The Midland–Odessa is a metropolitan area located in West Texas half-way between El Paso and Fort Worth, Texas. In the past, the cities of Midland and Odessa experienced a rivalry of bitter competition and political intrigue. Since the early 1990s, the nature of the rivalry has changed into one of friendly competition and economic cooperation; the Midland–Odessa area today is marketed as "Two Cities, no Limits." Ackerly Goldsmith Midland Odessa Stanton Gardendale West Odessa Greenwood Lenorah Notrees Penwell Tarzan The Midland–Odessa combined statistical area, informally known as The Petroplex, akin to the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, is located along Interstate 20 in West Texas in a petroleum rich area called the Permian Basin. The Permian Basin extends into the South Plains region just south of Lubbock, extending westward into southeastern New Mexico. Midland–Odessa enjoys a climate typical of the resort cities of the Southwest United States; the terrain type is described as semi-arid mesquite-mixed grassland subtropical steppe.
Winters are mild with a few seasonable cold spells. In the spring the wind is quite strong and the summer can bring extended heat waves with many consecutive days with highs of 100 degrees or more; the average rainfall of Midland–Odessa is 14.96 inches. Midland–Odessa is located in zone 8 according to the USDA 2003 Plant Hardiness Map. On average the area experiences 316 days of sunshine a year; the Midland–Odessa, TX Combined Statistical Area is made up of two Metropolitan Statistical Areas encompassing three counties. The CSA includes Martin and Midland counties in the Midland MSA, Ector County in the Odessa MSA; the Midland–Odessa CSA encompasses 2,720 sq mi of area, of which 2,713 sq mi is land and 6.6 sq mi is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 237,132 people, 86,591 households, 62,647 families residing within the CSA; the racial makeup of the CSA was 75.47% White, 5.77% African American, 0.74% Native American, 0.78% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 14.83% from other races, 2.38% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 35.84% of the population. The median income for a household in the CSA was $35,117, the median income for a family was $41,819. Males had a median income of $33,778 versus $23,013 for females; the per capita income for the CSA was $17,700. The economy of the area is dependent on the petroleum industry and has experienced a series of booms and busts as the price of crude oil has fluctuated; the Permian Basin is the source of the New York Mercantile Exchange's benchmark West Texas Intermediate Crude. Traditionally, the core cities of Midland and Odessa have played distinct roles in the petroleum industry. Midland has a predominantly white-collar population. Odessa by contrast is home to blue-collar workers and industrial facilities. In 2003 Family Dollar constructed its seventh distribution center, in its industrial complex, since Telvista, an incoming call center, Coca-Cola Enterprises have relocated to this complex located on Interstate 20. In even-numbered years, Odessa hosts the Permian Basin International Oil Show—the world's largest inland petroleum exposition—at the Ector County Coliseum.
In recent years, both cities have made efforts to diversify into additional industries to reduce their dependence on the petroleum industry. Midland–Odessa is well positioned to become an energy nexus for the region and for the United States as a whole; the metropolitan area is home to two major natural gas powerplants and in July 2006 it was announced that Odessa was one of four possible sites for a FutureGen zero-emissions coal-fired powerplant. The Permian Basin is home to several windfarms and the city of Andrews is a candidate site for an experimental high temperature nuclear reactor; this focus on new sources of alternative energy in addition to petroleum has led some to refer to the Permian Basin as the Energy Basin. The recent high price of crude oil has led to a significant economic boom in the area. Midland–Odessa is served by Midland International Air and Space Port, located between the core cities in Terminal and has since been annexed into Midland proper; this airport serves as a regional hub for cities and towns throughout the Permian Basin and as a gateway to Big Bend National Park.
Odessa Schlemeyer Airport and Midland Air Park serve as an option for smaller jets. The spirit of cooperation can be seen in the Midland Odessa Transportation Alliance and its centerpiece project "La Entrada al Pacifico" or "Entrance to the Pacific". La Entrada al Pacifico is an official trade corridor that connects the Mexican port city of Topolobampo on the west coast of Mexico with major markets in the Eastern and North Eastern United States and includes an inland port facility to be located in Midland–Odessa. Midland–Odessa is home to the University of Texas of the Permian Basin, which has its primary campus in Odessa proper. Other University facilities include The Center for Energy and Economic Diversification and the planned Fine Arts Performing Center centrally located in Midland County near Midland International Airport; the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at the Permian Basin has a main campus located in downtown Odessa and the Physician Assistant Program located on the campus of Midland College.
