Tack refers to equipment or accessories equipped on horses and other equines in the course of their use as domesticated animals. Saddles, bridles, reins, harnesses and breastplates are all forms of horse tack. Equipping a horse is referred to as tacking up. A room to store such equipment near or in a stable, is a tack room. Saddles are seats for the rider, fastened to the horse's back by means of a girth, known as a cinch in the Western US, a wide strap that goes around the horse at a point about four inches behind the forelegs; some western saddles will have a second strap known as a flank or back cinch that fastens at the rear of the saddle and goes around the widest part of the horse's belly. It is important that the saddle be comfortable for both the rider and the horse as an improperly fitting saddle may create pressure points on the horse's back muscle and cause the horse pain and can lead to the horse, rider, or both getting injured. There are many types of saddle, each specially designed for its given task.
Saddles are divided into two major categories: "English saddles" and "Western saddles" according to the riding discipline they are used in. Other types of saddles, such as racing saddles, Australian saddles and endurance saddles do not fit neatly in either category. Breastplate or breastcollar: Prevents saddles of all styles from sliding sideways or backward on a horse's back Surcingle Crupper Breeching called "britching" Saddle blanket or numnah Stirrups are supports for the rider's feet that hang down on either side of the saddle, they provide greater stability for the rider but can have safety concerns due to the potential for a rider's feet to get stuck in them. If a rider is thrown from a horse but has a foot caught in the stirrup, they could be dragged if the horse runs away. To minimize this risk, a number of safety precautions are taken. First, most riders wear riding boots with a smooth sole. Next, some saddles English saddles, have safety bars that allow a stirrup leather to fall off the saddle if pulled backwards by a falling rider.
Other precautions are done with stirrup design itself. Western saddles have wide stirrup treads. A number of saddle styles incorporate a tapedero, covering over the front of the stirrup that keeps the foot from sliding all the way through the stirrup; the English stirrup has several design variations which are either shaped to allow the rider's foot to slip out or are closed with a heavy rubber band. The invention of stirrups was of great historic significance in mounted combat, giving the rider secure foot support while on horseback. Bridles, halters or headcollars, similar equipment consist of various arrangements of straps around the horse's head, are used for control and communication with the animal. A halter or headcollar consists of a noseband and headstall that buckles around the horse's head and allows the horse to be led or tied; the lead rope is separate, it may be short for everyday leading and tying, or much longer for tasks such as for leading packhorses or for picketing a horse out to graze.
Some horses stallions, may have a chain attached to the lead rope and placed over the nose or under the jaw to increase the control provided by a halter while being led. Most of the time, horses are not ridden with a halter, as it offers insufficient precision and control. Halters have no bit. In Australian and British English, a halter is a rope with a spliced running loop around the nose and another over the poll, used for unbroken horses or for cattle; the lead rope cannot be removed from the halter. A show halter is made from rolled leather and the lead attaches to form the chinpiece of the noseband; these halters are not suitable in loose stalls. An underhalter is a lightweight halter or headcollar, made with only one small buckle, can be worn under a bridle for tethering a horse without untacking. Bridles have a bit attached to reins and are used for riding and driving horses. English Bridles are seen in English riding, their reins are buckled to one another, they have little adornment or flashy hardware.
Western Bridles used in Western riding have no noseband, are made of thin bridle leather. They may have long, separated "Split" reins or shorter closed reins, which sometimes include an attached Romal. Western bridles are adorned with silver or other decorative features. Double bridles are a type of English bridle that use two bits in the mouth at once, a snaffle and a curb; the two bits allow the rider to have precise control of the horse. As a rule, only advanced horses and riders use double bridles. Double bridles are seen in the top levels of dressage, but are seen in certain types of show hack and Saddle seat competition. A hackamore is a headgear that utilizes a heavy noseband of some sort, rather than a bit, most used to train young horses or to go easy on an older horse's mouth. Hackamores are more seen in western riding; some related styles of headgear that control a horse with a noseband rather than a bit are known as bitless bridles. The word "hackamore" is derived from the Spanish word jáquima.
