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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe. The headaches affect one half of the head, are pulsating in nature, last from a few hours to 3 days. Associated symptoms may include nausea and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell; the pain is made worse by physical activity. Up to one-third of people affected have an aura: a short period of visual disturbance that signals that the headache will soon occur. An aura can occur with little or no headache following it. Migraines are believed to be due to a mixture of genetic factors. About two-thirds of cases run in families. Changing hormone levels may play a role, as migraines affect more boys than girls before puberty and two to three times more women than men; the risk of migraines decreases during pregnancy and after menopause. The underlying mechanisms are not known, they are, believed to involve the nerves and blood vessels of the brain. Initial recommended treatment is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol for the headache, medication for the nausea, the avoidance of triggers.

Specific medications such as triptans or ergotamines may be used in those for whom simple pain medications are not effective. Caffeine may be added to the above. A number of medications are useful to prevent attacks including metoprolol and topiramate. Globally 15% of people are affected by migraines, it most starts at puberty and is worst during middle age. As of 2016, it is one of the most common causes of disability. An early description consistent with migraines is contained in the Ebers papyrus, written around 1500 BCE in ancient Egypt; the word "migraine" is from the Greek ἡμικρανία, "pain on one side of the head", from ἡμι-, "half", κρανίον, "skull". Migraines present with self-limited, recurrent severe headache associated with autonomic symptoms. About 15–30% of people with migraines experience them with an aura and they frequently have migraines without aura; the severity of the pain, duration of the headache, frequency of attacks are variable. A migraine lasting longer than 72 hours is termed status migrainosus.

There are four possible phases to a migraine, although not all the phases are experienced: The prodrome, which occurs hours or days before the headache The aura, which precedes the headache The pain phase known as headache phase The postdrome, the effects experienced following the end of a migraine attackMigraines are associated with major depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder. These psychiatric disorders are 2–5 times more common in people without aura, 3–10 times more common in people with aura. Prodromal or premonitory symptoms occur in about 60% of those with migraines, with an onset that can range from two hours to two days before the start of pain or the aura; these symptoms may include a wide variety of phenomena, including altered mood, depression or euphoria, craving for certain food, stiff muscles, constipation or diarrhea, sensitivity to smells or noise. This may occur in those with either migraine with migraine without aura. Neuroimaging indicates the limbic system and hypothalamus as the origin of prodromal symptoms in migraine.

An aura is a transient focal neurological phenomenon that occurs during the headache. Auras appear over a number of minutes and last less than 60 minutes. Symptoms can be visual, sensory or motor in nature and many people experience more than one. Visual effects occur most frequently. Vision disturbances consist of a scintillating scotoma; these start near the center of vision and spread out to the sides with zigzagging lines which have been described as looking like fortifications or walls of a castle. The lines are in black and white but some people see colored lines; some people lose part of their field of vision known as hemianopsia while others experience blurring. Sensory aura are the second most common type. A feeling of pins-and-needles begins on one side in the hand and arm and spreads to the nose–mouth area on the same side. Numbness occurs after the tingling has passed with a loss of position sense. Other symptoms of the aura phase can include speech or language disturbances, world spinning, less motor problems.

Motor symptoms indicate that this is a hemiplegic migraine, weakness lasts longer than one hour unlike other auras. Auditory hallucinations or delusions have been described. Classically the headache is unilateral and moderate to severe in intensity, it comes on and is aggravated by physical activity. In more than 40% of cases, the pain may be bilateral and neck pain is associated with it. Bilateral pain is common in those who have migraines without an aura. Less pain may occur in the back or top of the head; the pain lasts 4 to 72 hours in adults, however in young children lasts less than 1 hour. The frequency of attacks is variable, from a few in a lifetime to several a week, with the average being about one a month; the pain is accompanied by nausea, sensitivity to light, sensitivity to sound, sensitivity to smells and irritabilit

Sørensen formol titration

The Sørensen formol titration invented by S. P. L. Sørensen in 1907 is a titration of an amino acid with potassium hydroxide in the presence of formaldehyde, it is used in the determination of protein content in samples. If instead of an amino acid an ammonium salt is used the reaction product with formaldehyde is hexamethylenetetramine: 4 N H 4 + + 6 H C H O + 4 H 2 O ⟶ 6 N 4 + 6 H 2 O + 4 H 3 O + The liberated hydrochloric acid is titrated with the base and the amount of ammonium salt used can be determined. With an amino acid the formaldehyde reacts with the amino group to form a methylene amino group; the remaining acidic carboxylic acid group can again be titrated with base. Formol titration is one of the methods used in winemaking to measure yeast assimilable nitrogen needed by wine yeast in order to complete fermentation. There has been some inaccuracies of the SFT caused by the differences in the basicity of the nitrogen in different amino acids which were explained by S. L. Jodidi. For instances, proline and lysine yields too low values compared to the theory.

Unlike alpha, monobasic amino acids, these amino acids' nitrogens have inconstant basicity, which results in partial reaction with formaldehyde. In case of tyrosine, the actual results are too high due to the negative hydroxyl group, which acts as a base; this explanation is supported by the fact that phenylalanine can be titrated

T. James Tumulty

Thomas James Tumulty was an American Democratic Party politician who represented New Jersey's 14th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1955-1957. Tumulty was born in Jersey City, New Jersey on March 2, 1913, he graduated from Xavier High School and attended Holy Cross University, graduated from Fordham University in 1935, from Seton Hall University in 1938 and from John Marshall Law School in Jersey City in 1938. Tumulty commenced the practice of law in Jersey City, he was a professor at Seton Hall in 1940 and 1941 and taught at St. Aloysius High School in Jersey City in 1949 and 1950, he served in the United States Army as an enlisted man in 1943 and 1944. Tumulty served in the New Jersey General Assembly from 1944–1952, serving as minority leader in 1951, he was assistant corporation counsel for Jersey City from 1943–1954, was a delegate to the 1952 Democratic National Convention, was secretary to the mayor of Jersey City in 1952 and 1953. Famous as a storyteller and for his 300-pound frame, Tumulty described his time in the army as "I went in as a private and came out as a platoon."Tumulty was elected as a Democrat to the Eighty-fourth Congress, serving in office from January 3, 1955 – January 3, 1957, was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection to the Eighty-fifth Congress.

After leaving Congress, he was special counsel Urban Renewal for Jersey City in 1957, deputy mayor of Jersey City 1958-1960 and resumed the practice of law. He was a judge of the Superior Court of New Jersey from 1967-1972. Tumulty was a resident of Jersey City until his death there on November 23, 1981, he was interred at Holy Name Cemetery in Jersey City. United States Congress. "T. James Tumulty". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

Linsley Peninsula

Linsley Peninsula is a broad rectangular ice-covered peninsula which protrudes into the south part of Murphy Inlet, northern Thurston Island, dividing the inlet into two arms at the head. The peninsula was first plotted from air photos taken by U. S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47, was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Lieutenant Commander Richard G. Linsley, U. S. Navy, a pilot of LC-130 Hercules aircraft who made flights in support of the United States Antarctic Research Program geological party working at Thurston Island in the 1968–69 season. Thurston Island – Jones Mountains. 1:500000 Antarctica Sketch Map. US Geological Survey, 1967. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 1993–2016; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Linsley Peninsula"


Nemarluk was a fierce Aboriginal warrior who lived around present-day Darwin in the Northern Territory of Australia. He fought against both white and Japanese intruders who had come, into his people's tribal lands. Reported to be 6 feet 2 inches tall, he was head man of the Chul-a-mar, the "Red Band of Killers"; the men close to him and most loyal were Minmara, Mankee and Lin. People of the area who knew him, described him at this time as being "proper fighting man and funny man"; when fighting, the men were always painted red. Nemarluk and his followers lived and camped on the Moyle Plain, at the mouth of Port Keats, now. One of the most famous incidents concerning Nemarluk and his men was the killing of the Japanese crew of the lugger Ouida at Injin Beach, near Port Keats in 1933. In the 1930s, he was imprisoned in Darwin's Fannie Bay Gaol, he soon managed to break out and made his escape by swimming across Darwin Harbour to the remote Cox Peninsula. That was a most impressive feat as the Harbour is at least 8 kilometres wide with strong tides, so swimming it was no mean feat without meeting a crocodile along the way.

The popular fiction writer of the 1950s, Ion Idriess, wrote about the last three years of his life and his battle with the tracker, Bul-Bul, brought in by the Northern Territory Police in a final desperate attempt to put an end to Nemarluk's fight. He reportedly inspired the lead character in the film Jedda. At some point in time around 1940, Nemarluk became ill with pneumonia and was taken into town to hospital. There are many stories told about Nemarluk's death, it was reported. Others say that he recovered and was let free in the general prisoner amnesty after the bombing of Darwin. Nemarluk is commemorated in the Northern Territory as a street in the Darwin suburb of Ludmilla, an Aboriginal community near Wadeye, a locality shared between the local government areas of Victoria Daly Region and the West Daly Region, a Darwin special needs school


Eulalia! is the 19th book in the Redwall children's fantasy novel series by author Brian Jacques and illustrated by David Elliot. "Eulalia" is the war cry used by the fighting hares and badgers in the Redwall series. It comes from "Weialala leia", the lament of the Valkyries in Richard Wagner's opera Götterdämmerung, as quoted by T. S. Eliot in The Waste Land; the novel was delayed. It was released on October 4, 2007 in the US and UK. Brian Jacques attended a book signing for Eulalia! in Newark, Delaware's Borders on Sunday, October 14 and again in Minneapolis, Minnesota's Wild Rumpus on October 27. In the far, cold Northern Isles, the fox captain Vizka Longtooth and his Sea Raiders plunder a lonely farmhouse where the young badger Gorath and his grandparents live. Vizka knocks Gorath unconscious with his chain and mace and puts him on board his ship, the Bludgullet. Vizka's brother Codj sets it on fire. Meanwhile, at the mountain stronghold Salamandastron, the Badger Lord Asheye has foreseen that an unknown badger will succeed him in autumn.

He sends "Mad" Maudie, to search for the badger. After a series of events, Maudie finds herself trapped by sand lizards. At the same time, a young hedgehog called Orkwil Prink is expelled from Redwall Abbey due to thieving. Meanwhile, the captured Gorath swears to kill Codj for the deaths of his grandparents, the crew soon realize Gorath is a dangerous beast when he kills a taunting weasel; the ambitious Vizka decides to recruit Gorath into his crew. Maudie, has been rescued from the sand lizards by an owl named Asio Bardwing, he agrees to lead her to the Guosim shrews who will take her to Redwall, where Lord Asheye ordered her to go. They locate the Guosim. Vizka soon realizes that Gorath would rather die than join his crew, so he starves him. However, before Gorath dies, Codj captures Orkwil Prink. Being a thief, Orkwil soon frees Gorath. During the escape, Gorath kills Codj. Maudie and the Guosim are being tagged by another vermin band: the Brownrats, headed by the fat Gruntan Kurdly, who wanted the Guosim's logboats.

They meet up with Barbowla the otter, his holt, the squirrel Rangval the Rogue. A baby shrew is kidnapped by the Brownrats. Gorath and Orkwil have made it to Redwall and have warned Abbot Daucus and Skipper Rorc of the approaching Sea Raiders, they are joined by Rangval and his otters and the Guosim. Maudie appears bringing the baby shrew and the news that the Log-a-Log was killed, his son swears revenge on the Brownrats. Vizka had captured a mean vole and ordered him to disguise himself to gain entrance to Redwall, which he wants to conquer; this scheme fails, the vole is captured by the Redwallers. Vizka decides to tunnel his way in. However, his crew encounters the scouts of the Brownrats. Gorath gets restless, he escapes during the middle of a feast and Orkwil and Maudie set out in search of him. However, just as they were leaving, the vole kills a Sister of Redwall, steals the Sword of Martin the Warrior and runs off. Gorath, in the grip of a berserk rage, sweeps in on a horde of Brownrats, killing dozens.

Soon afterwards, one of Vizka's Sea Raiders encounters the vole. He steals the sword and heads back to Vizka's force. Orkwil and Maudie find the vole's body. Vizka, nearby, hears the trio talking and captures them. A little the Sea Raider with Martin's sword returns to Vizka, who promptly kills him because he wants the sword. Vizka leaves with his horde, telling 3 vermin to guard her companions. Gorath faints; when he comes round, he finds himself in company with two badgers: the young female Salixa and her mentor the Tabura. They return to Redwall, where Salixa leave the Tabura; the two young badgers, who are both falling in love with each other, head out looking for Vizka and his crew. The duo soon are surrounded by the vermin on top of a plateau with the Guosim, Barbowla and no rations. Maudie and Rangval, disguised as vermin, join Gorath's army on the plateau. In the process of sneaking up to it, at some point they lose Orkwil. Gruntan Kurdly, has been killed by a swan. Vizka takes control of the orders them to besiege the plateau.

Just as Gorath's army is about to be annihilated, Orkwil reappears leading a horde of Redwallers. They kill Vizka and five vermin escape. Gorath pursues Vizka through Mossflower Wood. Vizka's vermin desert him, Vizka returns to the Bludgullet, anchored in the River Moss. However, Gorath is there and kills Vizka in an amazing fight with his friends watching; the Bludgullet is renamed the Eulalia and Gorath, Orkwil, Maudie and the Guosim sail down the River Moss to Salamandastron, where Lord Asheye gives the title of Badger Lord to Gorath. In the celebrations that follow, Lord Asheye realizes that it is near autumn and that he must depart Salamandastron. To cheer Asheye up, Salixa sings a song. Asheye recognizes the song, realizes the Tabura is his long-lost brother Melutar. Asheye and his friend Maj