Nebraska Cornhuskers women's volleyball
The Nebraska women's volleyball team was founded in 1975 and is one of the most decorated teams in all of women's volleyball, with more wins than any other program and five NCAA national championships, one of only three programs not on the west coast to have won a title. Since the induction of the CBS College Sports/AVCA National Poll in 1982, the Cornhuskers are one of only two programs in the country to be ranked in every poll and have produced 73 All-Americans; the Cornhuskers volleyball program is one of the most popular spectator attractions in Nebraska, as four of the largest crowds to watch a volleyball match were in the state. Pat Sullivan was Nebraska's first coach, to date the program's only female head coach, she compiled an 83–21 record in the program's first two seasons of intercollegiate competition. Sullivan’s first season was shortly after the passing of Title IX by Congress in 1972. In her first season, she led the team to a 34–8 record and an Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women Regional Final.
One year the team won a Big Eight championship at 49–13. Terry Pettit was Nebraska's second head coach. From 1977 to 1999 he led the Cornhuskers to an overall record of 694–148. Pettit, an Indiana native, was an English teacher and volleyball coach at Louisburg College in North Carolina when a fellow coach found out about Nebraska's open job and directed Pettit to apply. In his 23 years as head coach, Pettit built the program into a national power, he led the Cornhuskers to their first national championship in 1995. Under his guidance, Nebraska appeared in 19 consecutive NCAA tournaments including six semifinals and two national runner-up finishes, his teams won conference championships in every season of his tenure except for 1992 and 1997. His list of honors includes the AVCA Hall of Fame, USA Volleyball All-Time Great Coach Award, USOC National Coach of the Year, AVCA National Coach of the Year, AVCA Mideast Region Coach of the Year, AVCA District Coach of the Year. Under Pettit, the University of Nebraska-Lincoln became one of the first schools to offer scholarships to female athletes.
In 1978, Terri Kanouse and Shandi Pettine were the first players to receive full scholarships for volleyball. Pettit offered Kanouse a scholarship after watching the St. Paul, Indiana native showcase her skills at a camp in nearby Crown Point. Three years the university allowed Pettit to offer as many as 12 scholarships to volleyball athletes. Pettit coached the highest number of any school in that time span. Three talented seniors led the Huskers entering the 1995 season. After losing the second match of the season to no. 1 Stanford, NU swept 22 consecutive opponents and reeled off 31 straight wins. The Huskers clinched the conference title, made short work of opponents in the opening rounds of the NCAA tournament. Nebraska defeated Michigan State 3-2 in the national semifinals to reach the national title game for the third time. Texas won the first set of the match, but the Huskers battled back to win the next three, giving Nebraska its first national championship; the Huskers were led by star Allison Weston who won, among other awards: the Morgan Trophy Award, AVCA Co-National Player of the Year, Volleyball Magazine Player of the Year, AVCA First Team All-American, First Team CoSIDA Academic All-American, All-Big Eight Player of the Year.
Christy Johnson and Lisa Reitsma were both AVCA First Team All-Americans. John Cook succeeded the retiring Pettit before the start of the 2000 season after a seven-year stint as the head coach of the Wisconsin Badgers. Cook spent a season under Pettit as Nebraska's associate head coach; as of 2018, Cook has guided the Huskers to four national championships, a national runner-up finish, three other national semifinal appearances, NCAA tournament appearances in each of his years as coach. Cook was named the AVCA Division I National Coach of the Year in 2000 and 2005, the AVCA Central Region Coach of the Year in 1997, 2000, 2005, 2008, as well as the Big 12/Big Ten Coach of the Year in 1997, 2001, 2005, 2008, 2016, 2017, he was awarded the USA Volleyball All-Time Great Coach Award in 2008 and in 2017 was inducted into the AVCA Hall of Fame. Cook has coached three AVCA National Players of the Year. Pavan won the Honda-Broderick Cup in 2007 as the Collegiate Female Athlete of the Year. In his first year as NU's head coach, Cook guided the Huskers to their second national championship.
After starting the season outside the national top 10 at no. 11, Nebraska went 20–0 in the Big 12 and defeated Cook's former team, Wisconsin, in five sets in the national title game to cap a 34–0 season. It was only the second team in the NCAA tournament era to finish a season undefeated. Sophomore Greichaly Cepero led the Huskers, she won the Honda Award for Volleyball and became the Big 12 Player of the Year. Laura Pilakowski was an AVCA First Team All-American and on the NCAA Championship All-Tournament team. Nebraska finished 20–0 in conference play in 2001 to lock up the Big 12 conference title and finished the regular season with only one loss, against Long Beach State. In the NCAA Tournament, the Huskers cruised through the first two rounds, obtained a NCAA regional semifinals win against Colorado St. setting up a hard fought, 3–2 win against Florida in the NCAA regional finals. Nebraska advanced to the national semifinals to face Stanford, where the Huskers fell 3–0 to the eventual tournament champion.
The Huskers finished 2001 with a record of 31–2, a ranking of no. 3 in the AVCA poll. Amber Holmquist was named an AVCA First Team All America
The Nebraska Cornhuskers are the intercollegiate athletic teams that represent the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference and the Cornhuskers compete in NCAA Division I, fielding 22 varsity teams in 15 sports. Nineteen of these teams participate the Big Ten, while rifle is a member of the single-sport Great America Rifle Conference and beach volleyball and bowling compete as independents. Early nicknames for the university's athletic teams included the Hawkeyes, the Antelopes, the Old Gold Knights, the Bugeaters, the Mankilling Mastodons. Cornhuskers first appeared in a school newspaper headline, after a 20–18 upset victory over Iowa in 1893. In this instance, Cornhuskers was used to refer to Iowa; the first time the name was applied to Nebraska was in 1899, when Nebraska State Journal writer Cy Sherman, who would help originate the AP Poll, began referring to Nebraska's football team as the Cornhuskers. The next year, the nickname was adopted by the school.
For nearly 100 years, the Cornhuskers participated in the Big Eight Conference, for 15 years in the Big 12 Conference, formed when the Big Eight merged with four members of the defunct Southwest Conference. Nebraska joined the Big Ten in 2011; the Cornhuskers have Herbie Husker and Lil' Red. The Nebraska Cornhuskers field men's and women's cross country teams, both of which have been coached by David Harris since 2012, they run on a course through Pioneer's Park in Lincoln. The men's team was founded in 1938 and the women's team in 1975, to help satisfy Title IX requirements. Men Conference championships: 1940Women Conference championships: 1985, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1993 The Husker football team began competitive play in 1890, since has won 46 conference championships and claims five national championships: 1970, 1971, 1994, 1995, 1997; the latter three titles mark one of only three times that a team has won three national championships in a four-year span. The other two instances were Notre Dame in 1946, 1947 and 1949 and Alabama in 2009, 2011 and 2012.
Despite not winning a conference title since 1999, Nebraska has won the most games of any program over the last 50 years. The winningest head coach in school history is Tom Osborne, who led the team for from 1973 to 1997 and, with a record of 255–49–3, has the third-highest winning percentage of any coach at a major school in modern college football history. Osborne coached the Cornhuskers including one in his final season. After Osborne retired following the 1998 Orange Bowl, he selected Frank Solich as his successor. Solich led Nebraska to a conference title in 1999 and a national championship appearance in 2001. Under Solich's guidance, quarterback Eric Crouch won the Heisman Trophy in 2001. However, Solich was fired after going 16-10 in 2002 and 2003. After firing Solich, athletic director Steve Pederson embarked on a 40-day coaching search that culminated in the hire of former Oakland Raiders coach Bill Callahan. Callahan represented a break from school tradition in that he ran a pass-heavy West Coast offense, which starkly contrasted with the run-dominant I-form offense Nebraska had used for the previous 50 years.
In 2004, Callahan led the Huskers to their first sub-.500 season since 1961, after another five-win season in 2007, Callahan and Pederson were both dismissed. On December 2, 2007, newly hired athletic director Tom Osborne named Bo Pelini head coach, although Pelini remained at LSU to coach in the national championship game, a 38-24 victory for the Tigers over Ohio State. Pelini had been the defensive coordinator at Nebraska in 2003 and was the school's interim head coach for the 2003 Alamo Bowl. Pelini compiled a record of 39–16 in his first four years as head coach, including bowl victories in the 2009 Gator Bowl over Clemson and the 2009 Holiday Bowl over Arizona; the latter of these games gave Nebraska its first bowl shutout in school history. Following the 2014 season, athletic director Shawn Eichorst fired Pelini and hired veteran coach Mike Riley from Oregon State; the first year under Riley was a disaster, as Nebraska went 5–7 and only made a bowl game due to strong academic performance and the lack of bowl-eligible teams across the country.
In 2016, the Cornhuskers started 7–0 before an overtime loss to Wisconsin and a blowout loss to Ohio State knocked the team out of major bowl consideration. Nebraska went 4-8 in 2017 in the worst season in school history, Riley and Eichorst were both fired. On December 2, 2017, athletic director Bill Moos hired former Nebraska quarterback Scott Frost as head coach. Nebraska notched its 800th win on October 2006 with a 21 -- 3 victory over Kansas State; the Cornhuskers rank third all-time behind only Michigan and Texas. When the Cornhuskers play at home in Memorial Stadium, the stadium holds more people than the town of Bellevue, the third-largest city in Nebraska; the stadium's attendance record was set on Saturday, September 20, 2014, when 91,585 people watched the Cornhuskers beat Miami. Entering the 2018 season, Memorial Stadium has been sold out for an NCAA-record 361 consecutive games, a streak that dates back to November 3, 1962. Nebraska is 305-56 in those games. Conference championships: 1894, 1895, 1897, 1907, 1910–17, 1921–23, 1928, 1929, 1931–33, 1935–37, 1940, 1963-66, 1969–72, 1975, 1978, 1981–84, 1988, 1991–95, 1997, 1999 Division champions
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans and society, the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole; the primary purposes of basic research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary both within and between humanities and sciences.
There are several forms of research: scientific, artistic, social, marketing, practitioner research, technological, etc. The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning'search'; the earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. Research has been defined in a number of different ways, while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition, embraced by all who engage in it. One definition of research is used by the OECD, "Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man and society, the use of this knowledge to devise new applications."Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue".
It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "studious inquiry or examination; this material is of a primary source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline. In experimental work, it involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject, e.g. in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and established by means of peer review. Graduate students are required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a systematic way of harnessing curiosity; this research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics.
Humanities scholars do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, context can be social, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without looking for reasons or motivations to explain these; these studies may be qualitative or quantitative, can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory. Artistic research seen as'practice-based research', can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself, it is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative t
Prairie Schooner is a literary magazine published quarterly at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln with the cooperation of UNL's English Department and the University of Nebraska Press. It is based in Lincoln and was first published in 1926. Founded by Lowry Wimberly and a small group of his students, who together formed the Wordsmith Chapter of Sigma Upsilon. Although many assume it is a regional magazine, it is nationally and internationally distributed and publishes writers from all over the United States and the world. Prairie Schooner has garnered reprints, honorable mentions in the Pushcart Prize anthologies and various of the Best American series, including Best American Short Stories, Best American Essays, Best American Mystery Stories, Best American Nonrequired Reading. Prairie Schooner's current editor is Jamaican/Ghanaian author Kwame Dawes. From 1963-1980 Bernice Slote served as the editor. Notable contributors Prairie Schooner Book Prize is an American literary award presented yearly since 2003, one award for poetry and one award for fiction.
It is run by University of Nebraska Press. Winners receive publication through the University of Nebraska Press. Manuscripts are accepted from all living writers, including non-US citizens, writing in English. Source:2003 Fiction: K. L. Cook, Last Call Poetry: Cortney Davis, Leopold's Maneuvers2004 Fiction: Brock Clarke, Carrying the Torch Poetry: Rynn Williams, Adonis Garage2005 Fiction: John Keeble, Nocturnal America Poetry: Kathleen Flenniken, Famous2006 Fiction: Jesse Lee Kercheval, The Alice Stories Poetry: Paul Guest, Notes for My Body Double2007 Fiction: Katherine Vaz, Our Lady of the Artichokes and Other Portuguese-American Stories Poetry: Mari L'Esperance, The Darkened Temple2008 Fiction: Anne Finger, Call Me Ahab Poetry: Kara Candito, Taste of Cherry2009 Fiction: Ted Gilley, And Other Short Stories Poetry: Shane Book, Ceiling of Sticks2010 Fiction: Greg Hrbek, Destroy All Monsters Poetry: James Crews, The Book of What Stays2011 Fiction: Karen Brown, Leaf House Poetry: Susan Blackwell Ramsey, A Mind Like This2012 Fiction: Xhenet Aliu, Domesticated Wild Things Poetry: Orlando Ricardo Menes, Fetish2013 Fiction: Amina Gautier, Now We Will Be Happy Poetry: R. A. Villanueva, Reliquaria2014 Fiction: Bryn Chancellor, When Are You Coming Home?
Poetry: Jennifer Perrine, No Confession, No Mass2015 Fiction: Dustin M. Hoffman, One-Hundred Knuckled Fist Poetry: Safiya Sinclair, Cannibal2016 Fiction: Venita Blackburn, Black Jesus and Other Superheroes Poetry: Susan Gubernat, The Zoo at Night Stewart, Paul R; the Prairie Schooner Story: A Little Magazine's First 25 Years The Prairie Schooner Prairie Schooner Book Prize, official website
University of Nebraska State Museum
The University of Nebraska State Museum known as Elephant Hall, is a natural history museum featuring Nebraska biodiversity and cultural diversity. It was founded in 1871; the museum is located in Morrill Hall on the University of Nebraska-Lincoln City Campus near the corner of 14th and Vine Streets in Lincoln, United States. The museum houses Mueller Planetarium, a hands-on science discovery center, the Elephant Hall, where visitors can see the world's largest articulated fossil mammoth among the collection of fossil elephants. Featured are interactive paleontology exhibits, a dinosaur gallery, ancient life and evolution exhibits, wildlife dioramas and minerals, American Indian and African exhibits, a temporary exhibit gallery featuring rotating displays on diverse topics including photography and fine arts; the University of Nebraska State Museum was founded in 1871 by Erwin Barbour, the same year the University of Nebraska was established. The museums first home was two rooms located in Nebraska Hall.
The first collections were recorded to be skeletons of a cow. In 1891, Erwin Barbour went on an expedition in search of fossils and minerals to contribute to the museum's empty cases. Barbour discovered Daimonelix, his contribution caught the attention of Charles Morrill in 1892. When Morrill learned Barbour's trip was not funded by the University, he donated $1,000 for the next expedition to keep the collections growing. Morrill continued to donate money to the museum throughout his life, which in turn allowed Barbour to send out over one hundred expeditions. Morrill Hall, the museums location since 1927, was dedicated to Charles Morrill for his contributions; the museum has three floors filled with exhibits. The first floor has a theme of Biodiversity and includes The Hall of Nebraska Wildlife, Darwin: A Life of Discovery, Dr Paul and Betty Marx Science Discovery Center, an Educators Resource Center; the first floor has exhibits about Paleontology of Nebraska. Elephant Hall, Ralph Muller Planetarium, Bizarre Beasts, Toren Gallery of Ancient Life, Mesozoic Gallery, Fossil Animals, a Discovery Shop are found on this floor.
The third floor of the museum houses a variety of exhibits including Explore Evolution, Jurassic Dinosaurs and Minerals, Weapons Throughout time, First People of the Plains. Cooper Gallery, which displays temporary exhibits, is found on the third floor; the University of Nebraska State Museum was first located in University Hall. Nebraska Hall was built in 1888 to make room for enrollment in the University. In 1905, Charles Morrill wrote a letter expressing concerns with Nebraska Hall's structure and limited space, his proposal for a new building was granted. It was complete in 1908; the new building caught fire on March 6, 1912 causing major damage to the building and contents of the museum. The building was served as the museum until 1927 when Morrill Hall was built. Morrill Hall was constructed based on the information gathered by Charles Morrill and Erwin Barbour's tour of museums in Europe in 1909. On May 28, 1927 Morrill Hall was dedicated to Charles Morrill for his contributions to the Museum.
Located on the main floor of the museum, the Paleontology of Nebraska exhibits include the Elephant Hall, Mesozoic Gallery, Fossil Animals, Toren Gallery of Ancient Life. These exhibits display various fossil collections; the museum is known for ranking 5th in the nation. The museum has been gathering its paleontology collections since 1891, when the Director Erwin Barbour began to excavate fossils from Western Nebraska. So far, more than 85,000 vertebrate species have been cataloged. Most of the collections originate from Nebraska; the collections from the Plaeistocene and Cretaceous are from New Montana, respectively. The Elephant Hall is famous for having one of the largest mammoth skeletons in the world. Among them, the museum hosts the largest Columbian mammoth fossil in the world, known as "Archie." It is the state fossil of Nebraska. Along with the mammoth skeletons, the Hall displays skeletons and models of elephants of various eras. By comparing the structure of the skeletons and the elephants' teeth, visitors can learn about the evolutionary history of the elephants.
The Mesozoic Gallery features models of organisms that lived during the Mesozoic era. Along with the fossils of the dinosaurs, the Gallery is famous for its Plesiosaur fossil, excavated in 2004 from Northeast Nebraska, known to be one of the longest marine fossil; the Toren Gallery of Ancient Life includes models of organisms of the Paleozoic era. The Fossil Animals section displays ancient and current skeletons of rhinos and camels. Recent donations to the museum are shown in this area. Opened on February 22, 2013, the Tree of Life exhibit is a recent addition to the museum, it was developed in partnership with Harvard University, Northwestern University, The University of Michigan, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln. This exhibit combines interactive touchscreen technology with a vast phylogenetic database to provide a fun educational experience for users of all ages. Museum visitors can browse an evolutionary tree showing the evolutionary relationships of more than 70,000 species over 3.5 billion years.
It is difficult to spur an interest in evolutionary concepts in a museum. Since visitors can browse exhibits rather the Tree of Life exhibit is designed to hold the attention of users. Once a user is using the interactive technology, they are more to spend enough time to gain a substantial understanding of core ideas in evolutionary science; the University of Nebraska State Mu
Pinnacle Bank Arena
Pinnacle Bank Arena is an indoor arena in the West Haymarket District of Lincoln, Nebraska, U. S, with a seating capacity of 15,500, it hosts basketball games and replaced the Bob Devaney Sports Center as the home of the University of Nebraska Cornhuskers men's and women's basketball teams. A turn back tax to support a $25 million bond was approved by the voters of Lincoln on May 11, 2010. On December 6, 2011, it was announced that Pinnacle Bank purchased the naming rights to the arena, at a cost of $11.25 million for 25 years. The first concert was Michael Bublé on September 2013, which sold out. Pink, Jason Aldean, The Eagles, Elton John, Jay-Z, Trans-Siberian Orchestra, Miranda Lambert performed at the new arena in the fall of 2013. On the night before Pink's concert, the Nebraska men's and women's basketball teams played their first game in the arena; the women played Top 25 team UCLA on November 8, 2013, the men played 2013 Cinderella FGCU that same night. The arena held its first event on August 16, 2013 as it hosted the University of Nebraska's summer commencement ceremony.
Additionally, the arena is the main venue of four total Nebraska state high school boys and girls basketball tournaments. 36 founders and executive suites 20 loge boxes 832 club seats 73 concession points of sale Two private club lounges Husker Authentic Team store Jeff Dunham February 9, 2014 Harlem Globetrotters April 4, 2014 Monster Jam April 11-13, 2014 Larry the Cable Guy April 25, 2014 Michael Jackson: The Immortal World Tour by Cirque du Soleil - June 24-25, 2014 WWE Smackdown - September 2, 2014 Disney Junior Live On Tour - October 12–13, 2014 Disney on Ice Presents Worlds of Fantasy - November 21–23, 2014 Sesame Street Live - April 28–29, 2015 Theresa Caputo Live - October 17, 2015 Chicago Bulls vs. Dallas Mavericks NBA Preseason – October 23, 2015 Monster Jam - April 15–16, 2016 Sesame Street Live - April 26–27, 2016 A Night of Hope with Joel Osteen - May 29, 2015 NORCECA Women's Olympic Volleyball Qualification Tournament - January 7-9, 2016 Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus - June 3–5, 2016 Toruk - The First Flight - July 27–31, 2016 Minnesota Timberwolves vs. Denver Nuggets NBA Preseason – October 12, 2016 Jeff Dunham - February 10, 2017 Jeff Foxworthy & Larry the Cable Guy - March 31, 2017 Harlem Globetrotters – April 8, 2017 Daniel Tosh - April 14, 2017 Monster Jam - April 21–22, 2017 PRCA Championship Rodeo - April 28–29, 2017 Terence Crawford vs. Julius Indongo light welterweight boxing title unification fight – August 19, 2017 PowerShares Series Tennis – October 6, 2017 Harlem Globetrotters – February 2, 2018 WWE Live – February 3, 2018 Monster Jam - April 13–14, 2018 Corteo by Cirque du Soleil- May 17–20, 2018 UFC Fight Night: Gaethje vs. Vick- August 25, 2018 Paw Patrol Live!
"Race to the Rescue" - September 22-23, 2018 Overcomer Tour with Dr. David Jeremiah - October 4, 2018 Haymarket Park Pershing Center Lincoln, Nebraska List of NCAA Division I basketball arenas Official Website Construction homepage Web Cam
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States. It is bordered by South Dakota to the north, it is the only triply landlocked U. S. state. Nebraska's area is just over 77,220 square miles with a population of 1.9 million people. Its state capital is Lincoln, its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River. Indigenous peoples, including Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota tribes, lived in the region for thousands of years before European exploration; the state is crossed including that of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Nebraska was admitted as the 37th state of the United States in 1867, it is the only state in the United States whose legislature is unicameral and nonpartisan. Nebraska is composed of two major land regions: the Great Plains; the Dissected Till Plains region consist of rolling hills and contains the state's largest cities and Lincoln. The Great Plains region, occupying most of western Nebraska, is characterized by treeless prairie, suitable for cattle-grazing.
Nebraska has two major climatic zones. The eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate; the western half of the state has a semi-arid climate. The state has wide variations between winter and summer temperatures, variations that decrease moving south in the state. Violent thunderstorms and tornadoes occur during spring and summer and sometimes in autumn. Chinook winds tend to warm the state in the winter and early spring. Nebraska's name is derived from transliteration of the archaic Otoe words Ñí Brásge, pronounced, or the Omaha Ní Btháska, meaning "flat water", after the Platte River that flows through the state. Indigenous peoples lived in the region of present-day Nebraska for thousands of years before European exploration; the historic tribes in the state included the Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota, some of which migrated from eastern areas into this region. When European exploration and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region.
In the 1690s, Spain established trade connections with the Apaches, whose territory included western Nebraska. By 1703, France had developed a regular trade with the native peoples along the Missouri River in Nebraska, by 1719 had signed treaties with several of these peoples. After war broke out between the two countries, Spain dispatched an armed expedition to Nebraska under Lieutenant General Pedro de Villasur in 1720; the party was attacked and destroyed near present-day Columbus by a large force of Pawnees and Otoes, both allied to the French. The massacre ended Spanish exploration of the area for the remainder of the 18th century. In 1762, during the Seven Years' War, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain; this left Spain competing for dominance along the Mississippi. In response, Spain dispatched two trading expeditions up the Missouri in 1794 and 1795; that year, Mackay's party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV, near present-day Homer. In 1819, the United States established Fort Atkinson as the first U.
S. Army post west of the Missouri River, just east of present-day Fort Calhoun; the army abandoned the fort in 1827. European-American settlement was scarce until the California Gold Rush. On May 30, 1854, the US Congress created the Kansas and the Nebraska territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North, under the Kansas–Nebraska Act; the Nebraska Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. The territorial capital of Nebraska was Omaha. In the 1860s, after the U. S. government forced many of the Native American tribes to cede their lands and settle on reservations, it opened large tracts of land to agricultural development by Europeans and Americans. Under the Homestead Act, thousands of settlers migrated into Nebraska to claim free land granted by the federal government; because so few trees grew on the prairies, many of the first farming settlers built their homes of sod, as had Native Americans such as the Omaha. The first wave of settlement gave the territory a sufficient population to apply for statehood.
Nebraska became the 37th state on March 1, 1867, the capital was moved from Omaha to the center at Lancaster renamed Lincoln after the assassinated President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. The battle of Massacre Canyon on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux. During the 1870s to the 1880s, Nebraska experienced a large growth in population. Several factors contributed to attracting new residents; the first was. This helped settlers to learn the unfamiliar geography of the area; the second factor was the invention of several farming technologies. Agricultural inventions such as barbed wire, wind mills, the steel plow, combined with good weather, enabled settlers to use of Nebraska as prime farming land. By the 1880s, Nebraska's population