Hackamores are seen in western riding disciplines, as well as in endurance riding and English riding disciplines such as show jumping and the stadium phase of eventing. While the classic bosal-style hackamore is used to start young horses, other designs, such a
Hiram College is a private liberal arts college in Hiram, United States. It was founded in 1850 as the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute by Amos Sutton Hayden and other members of the Disciples of Christ Church; the college is coeducational. It is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Hiram's most famous alumnus is James A. Garfield, who served as a college instructor and principal before he was elected the 20th President of the United States. On June 12, 1849, representatives of the Disciples of Christ voted to establish an academic institution, which would become Hiram College. On November 7 that year, they chose the village of Hiram as the site for the school because the founders considered this area of the Western Reserve to be "healthful and free of distractions"; the following month, on December 20, the founders accepted the suggestion of Isaac Errett and named the school the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute. The Institute's original charter was authorized by the state legislature on March 1, 1850, the school opened several months on November 27.
Many of the students came from the surrounding farms and villages of the Western Reserve, but Hiram soon gained a national reputation and students began arriving from other states. On February 20, 1867, the Institute changed its name to Hiram College. During the years before it was renamed Hiram College, 1850–1867, the school had seven principals, the equivalent of today's college presidents; the two that did the most in establishing and defining the nature of the institution were Disciple minister Amos Sutton Hayden, who led the school through its first six years, James A. Garfield, a student at the Institute from 1851–1853 and returned in 1856 as a teacher; as principal, Garfield expanded the Institute's curriculum. He left the Institute in 1880 was elected the 20th President of the United States. In 1870, one of Garfield's best friends and former students, Burke A. Hinsdale, was appointed Hiram's president. Although there were two before him, Hinsdale is considered the college's first permanent president because the others served only briefly.
The next president to have a major impact on the college was Ely V. Zollars, who increased enrollment established a substantial endowment and created a program for the construction of campus buildings. Presidents who served for at least 10 years were Miner Lee Bates, Kenneth I. Brown, Paul H. Fall, Elmer Jagow, G. Benjamin Oliver. In 1931, shortly before Hiram celebrated the 100th anniversary of Garfield's birth, there was a debate in the community about changing the name of the school to Garfield College. There were strong advocates on both sides of the issue. Among the 2,000 guests at the centennial celebration were three generations of Garfield's family, including two of his sons; the idea of changing the college's name was not mentioned at the event and the idea was abandoned. The following is a list of the school's leaders since its founding in 1850. 1850-1856 - Amos Sutton Hayden 1857-1861 - James A. Garfield 1861-1864 - Harvey W. Everest 1864-1865 - C. W. Heywood 1865-1866 - Adoniram J. Thomson 1866-1867 - John M. Atwater 1867-1868 - Silas E. Shepard 1868-1870 - John M. Atwater 1870-1882 - Burke A. Hinsdale 1883-1887 - George M. Laughlin 1887-1888 - Colman Bancroft 1888-1902 - Ely V. Zollars 1902-1903 - James A. Beattie 1903-1905 - Edmund B.
Wakefield 1905-1907 - Carlos C. Rowlison 1907-1930 - Miner Lee Bates 1930-1940 - Kenneth I. Brown 1940-1957 - Paul H. Fall 1957-1965 - Paul F. Sharp 1965-1965 - James N. Primm 1966-1966 - Wendell G. Johnson 1966-1985 - Elmer Jagow 1986-1989 - Russell Aiuto 1989-1989 - James Norton 1990-2000 - G. Benjamin Oliver 2000-2002 - Richard J. Scaldini 2003–2014 - Thomas V. Chema 2014–present - Lori E. Varlotta As of the 2016-17 academic year, Hiram's student body consists of 875 undergraduates from 31 states and 14 foreign countries. Of the 81 full-time faculty, 95-percent hold a Ph. D. or other terminal degree in their field. Hiram was ranked #167 among National Liberal Arts Colleges by U. S. News & World Report in 2012. At the same time, Hiram is ranked #67 among Liberal Arts Colleges by Washington Monthly. In 2018, Forbes ranked Hiram at #644 among all colleges and universities in the U. S, #29 in Ohio. Hiram has been included in The Princeton Review Best Colleges guide, is one of only 40 schools included in Loren Pope's book Colleges That Change Lives.
Hiram is a member of the Annapolis Group, critical of the college rankings process. Hiram is among the signatories of the Presidents Letter. Hiram specializes in the education of undergraduate students, though the college does have a small graduate program. Hiram confers the BA, BSN, MA degrees; the college offers 33 majors and 40 minors for traditional undergraduates, in addition to pre-professional programs for specific fields. Interdisciplinary studies have been a part of Hiram's curriculum for decades. Hiram's curriculum requires all students to complete one course in each of nine academic areas: creative methods, interpretive methods, modeling methods, experimental scientific methods and cultural analysis, experiencing the world, understanding diversity at home, interdisciplinary, ethics and social responsibility, its education plan includes international study and independent study opportunities, faculty-guided research projects. All majors require some form of extensive independent project or apprenticeship experience.
The college's curriculum is marketed under the name Hiram Connect, which involves four steps: First-Year Colloquium/Foundations of the Liberal Arts, Declaratio
Midway is a home rule-class city in Woodford County, Kentucky, in the United States. Its population was 1,620 at the time of the year 2000 U. S. census. It is part of the Lexington-Fayette Metropolitan Statistical Area; the town sits just off Interstate 64 and among several major thoroughbred breeding operations, such as Three Chimneys Farm and former Gov. Brereton Jones’ Airdrie Stud. In 2003, faced with a declining downtown, the city began major streetscape renovation project as part of Main Street Kentucky. New period structures and lighting brought new life to the town, it is known for its distinctive shops and restaurants, including Holly Hill Inn and Heirloom, rated for several years on Open Table as the top restaurant in Lexington, though that city is 14 miles away. An active business association holds events every month of the year, the city is a starting point or waypoint for several road races that wind through the surrounding countryside. Before its European exploration, the area around Midway was inhabited by the Mound Builders.
Two large and several smaller American Indian mounds have been identified on nearby farms. The present city began as a small settlement known as Stevenson's at the time of its first post office in 1832. On January 31, 1835, the local farmer John Francisco sold his 216.375-acre farm to the Lexington and Ohio Railroad for $6,491.25. The railroad used the land to establish Kentucky's first railroad town, naming it Middleway for its location relative to Lexington and Frankfort, Kentucky; the major streets of Midway were named in honor of the railroad's original officials. It was renamed Midway in 1837; the town was home to the Midway Distilling Company, which continued legal operation during the Prohibition era. In 1920, during a robbery of the distillery, Benjamin Rodgers and Homer Nave were killed. A black man, Richard W. James, was arrested for the killings, he admitted to the robbery but denied shooting the men, claimed that the facility's superintendent of bottling, Samuel Seay, had a deal with James and others to share the proceeds of the stolen liquor.
James was convicted of murder, but one member of the jury refused to vote for his execution on religious grounds. On March 13, 1921, a mob took James from the county jail in Versailles and lynched him from a tree near Margaret College, about a half-mile from Versailles. No one from the mob was indicted and, when Gov. Edwin P. Morrow removed the sheriff from his post, local voters elected his wife to replace him. Midway is located in the northern section of Woodford County in the Bluegrass region of Kentucky, an area with farms that produce tobacco, soybeans and horses. Midway is located at 38°9′2″N 84°40′59″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.1 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,620 people, 623 households, 409 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,484.3 per square mile. There were 672 housing units at an average density of 615.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.81% White, 7.72% African American, 0.31% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.17% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.42% of the population. There were 623 households out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96. 21.0% of the population was under the age of 18, 14.1% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 75.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $50,909, the median income for a family was $60,326. Males had a median income of $35,795 versus $32,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,528. About 2.0% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.6% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over.
Francisco's Farm Arts Festival The focus of the mid-May event is the outdoor exhibition of juried fine art and fine craft, giving the opportunity to meet and purchase art from the creators themselves. It is located at the campus of 512 E. Stephens St. Midway. Midway Fall Festival has been named one of Kentucky's top 20 festivals; the festival features crafts and other items from more than 200 vendors. Midway Independence Day Celebration is called "Sparks in the Park," at Walter Bradley Park, the city park on Dudley Street. Current schools Northside Elementary serves Kindergarten-5th Grade Midway University is a private institution that went coed in 2016 Defunct schools Midway Elementary Midway High School Margaret College, a Catholic junior college for women. Many homes and businesses in Midway are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Zeralda James, mother of Frank and Jesse James, was born in the Black Horse Inn at Nugents Crossroads, the intersection of U. S. Route 62 and Old Frankfort Pike, two miles south-southwest of town.
