Wausau is a city in and the county seat of Marathon County, United States. The Wisconsin River divides the city into west; the city's suburbs include Schofield, Maine, Rib Mountain and Rothschild. As of the 2010 census, Wausau had a population of 39,106, it is the core city of the Wausau Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Marathon County and had a population of 134,063 at the 2010 census. This area was occupied for thousands of years by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples; the historic Ojibwe occupied it in the period of European encounter. They had a lucrative fur trade for decades with French Canadians. After the French and Indian War this trade was dominated by British-American trappers from the eastern seaboard; the Wisconsin River first drew European-American settlers to the area during the mid-19th century as they migrated west into the Great Lakes region following construction of the Erie Canal in New York State. This provided a route for products from the region to the large New York and other eastern markets.
The area had been called "Big Bull Flats" or "Big Bull Falls" by French explorers, who were the first Europeans here. They named it for the long rapids in the river. By an 1836 treaty with the United States, the Ojibwe ceded much of their lands in the area to federal ownership, it was sold to non-Native peoples. Wausau, from Ojibwe “waasa” means "a faraway place" or "a place from which one can see far away" in the Ojibwe language. George Stevens, the namesake for the city of Stevens Point located south of Wausau, began harvesting the pine forests for lumber in 1840 and built a saw mill. Lumbering was the first major industry in this area, other sawmills along the Wisconsin River were constructed by entrepreneurs. By 1846, Walter McIndoe took the lead in the local business and community, his efforts helped to establish Marathon County in 1850. Word of Stevens' success in the region spread across the country throughout the logging industry. Loggers came from Cortland County, New York, Carroll County, New Hampshire, Orange County and Down East Maine in what is now Washington County and Hancock County, Maine.
These were "Yankee" migrants, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who had settled New England during the 1600s. By 1852, Wausau continued to grow and mature. German immigration into the area following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states brought more people, by 1861, the settlement was incorporated as a village. Churches, schools and social organizations began to flourish; the state granted the city a charter in 1872, elections are held the first Tuesday in April. The residents elected A. Kickbusch as their first mayor in 1874. Five years earlier, Kickbusch had returned to his homeland of Germany and brought back with him 702 people, all of whom are believed to have settled in the Wausau area. Kickbusch founded the A. Kickbusch Wholesale Grocery Company, a family business carried on by his grandson, August Kickbusch II. In 1917, August Kickbusch II purchased a four-square-style house at 513 Grant Street, he undertook extensive and additions, adding two sun rooms, arcaded windows, a tiled porch in the Mediterranean style, a formal classical entrance, ornate custom-designed chimney crowns.
The home is on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Andrew Warren Historic District. When the railroad arrived in 1874, Wausau became more accessible to settlers and industry; this enabled the city to develop alternatives to the lumber industry, in decline since the clear-cutting of many forests. By 1906 the lumber was gone. Other villages and towns in the area declined because of over-harvesting of the forests and lumber mills closed down. Wausau's favorable location on the Wisconsin River was responsible for the city's survival; the economy was diversified in the early 20th century, led by the insurance group, the Employers Insurance of Wausau, now a part of Liberty Mutual. Its logo, first introduced in 1954, was the downtown Milwaukee Road railroad depot, set against the backdrop of the community's skyline; the Wall Street Crash of 1929 had a major effect on the Wausau area. Many industries were forced to cut back by laying off and dismissing workers or by closing altogether.
After decades of growth, the city ground to a halt. However, under the New Deal, Wausau was modernized. After World War II, the city once again continued to grow in industry, education and retail, more than in population. After the fall of Saigon, Hmong refugees from Southeast Asia who fought alongside the CIA immigrated into Wausau at the end of the 1970s. Wausau church organizations helped. In 1983, the Wausau Center shopping mall opened. By the mid-to-late-1990s, the city of Wausau began to purchase and develop parts of West Industrial Park to meet the needs of the expanding economy and companies. In the late 1990s, the city demolished a number of aging buildings on a square in the center of downtown, creating what is known locally as the 400 Block, an open, grassy block with paved sidewalks crossing it; the square is a focal point for summer festivals. In recent years Wausau has redone the 400 Block, adding a permanent stage and other renovations that cost $2 million. By the end of the 20th century, Wausau began to implement the Wausau Central Business District Master Plan, which included redevelopment and economic restructuring of downtown Wausau.