Local colleges of Midland–Odessa include Midland College and Odessa College. There are three public school districts in the metropolitan area. Ector County Independent School District Midland Independent School District Greenwood Independent School District
Interstate 20 in Texas
Interstate 20 in Texas is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States, running east from a junction with Interstate 10 east of Kent, through the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex to the border with Louisiana near Waskom, Texas. The original distance of Interstate 20 was 647 miles from I-10 to the Louisiana border, reduced to the current distance of 636 miles with the rerouting of I-20 in the 1980s and 1990s. I-20 is known as the Ronald Reagan Memorial Highway within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Interstate 20 in Texas was designated in 1959, was to replace or run parallel to U. S. Route 80. Initial construction began from east to as bypass loops around larger cities. On October 1, 1964, I-20 was rerouted. By 1967, the highway was complete from the Louisiana border to the western side of Fort Worth on a route to the south of US 80, with slower construction in the lesser populated areas of West Texas concurrent with US 80. On December 2, 1971, I-20 was rerouted across the southern side of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex, with the old section through downtown Dallas and Fort Worth being redesignated as Interstate 30.
In 1991, the entire concurrent designation of US 80 was removed from the I-10 interchange to Dallas. I-20 begins at a junction with I-10 in a desolate region of West Texas about 6 miles east of the town of Kent. I-20 leaves the interchange with I-10 with a speed limit of 80 until Milemarker 89. Interstate 20 generally heads to the east-northeast passing by the cities of Odessa and Midland while transitioning from the West Texas desert to the prairie. I-20 runs concurrently with the La Entrada al Pacífico corridor from its junction with US 385 in Odessa to its junction with FM 1788 near Midland International Airport. Near Sweetwater, I-20 begins to head east. In Abilene, I-20 curves towards the north and transverses the northern part of the city while forming the northern arc of the loop around the city. I-20 continues heading east from Abilene until the town of Eastland when I-20 takes a more northeasterly route towards Weatherford while transitioning from the West Texas prairie to the central plains of North Texas as the terrain grows hilly.
In Weatherford, I-20 again heads back towards the east as it heads towards the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. I-20 interchanges with I-30 west of Fort Worth with I-30 heading I-20 to the southeast. I-20 heads back towards the east when it interchanges with Interstate 820. I-20 forms the southern arc of the complete loop around the city of Fort Worth, serves as the southernmost west–east freeway in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Interchanging with I-35W south of downtown Fort Worth, I-20 heads east towards Dallas passing through Arlington, where it is known as the Ronald Reagan Memorial Highway. From Arlington, I-20 passes into Dallas County at Grand Prairie and heads east in to Dallas, interchanging with I-35E south of downtown and I-45 shortly after. I-20 intersects with I-635 on Dallas' southeast side before heading east towards East Texas; the interstate varies from 4 to 10 lanes from its I-30 junction near Weatherford to its US-80 junction near Terrell. I-20 leaves the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex and heads to the east-southeast through East Texas.
I-20 begins heading to the east. The intersection of I-20 at US 69 in Lindale just north of Tyler is the highest traffic count intersection on I-20 east of Terrell to the Louisiana state line. From Lindale, I-20 continues east, going through the piney woods region of East Texas intersecting US 259 with Kilgore to the south and Longview to the north and US 59 future I-369 with Marshall just to the north and Texarkana further north along US 59 future I-369. I-20 leaves the state of Texas near Waskom and just west of the Shreveport, Bossier City, Louisiana area. Interstate 20 has one auxiliary route in Texas. Interstate 820 is a 35.2-mile loop around the city of Fort Worth. I-20 absorbed the southern section as part of its relocation to the south and I-30 being extended westward over the old alignment of I-20 through the center of town. All of the business loops within Texas are maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation. Interstate 20 has fifteen business loops in all located in western Texas.