Her father ran the tavern. Brereton Jones, Governor of Kentucky in 1991-95, operates Airdrie S
Eureka College is a private, non-profit Christian college in Eureka, related by covenant to the Christian Church. Popular majors include education, history, political science and the fine and performing arts. Enrollment in 2010–11 was 785 students. Eureka College was the third college in the United States to admit women on an equal basis. Abraham Lincoln spoke on campus in 1856; the college's most famous alumnus, Ronald Reagan, graduated in 1932 with a degree in economics and sociology, it has continued to be associated with his legacy. In 2010, Eureka College was designated as a national historic district by the National Park Service; the college was founded in 1848 by a group of abolitionists who had left Kentucky because of their opposition to slavery and was named the Walnut Grove Academy. It was chartered in 1855; when the school was founded, it was the first school in Illinois to educate women on an equal basis with men. Abingdon College merged with Eureka in 1885. Eureka College athletic teams, known as the Red Devils, participate at the NCAA Division III level.
There are teams for men's and women's soccer, basketball and track, as well as football, volleyball and softball. Eureka has competed as a member of the St. Louis Intercollegiate Athletic Conference since 2006. Eureka was a member of the Northern Illinois-Iowa Conference until the spring of 2006. Eureka College was a member of the Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference from 1910 to 1942. On September 1, 2012 Eureka College quarterback Sam Durley set an NCAA record with 736 passing yards in Eureka's 62–55 victory over Knox College; that beat the old record of 731 yards set by a Menlo College quarterback in 2000. The Eureka College campus is 112 acres. Burrus Dickinson Hall, Administration building, on the National Register of Historic Places; the Chapel is the building. It is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Melick Library houses the Eureka College Archives. President Reagan gave a speech at its opening; the Reagan Athletic Complex was dedicated in 1970 by brothers Neil Reagan'33 and Ronald Reagan'32 and named in their honor.
The center houses the basketball court, a swimming pool, weight rooms, a state-of-the-art exercise center. In 1982, President Reagan announced the START treaty proposal in the Reagan Gym during the commencement address to the class of 1982. In 2015, The Bonati Fitness Center and Reagan Center Pool underwent renovation; these renovations included the rebuilding of the aged gym. Eureka College is the smallest college or university in American history to graduate a future U. S. President with a bachelor's degree. Among its alumni throughout history are forty-two college and university presidents, seven Governors and members of U. S. Congress, the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Wilson Reagan, class of 1932. Among more than 4,900 American institutions of higher learning today, only 23 have given a future U. S. President an undergraduate diploma; the college's "Reagan Forward" initiative was launched by Eureka College President J. David Arnold in 2008. Ronald Reagan is the only president born and educated in the state of Illinois.
Reagan's relationship with his alma mater began in 1928 when he entered as a freshman from Dixon, Illinois, at age 17. Following his graduation on June 10, 1932, with a joint major in economics and sociology, Ronald Reagan returned for visits on twelve recorded occasions, he served on the board of trustees for three terms, stayed connected to his fraternity Tau Kappa Epsilon, communicated with his football coach and mentor Ralph "Mac" McKinzie, helped support fund-raising drives including with his own financial commitments to the college. Reagan gave three commencement addresses at Eureka College in 1957, 1982 and 1992, he dedicated the Melick Library building in 1967 and the Reagan Physical Education Center in 1970. When he died in 2004, Eureka College was one of three designated recipients of memorial gifts by his family. In 1982, President Reagan told a Eureka College audience, "Everything, good in my life began here." He made similar statement at several other public speeches. Eureka College has created programs related to Ronald Reagan, with a goal of enhancing the educational experience for its students: In 1982, Eureka College established the Ronald W. Reagan Leadership Program with President Reagan's blessing and assistance to provide scholarships, having awarded 128 four-year full tuition scholarships to designated Reagan Fellows.
In 1994, Eureka College established a museum named after Reagan to hold and interpret many items which he donated to the college during his lifetime, under the leadership of founding curator Dr. Brian Sajko. In 2000, Eureka College dedicated the Reagan Peace Garden with a gift from central Illinois philanthropists Anne and David Vaughan to commemorate his important commencement speech at Eureka College in which Reagan called for nuclear arms reductions between the Soviet Union and the United States. In 2008, Eureka College's president, J. David Arnold, launched a new effort known at "Reagan Forward" to build on the Reagan legacy with the unanimous backing of the board of trustees. In 2008, Eureka College launched the Ronald W. Reagan Society to raise support for the college as a living legacy of Ronald Reagan and a national monument to American opportunity his story represents. On March 27, 2009, Eureka College hosted former President of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, the man of whom
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics is a college athletics association for small colleges and universities in North America. For the 2018–2019 season, it has 251 member institutions, of which two are in British Columbia, one in the U. S. Virgin Islands, the rest in the conterminous United States; the NAIA, whose headquarters is in Kansas City, sponsors 26 national championships. The CBS Sports Network called CSTV, serves as the national media outlet for the NAIA. In 2014, ESPNU began carrying the NAIA Football National Championship. In 1937, Dr. James Naismith and local leaders staged the first National College Basketball Tournament at Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City—one year before the first National Invitation Tournament and two years before the first NCAA Tournament; the goal of the tournament was to establish a forum for small colleges and universities to determine a national basketball champion. The original eight-team tournament expanded to 32 teams in 1938. On March 10, 1940, the National Association for Intercollegiate Basketball was formed in Kansas City, Missouri.
In 1952, the NAIB was transformed into the NAIA, with that came the sponsorship of additional sports such as men's golf and outdoor track and field. Football in the NAIA was split based on enrollment; the 1948 NAIB national tournament was the first intercollegiate postseason to feature a black student-athlete, Clarence Walker of Indiana State under coach John Wooden. Wooden had withdrawn from the 1947 tournament; the association furthered its commitment to African-American athletes when, in 1953, it became the first collegiate association to invite black colleges and universities into its membership. In 1957, Tennessee A&I became the first black institution to win a collegiate basketball national championship; the NAIA began sponsoring intercollegiate championships for women in 1980, the second coed national athletics association to do so, offering collegiate athletics championships to women in basketball, cross country, gymnastics and outdoor track and field, softball and diving, tennis and volleyball.
The National Junior College Athletic Association had established a women's division in the spring of 1975 and held the first women's national championship volleyball tournament that fall. In 1997, Liz Heaston became the first female college athlete to play and score in a college football game when she kicked two extra points during the 1997 Linfield vs. Willamette football game. Launched in 2000 by the NAIA, the Champions of Character program promotes character and sportsmanship through athletics; the Champions of Character conducts clinics and has developed an online training course to educate athletes and athletic administrators with the skills necessary to promote character development in the context of sport. In 2010, the association opened the doors to the NAIA Eligibility Center, where prospective student-athletes are evaluated for academic and athletic eligibility, it delivers on the NAIA’s promise of integrity by leveling the playing field, guiding student-athlete success, ensuring fair competition.
Membership – The NAIA was the first association to admit colleges and universities from outside the United States. The NAIA began admitting Canadian members in 1967. Football – The NAIA was the first association to send a football team to Europe to play. In the summer of 1976, the NAIA sent Henderson State and Texas A&I to play 5 exhibition games in West Berlin, Nuremberg and Paris; the NAIA sponsors 14 sports. The NAIA recognizes three levels of competitions: "emerging", "invitational", "championship"; the association conducts, or has conducted in the past, championship tournaments in the following sports. Men's Basketball Division I Division II Women's Basketball Division I Division II The NAIA men's basketball championship is the longest-running collegiate National Championship of any sport in the United States; the tournament was the brainchild of creator of the game of basketball. The event began in 1937 with the inaugural tournament at Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, MO; the 2017 men's championship marked the 80th edition of what has been tabbed College Basketball’s Toughest Tournament.
The tournament has awarded the Chuck Taylor Most Valuable Player award since 1939, as well as the Charles Stevenson Hustle Award, the basis for Pete Rose's nickname, given to him by Whitey Ford. Basketball is the only NAIA sport in which the organization's member institutions are aligned into divisions. Effective with the 2020–21 school year, the NAIA will return to a single division for both men's and women's basketball; the NAIA has 21 member conferences, including 9 that sponsor football, the Association of Independent Institutions. Central States Football League Mid-States Football Association Al Ortolani Scholarship The $500 undergraduate scholarship is awarded to an outstanding student trainer, at least a junior and has maintained a GPA of 3.00. Athletic Trainer of the
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar