New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Smörgåsbord is a type of Scandinavian meal, originating in Sweden, served buffet-style with multiple hot and cold dishes of various foods on a table. Smörgåsbord became internationally known at the 1939 New York World's Fair when it was offered at the Swedish Pavilion's "Three Crowns Restaurant", it is a celebratory meal and guests can help themselves from a range of dishes laid out for their choice. In a restaurant the term refers to a buffet-style table laid out with many small dishes from which, for a fixed amount of money, one is allowed to choose as many as one wishes. In Pennsylvania, smorgasbords are popular Pennsylvania Dutch-style buffets that are associated with Amish-made meals. In Northern Europe, the term varies between "cold table" and "buffet": In Norway it is called koldtbord or kaldtbord and in Denmark det kolde bord. In Eastern Europe, each language has a term that means Swedish table. In Japan it is referred to as バイキング / ヴァイキング; the Swedish word smörgåsbord bord. Smörgås in turn consists of the words gås.
Gås means goose, but referred to the small pieces of butter that formed and floated to the surface of cream while it was churned. These pieces reminded the old Swedish peasants of fat geese swimming to the surface; the small butter pieces were just the right size to be placed and flattened out on bread, so smörgås came to mean buttered bread. In Sweden, the term att breda smörgåsar has been used since at least the 16th century. In English and in Scandinavian languages, the word smörgåsbord refers loosely to any buffet with a variety of dishes — not with any connection to Swedish Christmas traditions. In an extended sense, the word is used to refer to any situation which invites patrons to select whatever they wish among lots of pleasant things, such as the smorgasbord of university courses, books in a bookstore, etc. A traditional Swedish smörgåsbord consists of both cold dishes. Bread and cheese are always part of the smörgåsbord, it is customary to begin with the cold fish dishes which are various forms of herring and eel.
After eating the first portion, people continue with the second course, round off with hot dishes. Dessert may not be included in a smörgåsbord. A special Swedish type of smörgåsbord is the julbord; the classic Swedish julbord is central to traditional Swedish cuisine including bread dipped in ham broth and continuing with a variety of fish, baked ham, pork ribs, head cheese, potato, Janssons frestelse, boiled potatoes, beetroot salad, various forms of boiled cabbage and rice pudding. It is customary to eat particular foods together. Other traditional foods are smoked eel, herring salad, baked herring and smoked salmon. Other dishes are pork sausages, smoked pork and potato sausages, cabbage rolls, baked beans, omelette with shrimps or mushrooms covered with béchamel sauce. Side dishes include beetroot salad in warm stewed red, green or brown cabbage. Lutfisk, lyed fish made of stockfish and green peas that can be served with the warm dishes or as a separate fourth course. Lutfisk is served as dinner the second day after the traditional Christmas Yule-table dinner.
Julbord desserts include rice pudding, sprinkled with cinnamon powder.photo Traditionally, an almond is hidden in the bowl of rice porridge, whoever finds it receives a small prize or is recognized for having good luck. Julbord is served from early December until just before Christmas at restaurants and until Epiphany in some homes, it is tradition for most Swedish and Norwegian workplaces to hold an annual Julbord between November and January. In Denmark a typical tradition resembling the Swedish julbord is Julefrokost, which involves a wellstocked Danish smörgåsbord with cold as well as hot dishes, plenty of beer and snaps, it is distinct from the Danish Christmas dinner, served on December 24, is served as a lunchtime meal for family and friends on December 25 or 26. It is a tradition for most Danish workplaces to hold an annual Julefrokost some time during the months of November to January; the members of the Swedish merchant and upper class in sixteenth-century Sweden and Finland served schnapps table, a small buffet presented on a side table offering a variety of hors d'oeuvres served prior to a meal before sitting at the dinner table.
