Government of Sacramento, California
The Government of Sacramento operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Sacramento. The elected government is composed of the Sacramento City Council with 8 city council districts and the Mayor of Sacramento, which operate under a manager-council government. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the City Manager, Sacramento Police Department, the Sacramento Fire Department, Community Development Department, City Clerk, City Attorney, City Treasurer; as of May 29, 2018, the current mayor was Darrell Steinberg and the current councilors were Angelique Ashby, Allen Warren, Steve Hansen, Jay Schenirer, Jeff Harris, Eric Guerra, Rick Jennings II, Larry Carr. The Mayor of Sacramento is the presiding officer of the city, is elected for a four-year term. Under the California Constitution, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan; the 42nd and current Mayor is Darrell Steinberg. The Sacramento City Council is the governing body of the City of Sacramento.
The council is composed of eight members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms. The council members as of September 8, 2015 were: Angelique Ashby, district 1, Vice Mayor Allen Warren, district 2 Jeff Harris, district 3 Steve Hansen, district 4 Jay Schenirer, district 5 Eric Guerra, district 6 Rick Jennings II, district 7 Larry Carr, district 8 The Sacramento Police Department polices the city of Sacramento; the Sacramento Fire Department provides fire protection and emergency medical services for Sacramento. The Community Development Department is responsible for property development application review, building permits and inspections, code compliance, long-range planning; the Charter of the City of Sacramento is the founding document of the Sacramento government. Pursuant to the charter, all legislative power is vested in the Council and is exercised by ordinance. Pursuant to this power, the Council has caused to be promulgated the Sacramento City Code, consisting of codified regulatory and penal ordinances.
Every act prohibited or declared unlawful, every failure to perform an act required, by the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes, unless otherwise specified as infractions. The Sacramento County Superior Court, which covers the entire county, is not a County department but a division of the State's trial court system; the courthouses were county-owned buildings that were maintained at county expense, which created significant friction since the trial court judges, as officials of the state government, had to lobby the county Board of Supervisors for facility renovations and upgrades. In turn, the state judiciary persuaded the state Legislature to authorize the transfer of all courthouses to the state government in 2008 and 2009. Courthouse security is still provided by the county government under a contract with the state. Sacramento is part of Sacramento County, for which the Government of Sacramento County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, the Charter of the County of Sacramento.
Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments such as the Government of Sacramento County. The County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, social services; the County government is composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, several other elected offices including the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor, numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the County Executive Officer. Government of Sacramento County, California Government of California Government of the United States communism Official website
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement. Evangelicals believe in the centrality of the conversion or "born again" experience in receiving salvation, in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity, in spreading the Christian message; the movement has had a long presence in the Anglosphere before spreading further afield in the 19th, 20th and early 21st centuries. Its origins are traced to 1738, with various theological streams contributing to its foundation, including English Methodism, the Moravian Church, German Lutheran Pietism. Preeminently, John Wesley and other early Methodists were at the root of sparking this new movement during the First Great Awakening. Today, evangelicals are found across many Protestant branches, as well as in various denominations not subsumed to a specific branch.
Among leaders and major figures of the evangelical Protestant movement were John Wesley, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Billy Graham, Bill Bright, Harold John Ockenga, John Stott and Martyn Lloyd-Jones. The movement gained great momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries with the Great Awakenings in Great Britain and the United States. In 2016, there were an estimated 619 million evangelicals in the world, meaning that one in four Christians would be classified as evangelical; the United States has the largest concentration of evangelicals in the world. American evangelicals are a quarter of the nation's population and its single largest religious group. In Great Britain, evangelicals are represented in the Methodist Church, Baptist communities, among evangelical Anglicans; some evangelical Christian denominations are grouped together in the World Evangelical Alliance. The word evangelical has its etymological roots in the Greek word for "gospel" or "good news": εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, from eu "good", angel- the stem of, among other words, angelos "messenger, angel", the neuter suffix -ion.