Along I-20, TxDOT identifies each business route as Business Interstate 20 followed by an alphabetic suffix. Along Texas Interstates, the alphabetic suffixes on business route names ascend eastward and northward. There are gaps in the alphabetic values to allow for future system expansion; the alphabetic naming suffixes are included as small letters on the bottom of route shields. Texas State Loop 254 takes the place of a business route in Ranger and follows the original route of U. S. Route 80. I-20 business routes in Texas follow the path of the former US 80 through the central portions of towns now bypassed by the Interstate route. U. S. Roads portal Texas portal I-20 info page -- from dfwfreeways.info
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Andrews County, Texas
Andrews County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,786, its county seat is Andrews. Andrews is named for a soldier of the Texas Revolution; the county was created August 21, 1876, from Tom Green County and organized in 1910. The Andrews Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Andrews County. Andrews County was represented in the Texas House of Representatives by George E. "Buddy" West from 1993 to June 25, 2008, when he died. He was succeeded in January 2009 by fellow Republican Tryon D. Lewis, who had defeated West for the Republican nomination in the April 8, 2008, primary election. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,501 square miles, of which 1,501 square miles is land and 0.4 square miles is water. The county contains the two largest being Baird lake and Shafter Lake. In the west part of Andrews County on the border with New Mexico, a private company, Waste Control Specialists owned by the late Harold Simmons and headquartered in Dallas, operates a 14,000 acres site.
The company was awarded a license to dispose of radioactive waste by the TCEQ in 2009. The permit allows for disposal of radioactive materials such as uranium and thorium from commercial power plants, academic institutions and medical schools; the company finished construction on the project in 2011 and began disposing of waste in 2012. There are two radioactive waste landfills at the site; the 30-acre compact site is owned and regulated by the State of Texas for use by Texas, up to 36 other states. The 90-acre federal site is owned by the United States federal government and is used for Department of Energy and other federal waste; the company employs about 1 % of the total labor force in Andrews and Andrews County. For years there has been a simmering dispute over which state these waste sites are lawfully a part of: Texas or New Mexico? The straight north-south border between the two states was defined as the 103rd meridian, but the 1859 survey, supposed to mark that boundary mistakenly set the border between 2.29 and 3.77 miles too far west of that line, making the Waste Control Specialists waste sites, which are west of the 103rd meridian, along with the current towns of Farwell and part of Glenrio, appear to be within the State of Texas.
New Mexico's short border with Oklahoma, in contrast, was surveyed on the correct meridian. New Mexico's draft constitution in 1910 stated; the disputed strip, hundreds of miles long, includes parts of valuable oilfields of the Permian Basin. A bill was passed in the New Mexico Senate to fund and file a lawsuit in the U. S. Supreme Court to recover the strip from Texas. Today, land in the strip is included in Texas land surveys and the waste sites for all purposes are taxed and governed by Andrews County and The State of Texas. US 385 SH 115 SH 176 Loop 1910 FM 181 FM 1218 FM 1967 FM 1788 FM 2371 Gaines County Martin County Midland County Ector County Winkler County Lea County, New Mexico As of the census of 2010, there were 14,786 people residing in the county. 79.5% were White, 1.5% Black or African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 15.5% of some other race and 2.0% of two or more races. 48.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,004 people, 4,601 households, 3,519 families residing in the county.
The population density was 9 people per square mile. There were 5,400 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.08% White, 1.65% Black or African American, 0.88% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 16.79% from other races, 2.87% from two or more races. 40.00% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,601 households out of which 40.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.70% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.50% were non-families. 21.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.29. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.50% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 20.50% from 45 to 64, 12.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,036, the median income for a family was $37,017. Males had a median income of $33,223 versus $21,846 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,916. About 13.90% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.20% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. The Andrews Independent School District serves all of Andrews County; the county is served by a weekly newspaper, local stations KACT AM and KACT-FM, nearby stations KBXJ and KPET, the various Midland and Odessa radio and TV stations. Andrews McKinney Acres Florey Frankel City Andrews County Veterans Memorial National Register of Historic Places listings in Andrews County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Andrews County Andrews County government website Andrews County from the Handbook of Texas Online Andrews County from the Texas Almanac Andrews County from the TXGenWeb Project Andrews County Profile from the Texas A
Reagan County, Texas
Reagan County is a county on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,367; the county seat is Big Lake. The county is named after John Henninger Reagan, the postmaster general of the Confederate States and a U. S. Senator, U. S. Representative, first chairman of the Railroad Commission of Texas. First inhabitants Paleo-Indian, Suma-Jumano and Comanche. 1650 Captains Hernán Martín and Diego del Castillo explore the region. 1684 Juan Domínguez de Mendoza and Nicolás López report on local Indians. 1858–1861 Butterfield Overland Mail crosses the center of the county. 1878 Camp Grierson's Spring is established as a subpost of Fort Concho and named in honor of Col. Benjamin H. Grierson. 1903 Reagan County is carved from Tom Green County and named for United States Senator John Henninger Reagan. Stiles, named after local rancher William G. Stiles, becomes the first county seat. 1911 The Kansas City and Orient of Texas Railway is completed. 1923 Oil is discovered at the Big Lake Oilfield in the Permian Basin.
Big Lake Oilfield, located on University of Texas System land, opens the Permian Basin to oil production and endows the Permanent University Fund. The rig is named Santa Rita #1 for The Patron Saint of the Impossible. Big Lake is incorporated as a city. 1924 Boom town community of Best plunges into vice and violence, necessitating the Texas Rangers intervention. The Rangers destroy buildings that are being used as brothels, gambling houses, saloons. 1925 Voters move the county seat to Big Lake. 1926 Texon is established by the Big Lake Oil Company for its employees and their families and is devoted to family life. 1951 A renewed oil boom from the Spraberry Trend production. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,176 square miles, of which 1,175 square miles are land and 0.7 square miles is covered by water. The Spraberry Trend, the third-largest oil field in the United States by remaining reserves, underlies much of the county. U. S. Highway 67 State Highway 137 Ranch to Market Road 33 Glasscock County Sterling County Tom Green County Irion County Crockett County Upton County Midland County As of the census of 2000, there were 3,326 people, 1,107 households, 872 families residing in the county.
The population density was 3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,452 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.64% White, 3.01% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 29.56% from other races, 1.98% from two or more races. 49.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,107 households out of which 46.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.10% were married couples living together, 7.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.20% were non-families. 19.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.42. In the county, the population was spread out with 34.20% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 19.90% from 45 to 64, 10.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 100.50 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,231, the median income for a family was $36,806. Males had a median income of $31,228 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,174. About 9.30% of families and 11.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.60% of those under age 18 and 23.60% of those age 65 or over. Big Lake Best Texon Stiles List of Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Reagan County National Register of Historic Places listings in Reagan County, Texas Reagan County from the Handbook of Texas Online "Reagan County Profile" from the "Texas Association of Counties"
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. Arguably one of the most consequential amendments to this day, the amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War; the amendment was bitterly contested by the states of the defeated Confederacy, which were forced to ratify it in order to regain representation in Congress. The amendment its first section, is one of the most litigated parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education regarding racial segregation, Roe v. Wade regarding abortion, Bush v. Gore regarding the 2000 presidential election, Obergefell v. Hodges regarding same-sex marriage; the amendment limits the actions of all state and local officials, including those acting on behalf of such an official. The amendment's first section includes several clauses: the Citizenship Clause, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Due Process Clause, Equal Protection Clause.
The Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship, nullifying the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which had held that Americans descended from African slaves could not be citizens of the United States. Since the Slaughter-House Cases, the Privileges or Immunities Clause has been interpreted to do little; the Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without a fair procedure. The Supreme Court has ruled this clause makes most of the Bill of Rights as applicable to the states as it is to the federal government, as well as to recognize substantive and procedural requirements that state laws must satisfy; the Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people, including all non-citizens, within its jurisdiction. This clause has been the basis for many decisions rejecting irrational or unnecessary discrimination against people belonging to various groups.
The second and fourth sections of the amendment are litigated. However, the second section's reference to "rebellion, or other crime" has been invoked as a constitutional ground for felony disenfranchisement; the fourth section was held, in Perry v. United States, to prohibit a current Congress from abrogating a contract of debt incurred by a prior Congress; the fifth section gives Congress the power to enforce the amendment's provisions by "appropriate legislation". Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed, but when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, having taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof, but Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. Section 4; the validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave.
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress debated the rights of black former slaves freed by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation and the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment, the latter of which had formally abolished slavery. Following the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment by Congress, Republicans grew concerned over the increase it would create in the congressional representation of the Democratic-dominated Southern States; because the full population of fre