The most simple brännvinsbord was bread, cheese and several types of liqueurs. The brännvinsbord was served as an appetizer for a gathering of people and eaten while standing before a dinner or supper two to five hours before dinner, sometimes with the men and women in separate rooms
Midsummer is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, more the northern European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice or take place on a day between June 19 and June 25 and the preceding evening. The exact dates vary between different cultures; the undivided Christian Church designated June 24 as the feast day of the early Christian martyr St John the Baptist, the observance of St John's Day begins the evening before, known as St John's Eve. These are commemorated by many Christian denominations, such as the Roman Catholic Church, Lutheran Churches, Anglican Communion. In Sweden the Midsummer is such an important festivity that there have been serious discussions to make the Midsummer's Eve into the National Day of Sweden, instead of June 6, it may be referred to as St. Hans Day. Saint John's Day, the feast day of Saint John the Baptist, was established by the undivided Christian Church in the 4th century AD, in honour of the birth of the Saint John the Baptist, which the Gospel of Luke records as being sixth months before Jesus.
As the Western Christian Churches mark the birth of Jesus on December 25, the Feast of Saint John was established at midsummer sixth months before the former feast. By the sixth century, this solar cycle was completed by balancing Christ's conception and birth against the conception and birth of his count, John the Baptist; such a relationship between Christ and his cousin was amply justified by the imagery of scripture. The Baptist was conceived six months before Christ, thus John's conception was celebrated on the eighth kalends of October and his birth on the eighth kalends of July. If Christ's conception and birth took place on the'growing days', it was fitting that John the Baptist's should take place on the'lessening days', for the Baptist himself had proclaimed that'he must increase. By the late sixth century, the Nativity of John the Baptist had become an important feast, counterbalancing at midsummer the midwinter feast of Christmas. —Professor Éamonn Ó Carragáin, University College Cork Within Christian theology, this carries significance as John the Baptist "was understood to be preparing the way for Jesus", with John 3:30 stating "He must increase, but I must decrease".
By the 6th century AD, several churches were dedicated in the honour of Saint John the Baptist and a vigil, Saint John's Eve, was added to the feast day of Saint John the Baptist and Christian priests held three Masses in churches for the celebration. In Florence, medieval midsummer celebrations were "an occasion for dramatic representations of the Baptist's life and death" and "the feast day was marked by processions and plays, culminating in a fireworks show that the entire city attended." The historian Ronald Hutton states that the "lighting of festive fires upon St. John's Eve is first recorded as a popular custom by Jean Belethus, a theologian at the University of Paris, in the early twelfth century". In England, the earliest reference to this custom occurs on in the 13th century AD, in the Liber Memorandum of the parish church at Barnwell in the Nene Valley, which stated that parish youth would gather on the day to sing songs and play games. A Christian monk of Lilleshall Abbey, in the same century, wrote: In the worship of St John, men waken at and maken three manner of fires: one is clean bones and no wood, is called a bonfire.
The 13th-century monk of Winchcomb, who compiled a book of sermons for Christian feast days, recorded how St. John's Eve was celebrated in his time: Let us speak of the revels which are accustomed to be made on St. John's Eve, of which there are three kinds. On St. John's Eve in certain regions the boys collect bones and certain other rubbish, burn them, therefrom a smoke is produced on the air, they make brands and go about the fields with the brands. Thirdly, the wheel which they roll. Saint John's Fires, explained the monk of Winchcombe, were to drive away dragons, which were abroad on St. John's Eve, poisoning springs and wells; the wheel, rolled downhill he gave its explanation: "The wheel is rolled to signify that the sun rises to the highest point of its circle and at once turns back. 15th-century diarist Goro Dati, described the celebration of Saint John's Day at Midsummer in Italy as being one in which guilds prepared their workshops with fine displays, one in which solemn church processions took place, with men dressed in the costumes of Christian saints and angels.