By the English Middle Ages, the term had expanded semantically to include not only the message, but the New Testament which contained the message, as well as more the Gospels, which portray the life and resurrection of Jesus. The first published use of evangelical in English was in 1531, when William Tyndale wrote "He exhorteth them to proceed in the evangelical truth." One year Sir Thomas More wrote the earliest recorded use in reference to a theological distinction when he spoke of "Tyndale his evangelical brother Barns". During the Reformation, Protestant theologians embraced the term as referring to "gospel truth". Martin Luther referred to the evangelische Kirche to distinguish Protestants from Catholics in the Roman Catholic Church. Into the 21st century, evangelical has continued in use as a synonym for Protestant in continental Europe, elsewhere; this usage is reflected in the names of Protestant denominations, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
In the English-speaking world, evangelical was applied to describe the series of revival movements that occurred in Britain and North America during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Christian historian David Bebbington writes that, "Although'evangelical', with a lower-case initial, is used to mean'of the gospel', the term'Evangelical', with a capital letter, is applied to any aspect of the movement beginning in the 1730s." According to the Oxford English Dictionary, evangelicalism was first used in 1831. The term may be used outside any religious context to characterize a generic missionary, reforming, or redeeming impulse or purpose. For example, the Times Literary Supplement refers to "the rise and fall of evangelical fervor within the Socialist movement". One influential definition of evangelicalism has been proposed by historian David Bebbington. Bebbington notes four distinctive aspects of evangelical faith: conversionism, biblicism and activism, noting, "Together they form a quadrilateral of priorities, the basis of Evangelicalism."Conversionism, or belief in the necessity of being "born again", has been a constant theme of evangelicalism since its beginnings.
To evangelicals, the central message of the gospel is justification by faith in Christ and repentance, or turning away, from sin. Conversion differentiates the Christian from the non-Christian, the change in life it leads to is marked by both a rejection of sin and a corresponding personal holiness of life. A conversion experience can be emotional, including grief and sorrow for sin followed by great relief at receiving forgiveness; the stress on conversion differentiates evangelicalism from other forms of Protestantism by the associated belief that an assurance of salvation will accompany conversion. Among evangelicals, individuals have testified to both gradual conversions. Biblicism is a high regard for biblical authority. All evangelicals believe in biblical inspiration, though they disagree over how this inspiration should be defined. Many evangelicals believe in biblical inerrancy, while other evangelicals believe in biblical infallibility. Crucicentrism is the centrality that evangelicals give to the Atonement, the saving death and resurrection of Jesus, that offers forgiveness of sins and new life.
This is understood most in terms of a substitutionary atonement, in which Christ died as a substitute for sinful humanity by takin
Sacramento City Unified School District
Sacramento City Unified School District is a public school system in Sacramento, California. With 47,900 students in 81 schools, it is the eleventh largest school district in California. In 1854, city commissioners opened Sacramento's first public school, consisting of two grammar schools and a co-ed primary school. In 1856, Sacramento High School, the city's first high school, opened, it was the second oldest American high school west of the Mississippi River until closing in 2003. In 1894, the board of education abolished segregated education. In 2012, voters approved two general obligation bonds, Measure Q for $346,000,000 and Measure R for $68,000,000, to improve district facilities; the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for TIME magazine named Sacramento “America’s Most Diverse City.” Accordingly, SCUSD's student population is reflected as Latino, 18.3 % Asian. About 7% of students are of two or more races. Residents within SCUSD speak more than 40 languages; the following is a list of SCUSD elementary schools: The following is a list of SCUSD middle schools: The following is a list of SCUSD high schools: The following is a list of SCUSD charter schools: The Sacramento Coalition to Save Public Education was formed by disgruntled parents and community members to counteract what was perceived as an attack on unionized public schools and the abrogation of the responsibility of the district to fund education for every child.
The Sacramento City Unified School District Board of Education, led by Superintendent Jim Sweeney, created several charter schools in the district, the most controversial of, located on the campus of Sacramento High School. To create a charter school at Sacramento High School, the SCUSD Board made the controversial decision to close Sacramento High School, they issued a charter to St. Hope, a not-for-profit community development corporation founded by former NBA player Kevin Johnson. St. Hope opened its charter school on September 2, 2003; some parents, along with the teachers' union, sued the district because it felt the creation of the charter school was not in compliance with California state law. The court found. A consent decree was entered into by the plaintiffs, St. Hope, SCUSD. and the settlement required that SCUSD create a public high school for the attendance area served by Sacramento High School. To date several unsuccessful attempts have been made to establish a replacement program for Sacramento High school.
Sacramento City Unified School District - Facebook group for the Sacramento Coalition to Save Public Education - Website for St. Hope - Sacramento City Unified School District
Sports in Sacramento, California
The City of Sacramento and the Sacramento metropolitan area is home to one major league professional team — the Sacramento Kings of the NBA — and numerous minor league and amateur sports teams. Sacramento has recreational facilities. Sacramento is home to the Sacramento Kings of the National Basketball Association; the Kings came to Sacramento from Kansas City in 1985. On January 21, 2013, a 65% controlling interest of the Sacramento Kings was sold to Seattle-based investor, Chris Hansen. Hansen intended to move the franchise to Seattle for the 2013–2014 NBA season. On February 6, 2013, NBA Commissioner David Stern stated the Seattle ownership group had filed with the NBA for franchise relocation. Sacramento Mayor Kevin Johnson fought the move, forming an ownership group led by Vivek Ranadive which wanted to keep the Kings in Sacramento. On May 16, 2013, the NBA Board of Governors met to vote on the move; the final vote was 22-8 in favor of the Kings staying in Sacramento. In 2000, AAA minor league baseball returned to Sacramento with the Sacramento River Cats, an affiliate of the San Francisco Giants.
The River Cats play in the constructed Raley Field, located in West Sacramento. The now defunct Sacramento Monarchs of the Women's National Basketball Association were one of the eight founding members of the WNBA, which started in 1997; the Monarchs won the WNBA Championship in 2005 to become the first major, professional sports team in Sacramento to do so. However, the Monarchs team folded in November 2009; the Sacramento Solons, a minor league baseball team of the Pacific Coast League, played in Sacramento during several periods at Edmonds Field. The Sacramento Express played at Bonney Field and began play in the only PRO Rugby season before the league folded. Teams in several smaller leagues continue to be in Sacramento; the Sacramento Heatwave of the American Basketball Association plays at Folsom High School. In the past, the city hosted three professional football teams, the Sacramento Surge of the World League of American Football, the Sacramento Gold Miners of the Canadian Football League, the Sacramento Attack of the Arena Football League.
Sacramento was home to an indoor soccer team, the Sacramento Knights of the Continental Indoor Soccer League. The Sacramento XSV of the National Professional Paintball League represents the City but is based in Modesto, California; the newest sports team to come to Sacramento is the Sacramento Mountain Lions, part of the United Football League. They play at Raley Field, where the Sacramento River Cats play. Sacramento hosted 2004 USA Olympic Track & Field Trials; the California International Marathon finishes in front of the Capitol, attracts a field of international elite runners who vie for a share of the $50,000 prize purse. The fast point-to-point course begins in Folsom and is popular for runners seeking to achieve a Boston Marathon qualifying time and fitness runners; the Sacramento Mile is a national flat-track motorcycle racing event. From 1961 to 1980, Sacramento hosted the Camellia Bowl, which selected or helped select ten national champions in college football's lower divisions; the Sacramento area is home to two NCAA Division 1 sports programs — Sacramento State, which fields 21 varsity sports, most in the Big Sky Conference.
Sacramento has hosted the NCAA Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championship as well as the 1st and 2nd rounds of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship. Sacramento is a hotbed for high school rugby. Jesuit High has won national championships, their arch-rival school Christian Brothers has come in second nationwide. Granite Bay, Del Campo, Sierra Foothills, Vacaville have placed well in the national competition over the years; the Sacramento Valley High School Rugby Conference hosts the largest and arguably deepest preseason youth and high school rugby tournament in America. Sacramento hosts some recreational events; the Jedediah Smith Memorial Trail that runs between Old Sacramento and Folsom Lake grants access to the American River Parkway, a natural area that includes more than 5,000 acres of undeveloped land. It attracts equestrians from across the state; the California State Fair is held in Sacramento each year at the end of the summer, ending on Labor Day. In 2010, the State Fair moved to July.
More than one million people attended this fair in 2001. Among other recreational options in Sacramento is Discovery Park, a 275-acre park studded with stands of mature trees and grasslands; this park is situated. In amateur sports, Sacramento claims many prominent Olympians such as Mark Spitz, Debbie Meyer, Mike Burton, Summer Sanders, Jeff Float, Billy Mills. Coach Sherm Chavoor founded his world famous Arden Hills Swim Club just east of the city and trained Burton, Myer and others