The tallest commercial building in Wisconsin ou
Fokker F27 Friendship
The Fokker F27 Friendship is a turboprop airliner developed and manufactured by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker. It has the distinction of being the most numerous post-war aircraft to have been manufactured in the Netherlands; the F27 was developed during the early 1950s with the expressed intent of producing a capable successor to the earlier piston engine-powered airliners that had become commonplace on the market, such as the successful Douglas DC-3. A key innovation of the F27 was the adoption of the Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engine, which produced less vibration and noise which provided improved conditions for passengers. Innovative manufacturing techniques were employed in the aircraft's construction. On 24 November 1955, the F27 performed its maiden flight. Shortly after its introduction, the F27 was recognised as being a commercial success. Under a licensing arrangement reached between Fokker and the U. S. aircraft manufacturer Fairchild, the F27 was manufactured in the United States by the latter.
During the 1980s, Fokker developed a modernised successor to the F27, the Fokker 50, which replaced it in production. In the aftermath of the Second World War, twin-engine all-metal monoplanes such as the successful Douglas DC-3 airliner dominated commuter aviation. Over 10,000 DC-3s had been manufactured during wartime, which led to the type being available and thus encouraging its adoption by hundreds of operators across the world. By the early 1950s, various aircraft manufacturers had begun considering the post-war requirements of the civil aviation market and several commenced work upon projects aiming to produce designs for new aircraft which would be viewed as best meeting these requirements. By 1951, figures within Fokker were urging that design work be undertaken on a prospective 32-seat airliner intended as a direct replacement for the popular DC-3. Fokker sought the opinions of a number of existing DC-3 operators on what performance increases and refinements they would expect of a new model of commuter aircraft.
On the basis of this feedback, the design team chose to incorporate various new technologies into the tentative design. Fokker evaluated a number of different potential configurations for the airliner, including the use of Wright Cyclone radial engines, before settling upon a high-wing aircraft, furnished with a pair of Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engines and a pressurised cabin which contained a total of 28 passengers; the Dart engine had proven successful on the early models of the Vickers Viscount, while a high-mounted wing had been selected as it produced a higher lift coefficient than a lower counterpart, it enabled easier ground loading due to a lower floor level and provided unfettered external views to passengers without any weight increase. In the aircraft's construction, Fokker used an innovative metal-to-metal bonding technique, resulting in a longer fatigue life, improved aerodynamics, a lighter structure. In 1953, the proposed airliner received the name Friendship. A total of four prototypes were produced, two of these being flyable aircraft that were used for the test flight programme and were paid for by the Netherlands Institute of Aircraft Development.
On 24 November 1955, registered PH-NIV, performed its maiden flight. The second prototype and initial production machines were 0.9 m longer than the first prototype in order to addressing a revealed tendency for tail-heavy handling as well as to provide additional space for four more passengers, raising the maximum number of passengers which could be carried to 32. These aircraft were powered by the Dart Mk 528 engine, capable of generating greater thrust. Throughout the F27's production life, Fokker proceeded to adapt the design for various purposes and roles. Via a number of modifications, such as the adoption of improved engines, rearranged loading doors, elongated fuselages, other changes, several different models of the F27 were developed and made available for commercial operators. Several military transport models were produced. Fokker chose to design a dedicated model of the F27 for conducting maritime reconnaissance missions. During 1952, Fokker established a relationship with the US aircraft manufacturer Fairchild, interested in the upcoming F27.
In 1956, Fokker signed a licensing deal with Fairchild, under which the latter was authorised to manufacture the F27 in the USA. On 12 April 1958, the first American-built aircraft conducted its first flight. Production of Fairchild built aircraft would continue until July 1973. Fairchild proceeded to independently develop a stretched version of the airliner, designated as the FH-227; the majority of sales completed by Fairchild fell within the North American market. In the early 1980s, Fokker decided to develop a modernised successor to the F27 Friendship, designated as the F27 Mark 050 and marketed as the Fokker 50. Although originating from the F27-500 airframe, the Fokker 50 was a new aircraft, complete with Pratt & Whitney Canada engines and modern systems, which led to its general performance and passenger comfort being noticeably improved over the F27; the Fokker 50 replaced the F27 in production. In November 1958, the first producti
Beechcraft Model 99
The Beechcraft Model 99 is a civilian aircraft produced by Beechcraft. It is known as the Beech 99 Airliner and the Commuter 99; the 99 is a twin-engine, unpressurized, 15 to 17 passenger seat turboprop aircraft, derived from the earlier Beechcraft King Air and Queen Air. It uses the wings of the Queen Air, the engines and nacelles of the King Air, sub-systems from both, with a specifically-designed nose structure. Designed in the 1960s as a replacement for the Beechcraft Model 18, it first flew in July 1966, it received type certification on May 2, 1968, 62 aircraft were delivered by the end of the year. In 1984, the Beechcraft 1900, a pressurized 19-passenger airplane, was introduced as the follow-on aircraft. Production ended in early 1987. Nearly half the Beech 99s in airline service are now operated as freighters by Ameriflight. 99 Airliner: Twin-engined Commuter and cargo transport aircraft, 10,400 lb max takeoff weight, accommodation for a crew of two and up to 15 passengers. Powered by two 550-hp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-20 turboprop engines.
99 Executive: Executive transport version of the 99 Airliner. 99A Airliner: Same as the 99 Airliner, but powered by two Pratt & Whitney PT6A-27 engines flat-rated at 550 hp. A99A Airliner: One of a kind, 99A Airliner without wing center section tanks. B99 Airliner: Improved version, 10,900 lb max takeoff weight, powered by two 680-hp Pratt & Whitney PT6A-27/28 engines. B99 Executive: Executive transport version of the B99 Airliner. C99 Commuter: Improved version, 11,300 lb max takeoff weight, Pratt & Whitney PT6A-36 In July 2018, 105 Beechcraft B99 were in airline service, all in the Americas: 55: Ameriflight 12: Alpine Air 10: Bemidji Airlines 10: Freight Runners Express 9: Wiggins Airways 2: Flamingo Air, Hummingbird Air, InterCaribbean Airways 1: Bar XH Air, Courtesy Air, North Wright Airways and Sky High Aviation Services Data from GreenGeneral characteristics Crew: One Capacity: Normally 15 passengers Length: 44 ft 6¾ in Wingspan: 45 ft 10½ in Height: 14 ft 4⅓ in Wing area: 279.7 ft² Empty weight: 5,533 lb Loaded weight: <!10400 lb l 10900 lb.
Takeoff weight: 10,400, 10,900, or 11,300 lb – see above Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney PT6A-20, -27. or -36 turboprop Hartzell constant speed and reversing, 550, 680, or 715 eshp depending upon model/mod status eachPerformance Cruise speed: 205 knots at 10,000 ft Range: 910 nm at 216 mph at 8,000 ft Service ceiling: 26,200 ft Rate of climb: 1,700 ft/min Related development Beechcraft King Air Beechcraft Queen AirAircraft of comparable role and era Beechcraft 1900 Dornier Do 228 Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante Related lists List of civil aircraft Airliners.net's background of the 99
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Sentry Insurance is a mutual insurance company specializing in business insurance. The company’s home office is in Stevens Point, where about half the company’s 4,500 employees are located. Sentry offers property and casualty insurance, workers' compensation, life insurance, other business insurance, as well as non-insurance products like annuities and retirement programs. Sentry provides specialized insurance programs to customers in specific industries as well as large companies with complex risk. Sentry is one of the nation’s largest mutual insurance companies; as of December 31, 2014, the company has assets of more than $14 billion and a policyholder surplus of over $4.1 billion. Sentry was rated A+ by A. M. Best, the insurance industry’s leading rating authority, as of 2015. In 2017, Sentry Insurance was ranked 720 on the Fortune 1000 list of companies. Sentry Insurance was founded in 1904 by members of the Wisconsin Retail Hardware Association, now the Midwest Hardware Association, to provide insurance for its members in the hardware industry.
Its headquarters for many years was the Hardware Mutual Insurance Companies Building, built in 1922 and now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Though supplanted by a new headquarters in 1977, the historic building is still in use by the company today; the company owns its own golf course, SentryWorld, which opened in 1982. Designed by Robert Trent Jones, Jr. it is regarded as a "destination golf course". In 2015, Sentry entered an affiliation agreement with Hortica Insurance & Employee Benefits, adding a new line of business specializing in providing insurance and benefit programs to retail florists and related companies. In 2014, Sentry purchased Anchor Management General Agency, establishing entry into the management general agency distribution model. In 2014, Sentry began supplying its transportation clients with DriveCam in-car cameras. In 2013, Sentry released a mobile version of its risk management portal. In March, 2012, Sentry Insurance named Pete McPartland CEO, he had served as president and chief operating officer.
In September, 2012, Sentry Insurance laid off 27 office workers and 144 home-based agents as it restructured its strategy for selling personal line policies. It launched a new independent agency, Point Insurance, to serve policyholders in central Wisconsin and offer Sentry products as well as those of other companies; the company subsequently received a 2013 Stakeholder Team Accomplishment Recognition™ award from Demotech, Inc. for its operating results in 2012. The national award was based upon multiple financial measures. Sentry rebranded in 2016. A new Sentry word mark includes a symbol made up of two stylized single quote quotation marks paired up into a circle, reminiscent of the yin and yang symbol, representing two sides of a conversation; the negative space between the quote marks takes on the shape of an S. The company's previous logo was a Minuteman image based on a sculpture of Capt. John Parker located in Lexington, Massachusetts; as of December 31, 2013, Sentry had assets of $13.2 billion and a policyholder surplus of $4.1 billion.
The Sentry Group of Companies serves more than 1.1 million policyholders. The company offers life, group health and other property/casualty lines. Sentry's property and casualty companies are rated A+ by A. M. Best; the Sentry group of companies includes Dairyland, Peak Property and Casualty, Viking Insurance Company of Wisconsin, about a dozen others. Sentry Insurance supports a variety of nonprofits and educational institutions, both through employee donations and volunteerism, through its Sentry Foundation. Employees in the headquarters and other offices in Stevens Point, have raised funds and volunteered for a number of local nonprofits. Highlights of their activities include raising the bulk of a $1 million donation for a United Way campaign in Portage County in 2015 and collecting and donating more than 2,600 food and household items to local food pantries in December 2015; the Sentry Insurance Foundation, a private grantmaking foundation in Stevens Point, was established in 1995. It disbursed $3.7 million in grants in 2014.
The foundation made grants of more than $7 million in technology to classrooms in Portage County, between 2008 and 2015. It awarded a $4 million grant to the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point in 2016 to fund a data analytics major. List of United States insurance companies Official web site
Beechcraft Model 18
The Beechcraft Model 18 is a 6- to 11-seat, twin-engined, low-wing, tailwheel light aircraft manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. Continuously produced from 1937 to November 1969, over 9,000 were built, making it one of the world's most used light aircraft. Sold worldwide as a civilian executive, cargo aircraft, passenger airliner on tailwheels, skis, or floats, it was used as a military aircraft. During and after World War II, over 4,500 Beech 18s were used in military service—as light transport, light bomber, aircrew trainer, photo-reconnaissance, "mother ship" for target drones—including United States Army Air Forces C-45 Expeditor, AT-7 Navigator, AT-11 Kansan. In World War II, over 90% of USAAF bombardiers and navigators trained in these aircraft. In the early postwar era, the Beech 18 was the pre-eminent "business aircraft" and "feeder airliner". Besides carrying passengers, its civilian uses have included aerial spraying, sterile insect release, fish seeding, dry-ice cloud seeding, aerial firefighting, air-mail delivery, ambulance service, numerous movie productions, freight, weapon- and drug-smuggling, engine testbed, banner towing, stunt aircraft.