In the 16th century AD, the historian John Stow, described the celebration of Midsummer: the wealthier sort before their doors near to the said bonfires would set out tables on the vigils furnished with sweet bread and good drink, on the festival days with meats and drinks plentifully, whereunto they would invite their neighbours and passengers to sit, to be merry with them in great familiarity, praising God for his benefits bestowed on them. These were called bonfires as well of good amity amongst neighbours that, being befor
Throggs Neck is a neighborhood and peninsula in the southeastern portion of the borough of the Bronx in New York City. It is bounded by the East River and Long Island Sound to the south and east, Westchester Creek on the west, Baisley Avenue and the Bruckner Expressway on the north; the neighborhood is part of Bronx Community District 10, its ZIP Code is 10465. Throggs Neck is patrolled by the 45th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Throggs Neck is a narrow spit of land in the southeastern portion of the borough of the Bronx in New York City, it demarcates the passage between the East Long Island Sound. "Throggs Neck" is the name of the neighborhood of the peninsula, bounded on the north by Baisley Avenue and the Bruckner Expressway, on the west by Westchester Creek, on the other sides by the River and the Sound. Throggs Neck is at the northern approach to the Throgs Neck Bridge, which connects the Bronx with the neighborhood of Bay Terrace in the borough of Queens on Long Island.
The Throgs Neck Lighthouse stood at its southern tip. The spelling of the area has been disputed; the traditionally correct spelling is with two Gs, while NYC Parks Commissioner and Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority Chairman Robert Moses shortened it to one G after deciding that two would not fit on many of the street signs, long-time residents continue to recognize the traditional spelling. The peninsula was called "Land of Peace", by the New Netherlanders; the current name comes from John Throckmorton, English immigrant and associate of Roger Williams in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. The Dutch allowed Throckmorton to settle in this peripheral area of New Amsterdam in 1642, with thirty-five others. At this time, the peninsula was known as Maxson's point as the Maxson family lived there. Many of the settlers, including Anne Hutchinson and her family, were murdered in a 1643 uprising of Native Americans. Throckmorton returned to Rhode Island. In 1668, the peninsula appeared on maps as "Frockes Neck".
The peninsula was an island at high tide. In 1776, George Washington's headquarters wrote of a potential British landing at "Frogs Neck". At the bridge over Westchester Creek, now represented by an unobtrusive steel and concrete span at East Tremont Avenue near Westchester Avenue, General Howe did make an unsuccessful effort to cut off Washington's troops in October 1776. A farm in the area owned by the Stephenson family was sold in 1795 to Abijah Hammond, who built a large mansion. In the 19th century, the area remained the site of large farms, converted into estates. About 1848 members of the Morris family purchased a large parcel of land and built two mansions and many cottages and service buildings, reached by a private dock in Morris Cove at the end of what is now Emerson Avenue, where they had nearly a mile of shoreline. After the Civil War, Collis P. Huntington, the railroad builder, owned an extensive parcel, which his heirs held until they were the last estate on Throggs Neck. Huntington's property was owned by Frederick C.
Havemeyer Jr. the sugar magnate, the Havemeyer-Huntington mansion is now home to Preston High School, New York. Throgs Neck Park, a 0.44-acre public park that faces Throggs Neck from the opposite shore at the end of Myers Street, was acquired as a public place in 1836. From 1833 to 1856, the construction of Fort Schuyler brought in laborers and craftsmen, many of whom were immigrants from Ireland, to settle in the area with their families. By the late 19th century, the area had developed into a fashionable but more public summer resort, which contained large German beer gardens, to which the residents of Yorkville arrived by steamboat service up the East River; the 19th-century steamboat landing at Ferris Dock on Westchester Creek stood at present-day Brush Avenue north of Wenner Place. The Ferris family were 18th-century residents, whose Ferris Point at the southeast corner of the Throggs Neck neighborhood now supports the Hutchinson River Parkway overhead ramp to the Bronx-Whitestone Bridge and Ferry Point Park.
In the decades after the incorporation of the Bronx into the City of Greater New York in 1898, transit lines were extended to the neighborhood, bringing in many Italian farmers and tradesmen. In the 1920s the large estates became converted into smaller row homes and densely built bungalow lots; the Peters and Sorgenfrel families formed Silver Beach Garden, a summer colony of bungalows that were adapted for year-round use. Residents rented the land when they joined together to buy it. Nearby to the north, a campsite for church youth transformed into a bungalow colony named Edgewater Park. In 1932, Fort Schuyler closed as an active military installation and became the campus for cadets of the State University of New York Maritime College. A 1929–39 pair of plans to expand the subway system with a Second Avenue Subway branch to Throggs Neck did not come to pass. By 1961, with the construction of the Throggs Neck Bridge, as well as the adjacent parkways, the neighborhood lost its comparative isolation.
However, Throggs Neck was exempt from the severe urban decay that affected much of the Bronx in the 1970s. The la
Christianization is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once. Various strategies and techniques were employed in Christianization campaigns from Late Antiquity and throughout the Middle Ages; the conversion of the ruler was followed by the compulsory baptism of his subjects. Some were evangelization by monks or priests, organic growth within an partly Christianized society, or by campaigns against paganism such as the conversion of pagan temples into Christian churches or the condemnation of pagan gods and practices. A strategy for Christianization was Interpretatio Christiana – the practice of converting native pagan practices and culture, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar to Christian uses, due to the Christian efforts at proselytism based on the Great Commission. Reformatting native religious and cultural activities and beliefs into a Christianized form was sanctioned. In essence, it was intended that the traditions and practices still existed, but that the reasoning behind them was altered.
The existence of syncretism in Christian tradition has long been recognized by scholars. Since the 16th century and till modern days, significant scholarship was devoted to deconstruction of interpretatio christiana, i.e. tracing the roots of some Christian practices and traditions to paganism. Early works of this type have tended to be downplayed and dismissed as a form of Protestant apologetics aimed at "purification" of Christianity; the Council of Jerusalem, according to Acts 15, agreed that lack of circumcision could not be a basis for excluding Gentile believers from membership in the Jesus community. Rather, they instructed new believers to avoid "pollution of idols, things strangled, blood", expecting them to hear Moses read on the Sabbath days; these clarifications were put into writing, distributed by messengers present at the Council, were received as an encouragement to the growth of these gentiles' trust in the God of Israel as revealed in the Gospel. The Apostolic Decree thus helped to establish nascent Christianity as a unique alternative among the forms of Judaism for prospective Proselytes.
The Twelve Apostles and the Apostolic Fathers initiated the process of transforming the Jewish sect into a diaspora of communities composed of both Jews and gentiles, united by their trust in Jesus. The Armenian and Ethiopian churches are the only instances of imposition of Christianity by sovereign rulers predating the council of Nicaea; the initial conversion of the Roman Empire occurred in urban areas of Europe, where the first conversions were sometimes among members of the Jewish population. Conversions happened among the Grecian-Roman-Celtic populations over centuries initially among its urban population, with rural conversions taking place some time later; the term "pagan" is from Latin and means "villager, civilian." It is derived from this historical transition. The root of that word is present in today's word "paisan" or "paisano"; the Christianization of the Roman Empire is divided into two phases and after the year 312, which marked the momentous conversion of Constantine. By this date, Christianity had converted a significant but unknown proportion of at least the urban population of the empire including a small number of the elite classes.
Constantine ended the intermittent persecution of Christianity with the Edict of Milan, in fact a quote from a letter of the emperor Licinius by Eusebius, which granted tolerance to all religions, but mentions Christianity. Under Constantine's successors, Christianization of Roman society proceeded by fits and starts, as John Curran documented in detail. Constantine's sons did not close the temples. Although all state temples in all cities were ordered shut in 356, there is evidence that traditional sacrifices continued. Under Julian, the temples were state religious sacrifices performed once more; when Gratian, emperor 376-383, declined the office and title of Pontifex Maximus, his act brought an end to the state religion due to the position's authority and ties within the Imperial administration. Again, this process ended state official practices but not private religious devotion; as Christianity spread, many of the ancient pagan temples were defiled, destroyed, or converted into Christian sites by such figures as Martin of Tours, in the East by militant monks.
However, many temples remained open until Theodosius I's edict of Thessalonica in 381 banned haruspices and other pagan religious practices. From 389 to 393 he issued a series of decrees which led to the banning of pagan religious rites, the confiscation of their property and endowments; the Olympic Games were banned in 392 because of their association with the old religion. Further laws were passed against remaining pagan practices over the course of the following years; the effectiveness of these laws empire-wide is debatable. Christianization of the central Balkans is documented at the end of the 4th century, where Nicetas the Bishop of Remesiana brought the gospel to "those mountain wolves"
Battery Park City
Battery Park City is a residential 92-acre planned community on the west side of the southern tip of the island of Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by the Hudson River on the west, the Hudson River shoreline on the north and south, the West Side Highway on the east. More than one-third of the development is parkland; the land upon which it is built was created by land reclamation on the Hudson River using over 3 million cubic yards of soil and rock excavated during the construction of the World Trade Center, the New York City Water Tunnel, certain other construction projects, as well as from sand dredged from New York Harbor off Staten Island. The neighborhood, the site of Brookfield Place, along with numerous buildings designed for housing and retail, is named for adjacent Battery Park. Battery Park City is part of Manhattan Community District 1 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10280 and 10282, it is patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Battery Park City is bounded on the east by West Street, which separates the area from the Financial District of Lower Manhattan.
To the west and south, the area is surrounded by the Hudson River. The development consists of five major sections. Traveling north to south, the first neighborhood has high-rise residential buildings, the Stuyvesant High School, a Regal Entertainment Group movie theater, the Battery Park City branch of the New York Public Library, it is the site of the 463-suite Conrad New York luxury hotel, which contains restaurants and bars such as the Loopy Doopy Rooftop Bar, ATRIO Wine Bar Restaurant, Mexican-themed El Vez, three Danny Meyer-branded restaurants. Other restaurants located in that hotel, as well as a DSW store and a New York Sports Club branch, were closed in 2009 after the takeover of the property by Goldman Sachs. Former undeveloped lots in the area have been developed into high-rise buildings. Nearby is Brookfield Place, a complex of several commercial buildings known as the World Financial Center. Current residential neighborhoods of Battery Park City are divided into northern and southern sections, separated by Brookfield Place.
The northern section consists of large, 20–45-story buildings, all various shades of orange brick. The southern section, extending down from the Winter Garden, located in Brookfield Place, contains residential apartment buildings such as Gateway Plaza and the Rector Place apartment buildings. In this section lies the majority of Battery Park City's residential areas, in three sections: Gateway Plaza, a high-rise building complex; these subsections contain most of the area's residential buildings, along with park space, supermarkets and movie theaters. Construction of residential buildings began north of the World Financial Center in the late 1990s, completion of the final lots took place in early 2011. Additionally, a park restoration was completed in 2013. Throughout the 19th century and early 20th century, the area adjoining today's Battery Park City was known as Little Syria with Lebanese, Greeks and other ethnic groups. In 1929, the land was the proposed site of a $50,000,000 residential development that would have served workers in the Wall Street area.
The Battery Tower project was left unfinished after workers digging the foundation ran into forty feet of old bulkheads, sunken docks, ships. Construction was never restarted. By the late 1950s, the once-prosperous port area of downtown Manhattan was occupied by a number of dilapidated shipping piers, casualties of the rise of container shipping which drove sea traffic to Port Elizabeth, New Jersey; the initial proposal to reclaim this area through landfill was offered in the early 1960s by private firms and supported by the mayor. That plan became complicated when Governor Nelson Rockefeller announced his desire to redevelop a part of the area as a separate project; the various groups reached a compromise, in 1966 the governor unveiled the proposal for what would become Battery Park City. The creation of architect Wallace K. Harrison, the proposal called for a'comprehensive community' consisting of housing, social infrastructure and light industry; the landscaping of the park space and the Winter Garden was designed by M. Paul Friedberg.
In 1968, the New York State Legislature created the Battery Park City Authority to oversee development. Rockefeller named Charles J. Urstadt as the first chairman of the authority’s board that year, he served as the chief executive officer from 1973 to 1978. Urstadt served as the authority’s vice chair from 1996 to 2010; the New York State Urban Development Corporation and ten other public agencies were involved in the development project. For the next several years, the BPCA made slow progress. In April 1969, it unveiled a master plan for the area, approved in October. In early 1972, the BPCA issued $200 million in bonds to fund construction efforts, with Harry B. Helmsley designated as the developer; that same year, the city approved plans to alter the number of apartments designated for lower and upper income renters. Urstadt said. In addition to the change in the mix of units, the city approved adding nine acres, which extended the northern boundary from Reade Street to Duane Street. Landfill material from construction of the World Trade Center was used to add fill for the southern portion.
Herring are forage fish belonging to the family Clupeidae. Herring move in large schools around fishing banks and near the coast; the most abundant and commercially important species belong to the genus Clupea, found in shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, including the Baltic Sea, as well as off the west coast of South America. Three species of Clupea are recognised, provide about 90% of all herrings captured in fisheries. Most abundant of all is the Atlantic herring. Fishes called herring are found in the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal. Herring played a pivotal role in the history of marine fisheries in Europe, early in the 20th century, their study was fundamental to the evolution of fisheries science; these oily fish have a long history as an important food fish, are salted, smoked, or pickled. A number of different species, most belonging to the family Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings; the origins of the term "herring" is somewhat unclear, though it may derive from the Old High German heri meaning a "host, multitude", in reference to the large schools they form.
The type genus of the herring family Clupeidae is Clupea. Clupea contains three species: the Atlantic herring found in the north Atlantic, the Pacific herring found in the north Pacific, the Araucanian herring found off the coast of Chile. Subspecific divisions have been suggested for both the Atlantic and Pacific herrings, but their biological basis remains unclear. In addition, a number of related species, all in the Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings; the table below includes those members of the family Clupeidae referred to by FishBase as herrings which have been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. A number of other species are called herrings, which may be related to clupeids or just share some characteristics of herrings. Just which of these species are called herrings can vary with locality, so what might be called a herring in one locality might be called something else in another locality; some examples: The species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae, which comprises some 200 species that share similar features.
These silvery-coloured fish have a single dorsal fin, soft, without spines. They have a protruding lower jaw, their size varies between subspecies: the Baltic herring is small, 14 to 18 cm. At least one stock of Atlantic herring spawns in every month of the year; each spawns at place. Greenland populations spawn in 0–5 m of water, while North Sea herrings spawn at down to 200 m in autumn. Eggs are laid on the sea bed, on rock, gravel, sand or beds of algae. Females may deposit from 20,000 to 40,000 eggs, according to age and size, averaging about 30,000. In sexually mature herring, the genital organs grow before spawning, reaching about one-fifth of its total weight; the eggs sink to the bottom, where they stick in layers or clumps to gravel, seaweed, or stones, by means of their mucous coating, or to any other objects on which they chance to settle. If the egg layers are too thick they suffer from oxygen depletion and die, entangled in a maze of mucus, they need substantial water microturbulence provided by wave action or coastal currents.
Survival is highest in crevices and behind solid structures, because predators feast on exposed eggs. The individual eggs are 1 to 1.4 mm in diameter, depending on the size of the parent fish and on the local race. Incubation time is about 40 days at 3 °C, 15 days at 7 °C, or 11 days at 10 °C. Eggs die at temperatures above 19 °C; the larvae are 5 to 6 mm long at hatching, with a small yolk sac, absorbed by the time the larvae reach 10 mm. Only the eyes are well pigmented; the rest of the body is nearly transparent invisible under water and in natural lighting conditions. The dorsal fin forms at 15 to 17 mm, the anal fin at about 30 mm —the ventral fins are visible and the tail becomes well forked at 30 to 35 mm — at about 40 mm, the larva begins to look like a herring; the larvae are slender and can be distinguished from all other young fish of their range by the location of the vent, which lies close to the base of the tail, but distinguishing clupeoids one from another in their early stages requires critical examination telling herring from sprats.
At one year, they are about 10 cm long, they first spawn at three years. Herrings consume copepods, arrow worms, pelagic amphipods and krill in the pelagic zone. Conversely, they are a central prey forage fish for higher trophic levels; the reasons for this success is still enigmatic. Herring feed on phytoplankton, as they mature, they start to consume larger organisms, they feed on zooplankton, tiny animals found in oceanic surface waters, small fish and fish larvae. Copepods and other tiny crustaceans are the most common zooplankton eaten by herring. During daylight, herring stay in the safety of deep water, feeding at the surface only at night when the chance of being seen by predators is less, they swim along with their mouths open, fi