more complex than a traditional solution, most of the complexity is contained within the microcontroller itself. Few additional components may be needed and most of the design effort is in the software. Software prototype and test can be quicker compared with the design and construction of a new circuit not using an embedded processor. Embedded systems are found in consumer, automotive, medical and military applications.
Telecommunications systems employ numerous embedded systems from telephone switches for the network to cell phones at the end user. Computer networking uses dedicated routers and network bridges to route data. Consumer electronics include MP3 players, mobile phones, video game consoles, digital cameras, GPS receivers, printers. Household appliances, such as microwave ovens, washing machines and dishwashers, include embedded systems to provide flexibility and features. Advanced HVAC systems use networked thermostats to more and efficiently control temperature that can change by time of day and season. Home automation uses wired- and wireless-networking that can be used to control lights, security, audio/visual, etc. all of which use embedded devices for sensing and controlling. Transportation systems from flight to automobiles use embedded systems. New airplanes contain advanced avionics such as inertial guidance systems and GPS receivers that have considerable safety requirements. Various electric motors — brushless DC motors, induction motors and DC motors — use electric/electronic motor controllers.
Automobiles, electric vehicles, hy
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit. Each instruction causes the CPU to perform a specific task, such as a load, a store, a jump, or an ALU operation on one or more units of data in CPU registers or memory. Machine code is a numerical language, intended to run as fast as possible, may be regarded as the lowest-level representation of a compiled or assembled computer program or as a primitive and hardware-dependent programming language. While it is possible to write programs directly in machine code, it is tedious and error prone to manage individual bits and calculate numerical addresses and constants manually. For this reason, programs are rarely written directly in machine code in modern contexts, but may be done for low level debugging, program patching, assembly language disassembly; the overwhelming majority of practical programs today are written in higher-level languages or assembly language.
The source code is translated to executable machine code by utilities such as compilers and linkers, with the important exception of interpreted programs, which are not translated into machine code. However, the interpreter itself, which may be seen as an executor or processor, performing the instructions of the source code consists of directly executable machine code. Machine code is by definition the lowest level of programming detail visible to the programmer, but internally many processors use microcode or optimise and transform machine code instructions into sequences of micro-ops, this is not considered to be a machine code per se; every processor or processor family has its own instruction set. Instructions are patterns of bits that by physical design correspond to different commands to the machine. Thus, the instruction set is specific to a class of processors using the same architecture. Successor or derivative processor designs include all the instructions of a predecessor and may add additional instructions.
A successor design will discontinue or alter the meaning of some instruction code, affecting code compatibility to some extent. Systems may differ in other details, such as memory arrangement, operating systems, or peripheral devices; because a program relies on such factors, different systems will not run the same machine code when the same type of processor is used. A processor's instruction set may have all instructions of the same length, or it may have variable-length instructions. How the patterns are organized varies with the particular architecture and also with the type of instruction. Most instructions have one or more opcode fields which specifies the basic instruction type and the actual operation and other fields that may give the type of the operand, the addressing mode, the addressing offset or index, or the actual value itself. Not all machines or individual instructions have explicit operands. An accumulator machine has a combined left operand and result in an implicit accumulator for most arithmetic instructions.
Other architectures have accumulator versions of common instructions, with the accumulator regarded as one of the general registers by longer instructions. A stack machine has all of its operands on an implicit stack. Special purpose instructions often lack explicit operands; this distinction between explicit and implicit operands is important in code generators in the register allocation and live range tracking parts. A good code optimizer can track implicit as well as explicit operands which may allow more frequent constant propagation, constant folding of registers and other code enhancements. A computer program is a list of instructions. A program's execution is done in order for the CPU, executing it to solve a specific problem and thus accomplish a specific result. While simple processors are able to execute instructions one after another, superscalar processors are capable of executing a variety of different instructions at once. Program flow may be influenced by special'jump' instructions that transfer execution to an instruction other than the numerically following one.
Conditional jumps are not depending on some condition. A much more readable rendition of machine language, called assembly language, uses mnemonic codes to refer to machine code instructions, rather than using the instructions' numeric values directly. For example, on the Zilog Z80 processor, the machine code 00000101, which causes the CPU to decrement the B processor register, would be represented in assembly language as DEC B; the MIPS architecture provides a specific example for a machine code whose instructions are always 32 bits long. The general type of instruction is given by the op field. J-type and I-type instructions are specified by op. R-type instructions include an additional field funct to determine the exact operation; the fields used in the
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Application software is software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user. Examples of an application include a word processor, a spreadsheet, an accounting application, a web browser, an email client,a media player, a file viewer, an aeronautical flight simulator, a console game or a photo editor; the collective noun application software refers to all applications collectively. This contrasts with system software, involved with running the computer. Applications may be bundled with the computer and its system software or published separately, may be coded as proprietary, open-source or university projects. Apps built for mobile platforms are called mobile apps. In information technology, an application, application program or software application is a computer program designed to help people perform an activity. An application thus differs from an operating system, a utility, a programming tool. Depending on the activity for which it was designed, an application can manipulate text, audio, graphics, or a combination of these elements.