Many are now owned, around the world, with 240 in the U. S. still on the FAA Aircraft Registry in August 2017. By the late 1930s, Beechcraft management speculated that a demand would exist for a new design dubbed the Model 18, which would have a military application, increased the main production facilities; the design was conventional for the time, including twin radial engines, all-metal semimonocoque construction with fabric-covered control surfaces, tailwheel undercarriage. Less conventional was the twin-tailfin configuration; the Model 18 can be mistaken for the larger Lockheed Electra series of airliners, which resemble it. Early production aircraft were powered either by 350-hp Wright R-760Es; the 450-hp Pratt & Whitney R-985 became the definitive engine from the prewar C18S onwards. The Beech 18 prototype first flew on January 15, 1937; the aircraft has used a variety of engines and has had a number of airframe modifications to increase gross weight and speed. At least one aircraft was modified to a 600-hp Whitney R-1340 powerplant configuration.
With the added weight of about 200 lb per engine, the concept of a Model 18 fitted with R-1340 engines was deemed unsatisfactory due to the weakest structural area of the aircraft being the engine mounts. Nearly every airframe component has been modified. In 1955, deliveries of the Model E18S commenced. All Beech 18s featured this taller fuselage, some earlier models have been modified to this larger fuselage; the Model H18, introduced in 1963, featured optional tricycle undercarriage. Unusually, the undercarriage was developed for earlier-model aircraft under an STC by Volpar, installed in H18s at the factory during manufacture. A total of 109 H18s was built with tricycle undercarriage, another 240 earlier-model aircraft were modified with this. Construction of the Beechcraft Model 18 ended in 1970 with a final Model H18 going to Japan Airlines. Through the years, 32 variations of the basic design had flown, over 200 improvement modification kits were developed, 8,000 aircraft were built. In one case, the aircraft was modified to a triple tail, humpbacked configuration and appeared similar to a miniature Lockheed Constellation.
Another distinctive conversion was carried out by Pacific Airmotive as the PacAero Tradewind. This featured a lengthened nose to accommodate the tricycle nosewheel, the Model 18's twin tailfins were replaced by a single fin. Production got an early boost when Nationalist China paid the company US$750,000 for six M18R light bombers, but by the time of the U. S. entry into World War II, only 39 Model 18s had been sold, of which 29 were for civilian customers. Work began in earnest on a variant for training military pilots and navigators; the effort resulted in the Army AT-7 and Navy SNB. Further development led to the C-45 military transport; the United States Air Force Strategic Air Command had Model 18 variants from 1946 until 1951. From 1951 to 1955, the USAF had many of its aircraft remanufactured with new fuselages, wing center sections, undercarriages to take advantage of the improvements to the civil models since the end of World War II. 900 aircraft were remanufactured to be similar to the then-current Model D18S and given new designations, constructor's numbers, Air Force serial numbers.
The USN had many of its surviving aircraft remanufactured, as well, these being redesignated as SNB-5s and SNB-5Ps. The C-45 flew in USAF service until 1963, the USN retired its last SNB in 1972, while the U. S. Army flew its C-45s until 1976. In years, the military called these aircraft "bug smashers" in reference to their extensive use supplying mandatory flight hours for desk-bound aviators in the Pentagon. Beech 18s were used extensively by Air America during the Vietnam War.
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel