A tank locomotive or tank engine is a steam locomotive that carries its water in one or more on-board water tanks, instead of a more traditional tender. A tank engine may have a bunker to hold fuel. There are several different types of tank locomotive, distinguished by the position and style of the water tanks and fuel bunkers; the most common type has tanks mounted either side of the boiler. This type originated about 1840 and became popular for industrial tasks, for shunting and shorter distance main line duties. Tank locomotives have disadvantages compared to traditional tender locomotives; the first tank locomotive was the Novelty that ran at the Rainhill Trials in 1829. It was an example of a Well Tank. However, the more common form of Side tank date from the 1840s. In spite of the early belief that such locomotives were inherently unsafe, the idea caught on for industrial use and five manufacturers exhibited designs at The Great Exhibition in 1851; these were E. B. Wilson and Company, William Fairbairn & Sons, George England, Kitson Thompson and Hewitson and William Bridges Adams.
By the mid-1850s tank locomotives were to be found performing a variety of main line and industrial roles those involving shorter journeys or frequent changes in direction. There are a number of types of tank locomotive, based on the style of the water tanks; these include the saddle tank, the pannier tank, the well tank and others. A configuration common in the U. K; the water is contained in rectangular tanks mounted on either side of the locomotive, near to the boiler but not quite touching. The tank sides extend down to the running platform, if such is present, for at least part of their length; the length of side tanks was limited in order to give access to the inside motion. If it was desired to extend them to the front of the locomotive for greater capacity, access could be facilitated by apertures provided at the appropriate location. With larger side tanks it was sometimes necessary to taper the tanks at the front end to improve forward visibility. Side tanks all stopped at, or before, the end of the boiler barrel, with the smokebox protruding ahead.
A few designs did reach to the front of the smokebox and these were termed'flatirons'. The water tank sits on top of the boiler; the tank is curved in cross-section, although in some cases there were straight sides surmounted by a curve, or an ogee shape. Saddle tanks were a popular arrangement for smaller locomotives in industrial use, it gave a greater water supply, but limited the size of the boiler and restricted access to it for cleaning. However, the locomotive hence must operate at lower speeds; the driver's vision may be restricted, again restricting the safe speed. Water in the tank is pre-heated by the boiler, which reduces the loss of pressure found when cold feedwater is injected into the boiler. However, if the water becomes too hot, injectors can fail. For this reason, the tanks stopped short of the hotter and uninsulated smokebox; the squared-off shape of the Belpaire firebox does not fit beneath a saddle tank, so most saddle tanks retained the older round-topped boiler instead. A few American locomotives used saddle tanks that only covered the boiler barrel, forward of the firebox.
Pannier tanks, in Britain used exclusively by the Great Western Railway, common in Belgium, are box-shaped tanks carried on the sides of the boiler like a pannier is carried by pack animal. Unlike the side tank, they do not go all the way down and there is space between the tank and the running plate; the pannier arrangement lowers the centre of gravity compared to a saddle tank, whilst still allowing easy access to the inside motion that the latter gave. The first Great Western pannier tanks were converted from saddle tank locomotives when these were being rebuilt in the early 1900s with the Belpaire firebox. There were difficulties in accommodating the flat top of the latter within an encircling saddle tank which cut down capacity and increased the tendency to overheat the water in the tank. In Belgium, pannier tanks were in use at least since 1866, once again in conjunction with Belpaire firebox locomotives built for the Belgian State and for la Société Générale d'Exploitatation, a private company grouping smaller secondary lines.
Pannier tank locomotives are seen as iconic of the GWR. In this design, used in earlier and smaller locomotives, the water is stored in a'well' on the underside of the locomotive between the locomotive's frames; this does not restrict access to the boiler, but space is limited there, the design is therefore not suitable for locomotives that need a good usable range before refilling. The arrangement does, have the advantage of creating a low centre of gravity, creating greater stability on poorly laid or narrow gauge tracks; the original tank locomotive, was a well tank. In this design, the tank is placed behind the cab over a supporting bogie; this removes the weight of the water from the driving wheels, giving the locomotive a constant tractive weight. The disadvantage is a reduction in water carrying capacity. A rear tank is an essential component of the American Forney type of loco, a 4-4-0 American-type with wheels reversed. Wing tanks are side tanks that run the length of the smokebox
Dübs and Company
Dübs & Co. was a locomotive manufacturer in Glasgow, founded by Henry Dübs in 1863 and based at the Queens Park Works in Polmadie. In 1903 it amalgamated with two other Glasgow locomotive manufacturers to create the North British Locomotive Company. Eleven locomotives built for the New Zealand Railways Department, numerous others in South Africa and the Isle of Man. Four members of the 0-4-0 A class built in 1873 have been preserved. A 64 and A 67 are in full operational condition on vintage railways. Two members of the C class have survived. In operation at the Silver Stream Railway is an example from 1875 that had the wheel arrangement of 0-4-0 but was converted soon after purchase to 0-4-2 and is preserved with that wheel arrangement. Another member of the C class was recovered by the Westport Railway Preservation Society in 1993 from where it had been dumped in the Buller Gorge, West Coast, is under restoration with the goal of returning it to a operational state. Five members of the 0-6-0 F class built between 1878 and 1880 have been preserved.
In operational condition are F 163 and F 185. F 111 had its boiler condemned in 1980 and its owners, the Ocean Beach Railway, have yet to replace it. F 230 was converted to a wheel arrangement of 0-4-2 on a private industrial line and is on static display at Hamilton Lake Park in a somewhat rundown condition. Other members of the 88-total F class that still exist were built by other manufacturers; the oldest steam locomotive in Tasmania is Dübs No.1415 of 1880. It was built to run on Queensland Railways' 3 ft 6 in gauge. In 1917 the locomotive was sold to the Strahan Marine Board on Tasmania's West Coast, where it was employed in the construction of the breakwater at Hells Gates at the entrance to Macquarie Harbour; the locomotive is now on display at the Don River Railway. On Sunday, 30 December 1900, the Emu Bay Railway took delivery of three Dübs 4-8-0 locomotives to run on their 3 ft 6 in gauge track from Burnie, Tasmania to Zeehan, Tasmania line; the locomotives were EBR Nos. 6, 7 and 8. No.7 was taken out of service in 1959 and scrapped in 1963.
In 1960 No.6 was named MURCHISON and No.8 was named HEEMSKIRK and both locomotives were repainted from drab black to a striking two tone blue livery to haul the new Westcoaster train, which transported buses and cars from Burnie to Rosebery. No.6 is now on display at the West Coast Pioneers Museum at Zeehan, where its drab black has been replaced by the striking blue livery mentioned above. No.8 is preserved in running order at the Don River Railway preservation society at Devonport, Tasmania. Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company purchased five 0-4-2T locomotives to run on their 3 ft 6 in gauge railway from Queenstown, Tasmania to Strahan, Australia, using the Abt Rack railway system; the first four of these were built by Dübs and the first three are still in existence. Mount Lyell No.1 and Mount Lyell No.3 operate on the West Coast Wilderness Railway. The third example, Mount Lyell No.2 is preserved at the Tasmanian Transport Museum at Glenorchy, near Hobart, Tasmania. No. 3730, built in 1898, is used by the West Coast Wilderness Railway between Strahan and Queenstown, Tasmania.
It was locally fitted for the Abt Rack railway system. Victorian Railways No. 2 steam crane, built 1890 by Dubs, works number 2711, is on display at the Australian Railway Historical Society Museum, North Williamstown, Victoria. In the United Kingdom, 1901-built Dübs crane tank No. 4101 is preserved at the Foxfield Light Railway, Stoke-on-Trent. It was operational and saw frequent use by late 2012. Natal Government Railways'A' Class 4-8-2 tank locomotive No. 196 returned to the UK for preservation by the NBL Preservation Group on 12 May 2011. It is on display at the Mizens Railway near Woking in Surrey. Full details can be found on www.nbloco.net On the Isle of Man Railway, Manx Northern Railway 0-6-0 no. 4 Caledonia was built in 1885, renumbered 15 when brought into IoMR stock in 1904. Cale returned to service to commemorate its part in building the Snaefell Railway when a third rail to 3' gauge was laid to facilitate a return to Snaefell, 15 has just undergone a major overhaul and returned to service after a brief absence.
Nos. 1 and 2 of NSB class XXI, built 1894, are preserved at the Setesdal Line museum railway, Norway. No. 1 has been out of service since the closure of ordinary activities at the Setesdal Line in 1962. It was undergoing a general service in August 2005. Locomotive No.3 built for the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1882 is owned by the Prairie Dog Central enthusiast railway of Winnipeg, Manitoba. It underwent a thorough restoration, completed in early 2009. Built in 1882 for Natal Government Railways, a predecessor to South African Railways, is Class-A N
Midland Railway 780 Class
The Midland Railway 780 Class was a class of 0-4-4T steam locomotives. They were built by Dubs & Co. in 1870, were similar to the 690 Class. Numbers 780–799, they were double-framed engines with a back tank behind the cab under the bunker. They were all fitted with condensing apparatus for working the Metropolitan lines. In 1898 Nos 780–783 were transferred to the duplicate list as Nos 780A–783A, their 1907 numbers were 1206–1225. No. 1212 was withdrawn in 1921, but the remaining 19 were inherited by the London and Scottish Railway at the 1923 Grouping. They were all withdrawn, were extinct by 1935. Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923. Volume 3A: Midland Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 9780903485524. An Illustrated Review of Midland Locomotives Volume 3 - Tank Engines by R. J. Essery & D. Jenkinson ISBN 9780906867662
Midland Railway Johnson 0-6-0
The Midland Railway Johnson 0-6-0 were a class of locomotives serving Britain's Midland Railway system in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Between 1875 and 1908 the Midland Railway, under the control of locomotive superintendents Samuel W. Johnson and Richard Deeley, ordered 935 goods tender engines of 0-6-0 type, both from the railway's own shops at Derby and various external suppliers. Although there were many variations between different batches both as delivered and as successively rebuilt, all 935 can be regarded as a single series, one of the largest classes of engine on Britain's railways; the locomotives served as late as 1964. They were built at the following plants: The H and H1 boilers fitted to the "2736" and "3815" classes were larger, having a diameter of 4 ft 8in rather than 4 ft 1in, a longer firebox, which made the engines more powerful. While these were being built there started a program of rebuilding many of the earlier engines with the "H" boiler to increase their power.
By 1915, 380 engines had been so upgraded, giving 450 with "H" and 485 with "B". Beginning in 1916 engines were rebuilt with Belpaire boilers; those from the first two classes, received the smaller "G6" type boiler, the remainder the larger "G7" size. The "H" & "G7" boilered engines were classed "3" and those with "B" & "G6" boilers were classed "2". By 1925, production of the new superheated 4F 0-6-0s meant there was no shortage of goods engines of this power class, from that point only "G6" boilers were installed on rebuilding, sometimes on engines which had had "H" boilers, reducing them back to class 2. Three of the examples were experimentally fitted with superheaters from 1923 to 1928, but the class remained saturated throughout. One hundred and thirteen engines remained with their original "B" boilers until scrapped, 22 had "H" boilers, 432 had "G7" and 368 had "G6"; the smaller driving wheels gave an enhanced tractive effort at the expense of reduced speed, useful on coal trains. 16 engines of the "M" class were bought by the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, eight in 1896 and eight in 1899, which were numbered 58–73.
All were built with Class "B" boilers, replacement boilers were of the same type. In 1921, two others were rebuilt with the Belpaire Class "G7" boiler together with longer smokeboxes, which required the main frames to be extended at both front and rear; the two fitted with Class "H" boilers received "G7" boilers and frame extensions in 1923 and 1928. All 16 were acquired by the London and North Eastern Railway on 1 October 1936 and new numbers 058–073 were allocated, but five were considered to be worn out and withdrawn in 1936–37, three of these did not receive their LNER numbers; the remaining eleven were added to LNER book stock in 1937 and classified J40 if fitted with the Class "B" boiler, or J41 if fitted with the Class "G7" boiler. Withdrawal of these 11 began in 1938, by the time that the LNER renumbering scheme was prepared in June 1943, there were five left, nos. 059, 064, 065, 070 and 071. These were allotted none lasted long enough to be renumbered: the last, no. 059, was withdrawn in June 1944.
Ten engines of "M" class were bought by the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway in 1896 and 1902, numbered 62–66 and 72–76. All ended up with "G7" boilers and were taken into LMS stock as class 3F in 1930; the class all retained their numbers when they passed to the London and Scottish Railway at the 1923 grouping, but in 1934 2900–2984 had 20000 added to their numbers to make way for newer locomotives. The same happened to 3000–3019 in 1947. At nationalisation those that were class 3F, along with other LMS locomotives, had 40000 added to their numbers by British Railways, but the class 2Fs were reorganised into a new series 58114–58310. On 1 December 1900, locomotive No. 1433 was hauling a freight train when it was derailed at Peckwash, Derbyshire after the driver lost control and the train ran away. On 14 August 1949, locomotive No. 3260 was hauling a passenger train when it collided with a peat train at Ashcott and was derailed. The locomotive was subsequently scrapped. Withdrawal of the engines from service began in 1925, starting with unrebuilt engines, continued until 1964.
Despite the large number of locomotives of the class and their late survival, none were preserved. No. 43222 hauled the Stephenson Locomotive Society's SM&JR railtour on 29 April 1956. It carried the reporting number M500. Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923. Volume 3A: Midland Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 9780903485524. Boddy, M. G.. F.. B.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 6A: Tender Engines - Classes J38 to K5. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-53-3. Essery, R. J.. An Illustrated Review of Midland Railway Locomotives, Vol.4. Wild Swan. ISBN 0-906867-74-6. Summerson, S. Midland Railway Locomotives, Vol.4. Irwell Press. ISBN 1-903266-26-2. Trevena, Arthur. Trains in Trouble. Vol. 1. Redruth: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-01-X. Trevena, Arthur. Trains in Trouble: Vol. 2
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. If a locomotive is capable of carrying a payload, it is rather referred to as multiple units, motor coaches, railcars or power cars. Traditionally, locomotives pulled trains from the front. However, push-pull operation has become common, where the train may have a locomotive at the front, at the rear, or at each end; the word locomotive originates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus "place", the Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in 1814 to distinguish between self-propelled and stationary steam engines. Prior to locomotives, the motive force for railways had been generated by various lower-technology methods such as human power, horse power, gravity or stationary engines that drove cable systems. Few such systems are still in existence today. Locomotives may generate their power from fuel, or they may take power from an outside source of electricity.
It is common to classify locomotives by their source of energy. The common ones include: A steam locomotive is a locomotive whose primary power source is a steam engine; the most common form of steam locomotive contains a boiler to generate the steam used by the engine. The water in the boiler is heated by burning combustible material – coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam; the steam moves reciprocating pistons which are connected to the locomotive's main wheels, known as the "drivers". Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons called "tenders" pulled behind; the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick in 1802. It was constructed for the Coalbrookdale ironworks in Shropshire in the United Kingdom though no record of it working there has survived. On 21 February 1804, the first recorded steam-hauled railway journey took place as another of Trevithick's locomotives hauled a train from the Pen-y-darren ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, to Abercynon in South Wales.
Accompanied by Andrew Vivian, it ran with mixed success. The design incorporated a number of important innovations including the use of high-pressure steam which reduced the weight of the engine and increased its efficiency. In 1812, Matthew Murray's twin-cylinder rack locomotive Salamanca first ran on the edge-railed rack-and-pinion Middleton Railway. Another well-known early locomotive was Puffing Billy, built 1813–14 by engineer William Hedley for the Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne; this locomotive is the oldest preserved, is on static display in the Science Museum, London. George Stephenson built Locomotion No. 1 for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in the north-east of England, the first public steam railway in the world. In 1829, his son Robert built The Rocket in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Rocket was entered into, won, the Rainhill Trials; this success led to the company emerging as the pre-eminent early builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the UK, US and much of Europe.
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, built by Stephenson, opened a year making exclusive use of steam power for passenger and goods trains. The steam locomotive remained by far the most common type of locomotive until after World War II. Steam locomotives are less efficient than modern diesel and electric locomotives, a larger workforce is required to operate and service them. British Rail figures showed that the cost of crewing and fuelling a steam locomotive was about two and a half times larger than the cost of supporting an equivalent diesel locomotive, the daily mileage they could run was lower. Between about 1950 and 1970, the majority of steam locomotives were retired from commercial service and replaced with electric and diesel-electric locomotives. While North America transitioned from steam during the 1950s, continental Europe by the 1970s, in other parts of the world, the transition happened later. Steam was a familiar technology that used widely-available fuels and in low-wage economies did not suffer as wide a cost disparity.
It continued to be used in many countries until the end of the 20th century. By the end of the 20th century the only steam power remaining in regular use around the world was on heritage railways. Internal combustion locomotives use an internal combustion engine, connected to the driving wheels by a transmission, they keep the engine running at a near-constant speed whether the locomotive is stationary or moving. Kerosene locomotives use kerosene as the fuel, they were the world's first oil locomotives, preceding diesel and other oil locomotives by some years. The first known kerosene locomotive was a draisine built by Daimler in 1887. A kerosene locomotive was built in 1894 by the Priestman Brothers of Kingston upon Hull for use on Hull docks; this locomotive was built using a 12 hp double-acting marine type engine, running at 300 rpm, mounted on a 4-wheel wagon chassis. It was only able to haul one loaded wagon at a time, due to its low power output, was not a great success; the first successful kerosene locomotive was "Lachesis" built by Richard Hornsby & Sons Ltd. and delivered to Woolwich Arsenal railway in 1896.
The company built a series of kerosene locomotives between 1896 and 1903, for use by the British military. Petrol locomotives use petrol as their fuel. Most petrol locomotives built were petrol-mechanical, using a mechanical transmission to deliver the power output of the engine t
Midland Railway 700 Class
The Midland Railway 700 Class was a large class of double framed 0-6-0 freight steam locomotives designed by Matthew Kirtley for the Midland Railway. They were in the power classification 1F. Six locomotives - nos. 271/9, 1007/31/52/3 - were withdrawn from service between 1903 and 1905. Fifty more were sold in 1906 to the Italian State Railway, Ferrovie dello Stato, where they formed FS Class 380, they were meant to fill a gap of valid locomotives after the nationalization of the Italian railways, therefore were not thought to remain in service for more than a few years. After the Midland Railway's 1907 renumbering scheme, the numbers were: 2592–2671, 2674–2711 and 2713–2867Numbers 2672/3 were members of the 480 Class. On 3 December 1892, locomotive No. 871 was hauling a freight train that crashed at Wymondham Junction, Leicestershire damaging the signal box. 78 locomotives of the class were loaned to the War Department during the First World War and were used by the Railway Operating Division of the Royal Engineers for military duties in France.
A further three were selected to go but instead were loaned to the London & South Western Railway between December 1917 and February 1920 The locomotives allocated were 2707–11/13–88 of which 2783–85 were sent to the LSWR. The remainder went to France at various dates in 1917 before being returned to the MR in 1919–20. All returned to service with the MR except 2765, scrapped at Derby in 1920 having suffered broken frames during its time with the ROD. One engine, 2717, was cut off in No man's land during the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917 and was subsequently captured by the German army during Operation Michael; the Germans used it on their military railway in the Brussels area. Recovered after the war, the engine was returned to the MR. Locomotives of the Midland Railway Aves, William; the Railway Operating Division on the Western Front. Donnington, Lincolnshire: Shaun Tyas. ISBN 978-1-900289-993. Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923. Volume 3A: Midland Railway and its constituent companies.
Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 9780903485524. Earnshaw, Alan. Trains in Trouble: Vol. 6. Penryn: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-37-0. Hunt, David. J.. Midland Engines: No. 4 - The'700' Class Double-frame Goods Engines. Didcot: Wild Swan Publications. ISBN 1-874103-73-9
LMS Stanier Class 2 0-4-4T
The London and Scottish Railway Class 2 Stanier 0-4-4T was a class of 10 light passenger locomotives built in 1932. Ostensibly designed under new Chief Mechanical Engineer William Stanier, they were in fact the last new design of the Midland Railway's school of engineering; the Midland Railway had a large number of 1P 0-4-4T and this was a larger version of the larger wheeled design, classified 2P. The ten built were numbered 6400–6409 by the LMS and renumbered 1900–1909 shortly before nationalisation, freeing the numbers for new LMS Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0s. British Railways adding 40000 to their numbers making them 41900–41909. Although the last new Midland-style design, as subsequent Stanier engines incorporated much Great Western Railway practice, they were not the last MR-designed locomotives built with some 4Fs appearing as late as 1940; the class was built with stovepipe chimneys due to an oversight by Stanier due to the design for future LMS locomotive chimneys not being finalised. All were fitted with Stanier chimneys.
Two of the locomotives were fitted with vacuum control gear in 1934 for working the motor trains on the St Alban's branch, allocated to Watford Junction shed. The remainder were fitted in the BR period and used at a number of different sheds including Warwick and Longsight... All were withdrawn in 1959 except 41900 which went in 1962. None was preserved. James, Fred. "The LMS 0-4-4T Engines". LMS Journal Special Preview Issue. Longworth, Hugh. British Railway Steam Locomotives 1948-1968. ISBN 0-86093-593-0. Rowledge, J. W. P.. Engines of the LMS built 1923–51. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-902888-59-5. Notes http://www.railuk.co.uk/steam/getsteamclass.php?item=2P-C