The Oregon Duck
The Oregon Duck is the mascot of the University of Oregon Ducks athletic program, based on Disney's Donald Duck character through a special license agreement. The mascot wears a green and yellow costume, a green and yellow beanie cap with the word "Oregon" written on it. Oregon teams were known as Webfoots as early as the 1890s; the Webfoots name applied to a group of fishermen from the coast of Massachusetts, heroes during the American Revolutionary War. When their descendants settled in Oregon's Willamette Valley in the 19th century, the name stayed with them. A naming contest in 1926 won by Oregonian sports editor L. H. Gregory made the Webfoots name official, a subsequent student vote in 1932 affirmed the nickname, chosen over other suggested nicknames such as Pioneers, Lumberjacks and Yellow Jackets. Ducks, with their webbed feet, began to be associated with the team in the 1920s, a live white duck named "Puddles" began to appear at sports events. Journalists headline writers adopted the shorter Duck nickname.
In 1978, a student cartoonist came up with a new duck image called Mallard Drake, but students chose Donald as the official mascot by a 2–to–1 margin. Beginning in 1940, cartoon drawings of Puddles in student publications began to resemble Donald Duck, by 1947, Walt Disney was aware of the issue. Capitalizing on his friendship with Disney cartoonist Mike Royer, Oregon athletic director Leo Harris met Disney and reached an informal handshake agreement that granted the University of Oregon permission to use Donald as its sports mascot, naming him Donald Duck; when Disney lawyers questioned the agreement in the 1970s, the university produced a photo showing Harris and Disney wearing matching jackets with an Oregon Donald logo. Relying on the photo as evidence of Disney's wishes, in 1973, both parties signed a formal agreement granting the university the right to use Donald's likeness as a symbol for Oregon sports; the agreement gave Disney control over where the mascot could perform and ensured that the performer inside the costume would "properly represent the Donald Duck character."In 2010, Disney and the university reached an agreement that removed the costumed Oregon Duck mascot from its association with the Donald trademark, allowed The Duck to make more public appearances, such as at college mascot competitions.
The mascot in graphic art, more similar to Donald Duck than the rounder head and body of the costume, is still covered by the trademark agreement. During the 2007 season opener, The Duck got into a fistfight with Shasta, the mascot for the Houston Cougars, for mimicking the Duck's routine of doing push-ups after the mascot's team scores. Footage of the attack became popular on YouTube for several weeks; the Duck was suspended for a game and the student inside the costume received an unspecified punishment. Late in the 2009 season, students of the university created a video, I Love My Ducks, in which The Duck made an appearance. Due to the agreement with Disney in place at the time, the creators had to remove the video from YouTube. However, by that time, the video had "gone viral" and coach Chip Kelly requested the video be played at the Ducks' final game of that season, the Civil War. A Nike-designed futuristic Spandex-costume-wearing duck called Mandrake, began appearing at athletic events in 2002, but had disappeared by 2003.
List of duck mascots Alice. "The Duck Abides". Oregon Quarterly. 92. UO cheerleading squad's Duck page
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
University of Oregon College of Design
The University of Oregon College of Design is a public college of architecture and visual arts in the U. S. state of Oregon. Founded in 1914 by Ellis F. Lawrence, the college is located on the University of Oregon campus in Eugene, off the corner of 13th and University streets, has programs at the historic White Stag Block in Portland, Oregon. At its inception in 1914, Ellis F. Lawrence envisioned that the School of Architecture and Allied Arts would incorporate architectural education with the arts as opposed to engineering, became the first school to do so; the students would learn in an individual but collaborative environment instead of a fiercely competitive environment. When Walter R. B. Willcox became the head of the architecture curriculum in 1922, the underlying idea became that architecture and the arts would reflect societal influences, which had remained alive through the decades. After World War II, student enrollment in the school ballooned and separate departments for each curricular subject were created.
In the Spring of 2017 it was announced. The college is divided into three schools and one department: School of Architecture & Environment, School of Art + Design, School of Planning, Public Policy and Management, the Department of the History of Art and Architecture; the architecture program was in place since the inception of the school, though it didn’t become a department of the school until 1964. Just five years after its founding, in 1919, the school gained an early form of accreditation through the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture. Only twelve schools out of forty schools that applied obtained accreditation that year. Undergraduate and graduate degrees are accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board and had been the only school in the state of Oregon to be accredited until Portland State University earned its accreditation in 2013; the landscape architecture program was first founded in Oregon Agricultural College, now known as Oregon State University in 1928.
The program was moved to the University of Oregon in 1932, where it was expanded into a five-year program. The masters program was established a year later; the School of Art + Design offers an array of fine arts including various digital media, fibers and jewelry, photography and sculpture. Students’ work is periodically displayed in the LaVerne Krause Gallery in Lawrence Hall; the product design program began in the fall of 2008, from a partnership between the school’s department of art and the interior architecture program. The program, sparked by a $1.5 million donation from Columbia Sportswear CEO Tim Boyle, works with firms such as Ziba Design, Nike and Sandstrom Design. The department offers a four-year BFA degree in product design as well as a master of science in Sports Product Design in Portland; the School of Planning, Public Policy and Management offers degrees in community and regional planning, public administration, nonprofit management. The college is housed in Lawrence Hall at the University of Oregon campus, which provides lecture halls, studios, the Design Library, a materials resource library, a computer lab with plotting services.
The college occupies the University's facility in the White Stag Block in Portland, with classes in urban architecture, historic preservation, product design, sports product design. The LaVerne Krause Gallery in Lawrence Hall displays selected student work; the journal DesignIntelligence, in its 2010 rankings of architecture schools, ranked the University of Oregon's undergraduate architecture program number 7 overall in the nation. It ranked first in the country in the area of "Sustainable Design Practice and Principles," and number 5 for "Analysis and Planning." This was an 11-spot improvement from the 2009 rankings where the architecture program was ranked first place, tying with University of California at Berkeley, in the category of skills assessment for sustainable design concepts and principles. In 2007, the landscape architecture program was ranked first in the nation in sustainable design, while the architecture and interior architecture programs were ranked second in sustainable design.
Several programs have been ranked in various publications over the years. US News & World Report ranked the graduate architecture program at number 15 in their 1998 edition of ‘’Best Graduate Schools’’; the journal DesignIntelligence annually ranks architecture programs in the United States in its issue "America's Best Architecture & Design Schools" and the undergraduate architecture program has ranked within the top 15 and as high as 11 between 2004 and 2008. The undergraduate and graduate interior architecture programs were ranked 10th and 6th, respectively; the undergraduate and graduate landscape architecture programs were tied at 15th and ranked 13th, respectively. In the more regionalized rankings, DesignIntelligence in 2007 had ranked the graduate architecture program at first in the western region, tied with Southern California Institute of Architecture; the undergraduate program had placed second in the western region behind California Polytechnic State University in the same publication.
The interior architecture program ranked first in both graduate and undergraduate in the western region and undergraduate landscape architecture ranked third. Howard Backen, BArch, founder of BAR Architects and Backen, Gillam & Kroeger Brad Cloepfil, BArch, founder of Allied Works Architecture Jeff Doyle Tinker Hatfield, BArch, VP, designer and architect for Nike Thomas Hubka Joe Hutshing Mazharul Islam, BArch, architect credited with bringing modernist architecture to Bangladesh James Ivor
Ethos Magazine is a student publication produced at the University of Oregon in Eugene, United States. Korean Ducks magazine, which focused on Korean culture, it has since developed a multicultural spirit to serve readers throughout the University of Oregon community; the publication got its name from the word "ethos", the fundamental characteristic of a spirit, people or culture. Features include multicultural stories ranging from Eugene restaurants to international human rights debates. Ethos is published quarterly and explores international and local cultural stories; as an official student group, the publication receives support and funding from the Associated Students of the University of Oregon, though the majority of its income comes from advertising, fundraising events and other support from the non-profit organization Generation Progress. In 2013, 2014 and 2015 Ethos was awarded an ACP Pacemaker Award, the top honor from the Associated Collegiate Press, considered to be the unofficial Pulitzer Prize of collegiate journalism.
Its 2015 Pacemaker Award was for the online magazine category, it was a finalist in the print magazine category. Ethos has received awards from the Society of Professional Journalists and the Columbia School of Journalism; every term, the magazine holds promotional events, works with local businesses. Events include raffles, multimedia contests, providing study snacks during midterms and finals. In January 2006, Ethos' first issue was released under the name Korean Ducks by Co-Directors and University students Toung Cha and Hasang Cheon; the publication was started to help spread knowledge on and off campus. In the fall of 2007, the magazine was re-branded as KD; the mission of the publication evolved to help spread a variety of cultures. In the spring of 2009, the magazine turned to Ethos Magazine. Ethos has maintained independence from the University of its journalism school; the editorial agenda is controlled by the student staff. In January, 2015, Ethos' series on sex trafficking in Oregon was named the College Pick by Longreads Official website
The "O" is a gesture used predominantly at the University of Oregon in Eugene, United States, at events in which the school's athletic teams, the Oregon Ducks, are taking part. The gesture, in which the forefinger and thumb of each hand are pressed together to form an "O" shape, is used to show support for the team. First used by University of Oregon band directors as a cue to indicate the song to be played, it gained its current meaning after a photograph of quarterback Joey Harrington appeared on the front page of The Oregonian making the "O" sign with his hands; the gesture was first used by University of Oregon band directors, who relied on visual cues to direct the ensemble due to crowd noise. Steven Paul, who served as band director from 1983 to 1989, used the sign to prompt musicians to begin performing the fight song "Mighty Oregon", it was one of several gestures used by Paul and subsequent band directors, including Todd Zimbelman, who served as the band director from 1999 to 2005.
It became popularized after a photograph of quarterback Joey Harrington making the "O" appeared on the front page of The Oregonian one day following the Civil War game in 2001. Harrington had made the gesture at the band. In 2014, Harrington recalled: We're walking back up the tunnel and through my career I'd noticed that the band director made that'O' symbol with his hands to signal to the band that he wanted them to play the fight song; the crowd is loud, so you can't yell,'Play the fight song!' so instead, he'd come up with the'O' symbol and he'd give the symbol and the band would play the song... I'm walking toward the tunnel for the last time and I had one of those nostalgic moments. I wanted to hear the fight song one more time... I made the'O' signal. I wanted to hear it one more time... Did I invent the'O'? No. Was I the first player to use it in that fashion? Yes, but it's not for the purposes. The moment was photographed by Bruce Ely, photographer at The Oregonian, Thomas Boyd, who worked for the Eugene Register-Guard at the time.
Ely recalled, "I remember calling editors and telling them it would be a cool picture for the front page. It took off from there. I think Tom and I are the only two people that happened to be in position."Harrington displayed the gesture again at the Fiesta Bowl. Fans continued displaying the "O" at sporting events following the 2001 game. Nike gloves and other merchandise have been produced showing the symbol. According to John Canzano, sports writer for The Oregonian, the gesture has become "a universal non-verbal rally cry for the university"; the Winter 2014 edition of the Oregon Quarterly includes a photograph of Lady Gaga "throwing the O" with a UO alumna. As Oregon players began to use the gesture on the field after a good play, Fox Sports rules analyst Mike Pereira, a former NFL and college football official, indicated that he thought the use of the sign bordered on unsportsmanlike conduct, which could lead to a 15-yard penalty. Pereira clarified his comments, indicating that the sign should be allowed, as long as it was not "prolonged" or "directed at an opponent."Teachers in an American Sign Language class at Oregon have cautioned that since the gesture is made with a more spade-like than round shape, is the word "vagina" rather than the letter "O".
Former Ducks player LaMichael James, who took the class, avoided making the sign for fear of being misinterpreted. Big "O", a hillside letter representing the University of Oregon, located at Skinner Butte in Eugene, Oregon
The Oregon Ducks are the athletic teams that represent the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon. The Ducks compete at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level as a member of the Pac-12 Conference. With eighteen varsity teams, Oregon is best known for its American football team and track and field program, which has helped Eugene gain a reputation as "Track Town, USA". Oregon's main rivalries are with the Washington Huskies. Oregon teams were known as Webfoots as early as the 1890s; the Webfoots name applied to a group of fishermen from the coast of Massachusetts, heroes during the American Revolutionary War. A naming contest in 1926 won by Oregonian sports editor L. H. Gregory made the Webfoots name official, a subsequent student vote in 1932 affirmed the nickname, chosen over other suggested nicknames such as Pioneers, Lumberjacks and Yellow Jackets. Ducks, with their webbed feet, began to be associated with the team in the 1920s, live duck mascots were adopted to represent the team.
Journalists headline writers adopted the shorter Duck nickname, but it wasn't until the 1940s that the image of Donald Duck, permitted via a handshake deal between Walt Disney and Oregon athletic director Leo Harris, cemented the image of the Duck as the school's mascot. Both nicknames were still in use well into the 1970s. In 1978, a student cartoonist came up with a new duck image, but students rejected the alternative by a 2-to-1 margin. Although Donald wasn't on that ballot, the University Archivist declared that the election made Ducks the school's official mascot, replacing Webfoots; the University of Oregon sponsors teams in eight men's and twelve women's NCAA sanctioned sports competing in the Pac-12 Conference and acrobatics & tumbling competing in the National Collegiate Acrobatics & Tumbling Association, lacrosse and indoor track & field teams competing in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. The football program began in 1893 and played its first game on February 22, 1894, defeating Albany College 46-0.
The football team moved to its new home, Hayward Field in 1919 where it shared the facility with the track and field team until Autzen Stadium was completed in 1967. Winning its first Rose Bowl in 1917 against the University of Pennsylvania under head coach Hugo Bezdek, the Ducks have returned to the Rose Bowl six additional times in 1920, 1957, 1995, 2010, 2012 and 2015. While in the Pacific Coast Conference, the Ducks won five conference co-championships in 1919, 1933, 1948, 1957; the Pacific Coast Conference was disbanded in 1958, the Ducks played as an independent until they joined the PCC's effective successor, the Pacific-8 Conference, which became the Pacific-10 Conference and the Pac-12 Conference, in 2011. In the Pac-8 / 10/12, they have won shared one championship; the Ducks were 3–2 during the BCS era, winning the 2002 Fiesta Bowl, the 2012 Rose Bowl, the 2013 Fiesta Bowl and losing the 2010 Rose Bowl and the 2011 BCS National Championship Game. In 2014, Oregon won a school record 13 games and saw junior quarterback Marcus Mariota win the school's first Heisman Trophy.
That same year, the Ducks made the first College Football Playoff and beat the defending champion Florida State Seminoles 59–20 in the 2015 Rose Bowl semi-final. The loss to Oregon ended the Seminoles 29 game moved the Ducks into the final, they made the first CFP National Championship Game where they lost 42–20 to Ohio State. The Ducks men’s basketball team played its first season in 1902-1903 under head coach Charles Burden, it was not until 1927 that the Ducks played their first game at McArthur Court, defeating Willamette University 38-10. Head coach Howard Hobson was hired in 1936 and took the basketball team nicknamed "The Tall Firs" to win the first NCAA Men’s Basketball Championship in 1939; the Tall Firs achieved a 29-5 record, capped by a 46-33 victory over Ohio State University in the championship game. In the inaugural year for the event; the Ducks would add only one more shared Pacific Coast Conference title to their two until winning the Pacific-10 Conference title in the 2001-2002 season under head coach Ernie Kent.
The Ducks would make an Elite Eight appearance in the NCAA Tournament that season along with the 2006-2007 season. In 2010-2011, the Ducks welcomed new coach Dana Altman. Since, Altman has won three Pac-12 Conference Coach of the Year honors and led Oregon to the 2013 Pac-12 Conference Men's Basketball Tournament Championship. In addition, Altman has taken Oregon to four straight NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament for the first time in program history, including a trip to the Sweet 16 in 2013 and the Elite 8 in 2016; the Ducks won the 2015-2016 Pac-12 Conference Tournament. This led to the Ducks being the top seed in the West Regional of the 2015-2016 NCAA tournament, its first top seeding in the NCAA tournament; the Ducks defeated Holy Cross and Saint Joseph's in the first two rounds of the NCAA tournament to advance to the Sweet 16 in Anaheim, where they defeated the number four seed and defending national champion Duke Blue Devils, 82-68, to advance to the Elite 8. The University of Oregon Cross Country and Track & Field programs have a long and storied history, earning Eugene the nickname Track Town, United States.
After several years of struggling, Bill Hayward became the head coach in 1903 and provided s
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva