Midland Railway 1000 Class
Midland Railway 1000 Class is a class of 4-4-0 steam locomotive designed for passenger work. These were developed from a series of five locomotives, introduced in 1902 by Samuel W. Johnson, which had had a 3-cylinder compound arrangement on the Smith system; this had a layout of one high-pressure cylinder inside the frames, two low-pressure cylinders outside, utilised Smith's starting arrangement. On the first two locomotives, independent control of high-pressure and low-pressure valve gears was available. From 1905 onwards, Johnson's successor Richard Deeley built an enlarged and simplified version, eliminating all the Smith refinements whilst fitting his own starting arrangement, making the engines simpler to drive; these locomotives were numbered 1000–1029, but in the 1907 renumbering scheme the five Smith/Johnson locomotives became 1000–1004 and the Deeley compounds 1005–1034, ten more of these being added in 1908–1909. The original Johnson locomotives were all subsequently renewed as Deeley compounds, including the now-preserved 1000, rebuilt and outshopped with a superheater in 1914.
Numbered 1000–1044 by both the Midland and LMS companies, British Railways renumbered the Midland series of compounds 41000–41044 after nationalisation in 1948. On 23 December 1904, locomotive No. 1040 was hauling an express passenger train, derailed at Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire due to excessive speed on a curve. Locomotive No. 1042 was hauling an express passenger train that collided with the wreckage at low speed. Four people were killed. On 19 January 1918, locomotive No. 1010 was hauling an express passenger train, derailed when it ran into a landslip obstructing the line at Little Salkeld, Cumberland. Seven people were killed and 46 were injured. On 10 July 1933, locomotive No. 1010 was hauling an express passenger train, in a side-long collision with a freight train at Little Salkeld due to a signalman's error. One person was killed and about 30 were injured, one seriously. On 12 April 1947, locomotive No. 1004 was hauling a passenger train, derailed near Keighley, Yorkshire when a bridge collapsed under it.
On 21 April 1952, locomotive No. 41040 was one of two hauling a passenger train, derailed at Blea Moor Loops, West Riding of Yorkshire when a defective brake hanger on the locomotive cause a set of points to move under the train. No. 1000 was set aside for preservation after withdrawal and restored in 1959 close to its 1914 condition, painted in Midland maroon livery, running enthusiasts' specials until placed in the temporary Clapham Transport museum. Though steamed since preservation, it is a static exhibit at the Barrow Hill Engine Shed at Derbyshire, having been lent by the National Railway Museum in York. After the grouping, the LMS continued to build modified MR Compounds as the LMS Compound 4-4-0 Nord 3.101 mixed traffic 2-6-0 prototype built 1887 by the French Chemins de Fer du Nord to the design of Edouard Sauvage - withdrawn in 1929 NER Class 3CC number 1619 of the North Eastern Railway 4-4-0 express locomotive rebuilt in 1898 from a 2-cylinder compound. This was W. M. Smith's first application of his patent compound system.
Four Robinson 4-4-2 Atlantic locomotives, classes 8D and 8E, built 1905–1906 as Smith compounds for the British Great Central Railway. One 4-6-2 locomotive built by the North British Locomotive Company for the Cape Government Railway in South Africa. Five 4-4-0 locomotives designed by G. T built in 1932 for the Great Northern Railway; these used the Deeley starting arrangement. André Chapelon's 4-8-4 SNCF 242 A 1 CSD 476.0/932.3 4-8-2 1949 SourcesIan Allan ABC of British Railways Locomotives, 1948 Edition, part 3, pp 5–6 Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923. Volume 3A: Midland Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. Pp. 133, 175–176. ISBN 9780903485524. Nock O. S. "The Midland Compounds". K. Van Riemsdijk, J. T.. Compound Locomotives: An International Survey. Penryn: Atlantic Transport Publishers. Pp. 25–32. ISBN 0-906899-61-3. Railuk database Photo of No. 1000
Midland Railway 1252 Class
The Midland Railway 1252 class was a class of 30 0-4-4T locomotives built by Neilson and Company in 1875–1876 to the design of Samuel W. Johnson, they were a development of the 6 Class. Numbers 1262–1281 and 1252–1261. Under the Midland Railway's 1907 renumbering scheme they became 1236–1265. For this class, the Midland used nominal 5-foot-6 1⁄2-inch diameter driving wheels, whereas in all engines they used nominal 5-foot-3-inch diameter wheels, they were given the power classification 1P. All except one locomotive passed to the London and Scottish Railway at the 1923 grouping. BR allocated them numbers 58030–58038, though only three 58033/36/38 received them before withdrawal; the class became extinct in 1954. None was preserved. Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923. Volume 3A: Midland Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 9780903485524. Casserley, H. C. & Johnston, Stuart W.. Locomotives at the Grouping 3: London and Scottish Railway.
Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan. Pp. 27–28. ISBN 0-7110-0554-0. Bob Essery and David Jenkinson An Illustrated Review of Midland Locomotives vol 3 Bob Essery and David Jenkinson An Illustrated History of LMS Locomotives vol 4
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The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
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Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel, driven by the locomotive's pistons. On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods. On diesel and electric locomotives, the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not used, it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives. On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set. Driving wheels are larger than leading or trailing wheels. Since a conventional steam locomotive is directly driven, one of the few ways to'gear' a locomotive for a particular performance goal is to size the driving wheels appropriately. Freight locomotives had driving wheels between 40 and 60 inches in diameter; some long wheelbase locomotives were equipped with blind drivers.
These were driving wheels without the usual flanges, which allowed them to negotiate tighter curves without binding. The driving wheels on express passenger locomotives have come down in diameter over the years, e.g. from 8 ft 1 in on the GNR Stirling 4-2-2 of 1870 to 6 ft 2 in on the SR Merchant Navy Class of 1941. This is. On locomotives with side rods, including most steam and jackshaft locomotives, the driving wheels have weights to balance the weight of the coupling and connecting rods; the crescent-shaped balance weight is visible in the picture on the right. In the Whyte notation, driving wheels are designated by numbers in the set; the UIC classification system counts the number of axles rather than the number of wheels and driving wheels are designated by letters rather than numbers. The suffix'o' is used to indicate independently powered axles; the number of driving wheels on locomotives varied quite a bit. Some early locomotives had as few as two driving wheels; the largest number of total driving wheels was 24 on the 2-8-8-8-4 locomotives.
The largest number of coupled driving wheels was 14 on the ill-fated AA20 4-14-4 locomotive. The term driving wheel is sometimes used to denote the drive sprocket which moves the track on tracked vehicles such as tanks and bulldozers. Many American roots artists, such as The Byrds, Tom Rush, The Black Crowes and the Canadian band Cowboy Junkies have performed a song written by David Wiffen called "Driving Wheel", with the lyrics "I feel like some old engine/ That's lost my driving wheel."These lyrics are a reference to the traditional blues song "Broke Down Engine Blues" by Blind Willie McTell, 1931. It was directly covered by Bob Dylan and Johnny Winter. Many versions of the American folk song "In the Pines" performed by artists such as Leadbelly, Mark Lanegan, Nirvana reference a decapitated man's head found in a driving wheel. In addition, it is that Chuck Berry references the locomotive driving wheel in "Johnny B. Goode" when he sings, "the engineers would see him sitting in the shade / Strumming with the rhythm that the drivers made."
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 2-6-2 represents the wheel arrangement of two leading wheels, six coupled driving wheels and two trailing wheels. This arrangement is called a Prairie; the majority of American 2-6-2s were tender locomotives, but in Europe tank locomotives, described as 2-6-2T, were more common. The first 2-6-2 tender locomotives for a North American customer were built by Brooks Locomotive Works in 1900 for the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, for use on the Midwestern prairies; the type was thus nicknamed the Prairie in North American practice. This name was also used for British locomotives with this wheel arrangement; as with the 2-10-2, the major problem with the 2-6-2 is that these engines have a symmetrical wheel layout, with the centre of gravity over the centre driving wheel. The reciprocation rods, when working near the centre of gravity, induce severe side-to-side nosing which results in intense instability if unrestrained either by a long wheelbase or by the leading and trailing trucks.
Though some engines, like the Chicago and Great Western of 1903, had the connecting rod aligned onto the third driver, most examples were powered via the second driver and were prone to the nosing problem. In Australia, no tender versions of the 2-6-2 operated on any system. However, three classes of 2-6-2T did. In New South Wales a class of twenty engines, the Z26 class the 17 class, entered service in 1892 and operated until the end of steam. Two are preserved, no. 2606 at the Rail Transport Museum at Thirlmere and no. 2605 at the State Mine Museum in Lithgow. The Silverton Tramway operated two 2-6-2T locomotives from 1891, both of which are preserved in South Australia; the principal 2-6-2T locomotives which were built for the narrow gauge system of the Victoria Railway, are the now famous "Puffing Billy" engines. Two of these little locomotives arrived from Baldwin Locomotive works in 1898 and a total of seventeen saw service throughout the state on the various narrow gauge timber and gold lines, including the Wangaratta and Walhalla.
When the VR determined to close the Upper Ferntree Gully to Gembrook narrow gauge route in the mid-1950s, the Victorian community refused to let the train die. Today, the Puffing Billy Railway has a fleet of saved and modified 2-6-2T engines on active steam roster and is one of Victoria's main tourist attractions; the Belgian State Railways ordered 91 inside-cylinder 2-6-2 tank engines between 1878 and 1881 with large drivers and side tanks longer than the boiler. They hauled commuter fast trains on short lines; some of them survived the war and were used on local trains until 1926. After World War I, the Belgian State Railways were needing new engines in order to replace the ones that were lost or damaged during the war, they purchased 63 2-6-2 Saddle tank engines from the Railway Operating Division (Belgian State Railways Type 22 SNCB Type 57 and used them for switching and light freight trains until the 1960s. The most numerous steam locomotive type used in Hungary was the 324 class 2-6-2, built from 1909 onwards, which were still at work in the last days of steam.
The Hungarian State Railways ran three important classes of 2-6-2 tank engines. These were the large 342 class built from 1917, the smaller 375 class and 376 class; the Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane built the 151-strong compound FS Class 680 for express trains from 1907 to 1911. The FS Class 685, built in 271 units from 1912 to 1928, was its non-compound and superheated version, proved successful, to the point that all but 31 of the earlier Class 680 were rebuilt as 685; the Class 685 was the most numerous standard gauge 2-6-2 class in the world. A fleet of five tank engines, built by Manning Wardle of Leeds in England, were supplied to New Zealand in 1884-85; the private Wellington and Manawatu Railway used them for construction and local service work. Three were taken over as the New Zealand Railways WH class in 1908; the second batch of Prairie locomotives was built to an order for the New Zealand Railways Department, with the initial order for ten being let to Nasmyth and Company of Manchester, England.
This became the NZR V class which, due to political interference and their being overweight, did not go into traffic until 1890. New Zealand's third batch of Prairie locomotives was ordered by the WMR in 1884, their design was identical to that of the NZR V class, though they were heavier. They could burn any light fuel, coal or wood as available, entered service in 1886, soon after the WMR started operating. In 1908, with the purchase of the company by the NZR, they were awarded the V classification. In 1885, Baldwin Locomotive Works built New Zealand's fourth batch of Prairie locomotives; these were to become the NZR N class. Six were delivered in 1885 and were of an identical design to the previous, but altered to utilise off-the-shelf components supplied by Baldwin. In 1901, four more were built for the NZR, but these were fitted with piston valves actuated by Walschaerts valve gear. In 1891, two of these locomotives had been built to the same design for the WMR. In 1908, with the purchase of the WMR by NZR, all of these engines were classified as N class.
Between 1894 and 1904, four similar engines were built by Baldwin for the WMR. In 1908, these became NC class, with two units each; the NZR’s Addington Workshops joined the list of Prairie suppliers in 1889, producing the first of two NZR W class tank engines. These were followed between 1901 with eleven similar NZR WA class tank engines. Baldwin followed this u
Midland Railway 115 Class
The Midland Railway 115 Class is a class of 4-2-2 steam locomotive, nicknamed "Spinners". They were designed by Samuel W. Johnson and a total of 15 of the class were built between 1896 and 1899; the fifteen locomotives in the class were built both at Derby Works. It was quite common for this class of engine to pull a typical Midland express weighing 200 and 250 long tons which suited the Class 115 perfectly. Given a dry rail they could maintain a tight schedule with 350 long tons. Speeds up to 90 mph were not uncommon and the sight of their whirring huge driving wheels earned them the nickname "Spinners". Thanks to the Midland's practice of building low powered locomotives and relying on double-heading to cope with heavier trains many enjoyed working lives of up to 30 years, they made ideal pilot engines for the Johnson/Deeley 4-4-0 classes. In the Midland Railway 1907 renumbering scheme, they were assigned numbers 670–684. During World War I most were placed in store but pressed into service afterwards as pilots on the Nottingham to London coal trains.
Twelve locomotives survived to the 1923 grouping, keeping their Midland Railway numbers in London and Scottish Railway service. By 1927 only three of the class remained, with the last engine, 673 being withdrawn in 1928 and preserved. No. 673 is the sole survivor of its class. It was steamed around 1976–1980 when it took part in the Rainhill Trials 150th cavalcade but is a static exhibit in the National Railway Museum in York. Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923. Volume 3A: Midland Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 9780903485524. Classic British steam Locomotives Casserley, H. C.. Locomotives at the Grouping 3: London and Scottish. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0554-0. Essery, R. J & Jenkinson, D.. An Illustrated Review of Midland Locomotives, Volume 2: Passenger tender classes. Didcot: Wild Swan Publications. ISBN 0 906867 59 2
Midland Railway 780 Class
The Midland Railway 780 Class was a class of 0-4-4T steam locomotives. They were built by Dubs & Co. in 1870, were similar to the 690 Class. Numbers 780–799, they were double-framed engines with a back tank behind the cab under the bunker. They were all fitted with condensing apparatus for working the Metropolitan lines. In 1898 Nos 780–783 were transferred to the duplicate list as Nos 780A–783A, their 1907 numbers were 1206–1225. No. 1212 was withdrawn in 1921, but the remaining 19 were inherited by the London and Scottish Railway at the 1923 Grouping. They were all withdrawn, were extinct by 1935. Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923. Volume 3A: Midland Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 9780903485524. An Illustrated Review of Midland Locomotives Volume 3 - Tank Engines by R. J. Essery & D. Jenkinson ISBN 9780906867662