Some application packages focus on a single task, such as word processing. User-written software tailors systems to meet the user's specific needs. User-written software includes spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, audio and animation scripts. Email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and overlook how important it is; the delineation between system software such as operating systems and application software is not exact, is the object of controversy. For example, one of the key questions in the United States v. Microsoft Corp. antitrust trial was whether Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser was part of its Windows operating system or a separable piece of application software. As another example, the GNU/Linux naming controversy is, in part, due to disagreement about the relationship between the Linux kernel and the operating systems built over this kernel. In some types of embedded systems, the application software and the operating system software may be indistinguishable to the user, as in the case of software used to control a VCR, DVD player or microwave oven.
The above definitions may exclude some applications that may exist on some computers in large organizations. For an alternative definition of an app: see Application Portfolio Management; the word "application", once used as an adjective, is not restricted to the "of or pertaining to application software" meaning. For example, concepts such as application programming interface, application server, application virtualization, application lifecycle management and portable application apply to all computer programs alike, not just application software; some applications are available in versions for several different platforms. Sometimes a new and popular application arises which only runs on one platform, increasing the desirability of that platform; this is called a killer killer app. For example, VisiCalc was the first modern spreadsheet software for the Apple II and helped selling the then-new personal computers into offices. For Blackberry it was their email software. In recent years, the shortened term "app" has become popular to refer to applications for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, the shortened form matching their smaller scope compared to applications on PCs.
More the shortened version is used for desktop application software as well. There are many different and not alternative ways in order to order and classify application software. By the legal point of view, application software is classified with a black box approach, in relation to the rights of its final end-users or subscribers. Software applications are classified in respect of the programming language in which the source code is written or executed, respect of their purpose and outputs. Application software is distinguished among two main classes: closed source vs open source software applications, among free or proprietary software applications. Proprietary software is placed under the exclusive copyright, a software license grants limited usage rights; the open-closed principle states that software may be "open only for extension, but not for modification". Such applications can only get add-on by third-parties. Free and open-source software shall be run, sold or extended for any purpose, -being open- shall be modified or reversed in the same way.
Aerospace is the human effort in science and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Aerospace organizations research, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft or spacecraft. Aerospace activity is diverse, with a multitude of commercial and military applications. Aerospace is not the same as airspace, the physical air space directly above a location on the ground; the beginning of space and the ending of the air is considered as 100km above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity. In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of public and private industries. For example, several countries have a civilian space program funded by the government through tax collection, such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the United States, European Space Agency in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, Japanese Aeronautics Exploration Agency in Japan, RKA in Russia, China National Space Administration in China, SUPARCO in Pakistan, Iranian Space Agency in Iran, Korea Aerospace Research Institute in South Korea.
Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spaceships and satellites. Some known companies involved in space programs include Boeing, Airbus, SpaceX, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, MacDonald Dettwiler and Northrop Grumman; these companies are involved in other areas of aerospace such as the construction of aircraft. Modern aerospace began with Engineer George Cayley in 1799. Cayley proposed an aircraft with a "fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail," defining characteristics of the modern airplane; the 19th century saw the creation of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, the American Rocketry Society, the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline. Airmen like Otto Lilienthal, who introduced cambered airfoils in 1891, used gliders to analyze aerodynamic forces; the Wright brothers read several of his publications. They found inspiration in Octave Chanute, an airman and the author of Progress in Flying Machines.
It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers. War and science fiction inspired great minds like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Wernher von Braun to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere; the launch of Sputnik 1 in October 1957 started the Space Age, on July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 achieved the first manned moon landing. In April 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with "Mir" in 1986 and is continued by the "International Space Station". Space commercialization and space tourism are more recent features of aerospace. Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, related parts". Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work.
For each original equipment manufacturer, the US government has assigned a Commercial and Government Entity code. These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry. In the United States, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the large airline industry; the aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006. Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with Missouri, New York and Texas being important; the leading aerospace manufacturers in the U. S. are United Technologies Corporation, SpaceX, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin. These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U. S. workers retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied.
Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include Washington state, California. In the European Union, aerospace companies such as EADS, BAE Systems, Dassault, Saab AB and Leonardo S.p. A. account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the European Space Agency as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. In India, Bangalore is a major center of the aerospace industry, where Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, the National Aerospace Laboratories and the Indian Space Research Organisation are headquartered; the Indian Space Research Organisation launched India's first Moon orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008. In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Building Corporation are among the major global players
A game engine is a software-development environment designed for people to build video games. Developers use game engines to construct games for consoles, mobile devices, personal computers; the core functionality provided by a game engine includes a rendering engine for 2D or 3D graphics, a physics engine or collision detection, scripting, artificial intelligence, streaming, memory management, localization support, scene graph, may include video support for cinematics. Implementers economize on the process of game development by reusing/adapting, in large part, the same game engine to produce different games or to aid in porting games to multiple platforms. In many cases game engines provide a suite of visual development tools in addition to reusable software components; these tools are provided in an integrated development environment to enable simplified, rapid development of games in a data-driven manner. Game engine developers attempt to "pre-invent the wheel" by developing robust software suites which include many elements a game developer may need to build a game.
Most game engine suites provide facilities that ease development, such as graphics, physics and AI functions. These game engines are sometimes called "middleware" because, as with the business sense of the term, they provide a flexible and reusable software platform which provides all the core functionality needed, right out of the box, to develop a game application while reducing costs and time-to-market — all critical factors in the competitive video game industry; as of 2001, Gamebryo, JMonkeyEngine and RenderWare were such used middleware programs. Like other types of middleware, game engines provide platform abstraction, allowing the same game to be run on various platforms including game consoles and personal computers with few, if any, changes made to the game source code. Game engines are designed with a component-based architecture that allows specific systems in the engine to be replaced or extended with more specialized game middleware components; some game engines are designed as a series of loosely connected game middleware components that can be selectively combined to create a custom engine, instead of the more common approach of extending or customizing a flexible integrated product.
However extensibility is achieved, it remains a high priority for game engines due to the wide variety of uses for which they are applied. Despite the specificity of the name, game engines are used for other kinds of interactive applications with real-time graphical needs such as marketing demos, architectural visualizations, training simulations, modeling environments; some game engines only provide real-time 3D rendering capabilities instead of the wide range of functionality needed by games. These engines rely upon the game developer to implement the rest of this functionality or assemble it from other game middleware components; these types of engines are referred to as a "graphics engine", "rendering engine", or "3D engine" instead of the more encompassing term "game engine". This terminology is inconsistently used as many full-featured 3D game engines are referred to as "3D engines". A few examples of graphics engines are: Crystal Space, Genesis3D, Irrlicht, OGRE, RealmForge, Truevision3D, Vision Engine.
Modern game or graphics engines provide a scene graph, an object-oriented representation of the 3D game world which simplifies game design and can be used for more efficient rendering of vast virtual worlds. As technology ages, the components of an engine may become outdated or insufficient for the requirements of a given project. Since the complexity of programming an new engine may result in unwanted delays, a development team may elect to update their existing engine with newer functionality or components; such a framework is composed of a multitude of different components. The actual game logic has to be implemented by some algorithms, it is distinct from sound or input work. The rendering engine generates animated 3D graphics by any of a number of methods. Instead of being programmed and compiled to be executed on the CPU or GPU directly, most rendering engines are built upon one or multiple rendering application programming interfaces, such as Direct3D, OpenGL, or Vulkan which provide a software abstraction of the graphics processing unit.
Low-level libraries such as DirectX, Simple DirectMedia Layer, OpenGL are commonly used in games as they provide hardware-independent access to other computer hardware such as input devices, network cards, sound cards. Before hardware-accelerated 3D graphics, software renderers had been used. Software rendering is still used in some modeling tools or for still-rendered images when visual accuracy is valued over real-time performance or when the computer hardware does not meet needs such as shader support. With the advent of hardware accelerated physics processing, various physics APIs such as PAL and the physics extensions of COLLADA became available to provide a software abstraction of the physics processing unit of different middleware providers and console platforms. Game engines can be written in any programming language like C++, C or Java, though each language is structurally different and may provide different levels of access to specific functions; the audio engine is the component which consists of algorithms related to the loading and output of sound through the client's speaker system.
At a minimum i
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, images, animations and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia can be recorded and played, interacted with or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art. In the early years of multimedia the term "rich media" was synonymous with interactive multimedia, "hypermedia" was an application of multimedia; the term multimedia was coined by singer and artist Bob Goldstein to promote the July 1966 opening of his "LightWorks at L'Oursin" show at Southampton, Long Island. Goldstein was aware of an American artist named Dick Higgins, who had two years discussed a new approach to art-making he called "intermedia".
On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of Variety borrowed the terminology, reporting: "Brainchild of songscribe-comic Bob Goldstein, the'Lightworks' is the latest multi-media music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare." Two years in 1968, the term "multimedia" was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldstein's producers at L'Oursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track. However, by the 1990s'multimedia' took on its current meaning. In the 1993 first edition of Multimedia: Making It Work, Tay Vaughan declared "Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound and video, delivered by computer; when you allow the user – the viewer of the project – to control what and when these elements are delivered, it is interactive multimedia. When you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes hypermedia."The German language society Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache recognized the word's significance and ubiquitousness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of German'Word of the Year' in 1995.
The institute summed up its rationale by stating " has become a central word in the wonderful new media world". In common usage, multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images and text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition; some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called "multimedia" computers because they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video and audio data. That era saw a boost in the production of educational multimedia CD-ROMs; the term "video", if not used to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. Video is used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of "footage", used to distinguish motion photography from "animation" of rendered motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video.
Single forms of information content with single methods of information processing are called multimedia to distinguish static media from active media. In the fine arts, for example, Leda Luss Luyken's ModulArt brings two key elements of musical composition and film into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making ModulArt an interactive multimedia form of art. Performing arts may be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of both content and media. Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia streamed. Streaming multimedia may be on-demand. Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience. Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images and title user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may enhance the multimedia experience. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories: Linea