Diplomatic career of Muhammad
Muhammad is documented as having engaged as a diplomat during his propagation of Islam and leadership over the growing Muslim Ummah. He established a method of communication with other tribal or national leaders through letters, assigned envoys, or by visiting them personally, instances of written correspondence include letters to Heraclius, the Negus and Khosrau. Although it is likely that Muhammad had initiated contact with leaders within the Arabian Peninsula. When Muhammad arrived in Medina in 622, local tribes, mainly the Banu Aus, Muhammad addressed this by establishing the Constitution of Medina, a document which regulated interactions between the different factions, to which the respective parties agreed. This was a different role for him, as he had remained only a religious figure during his time in Mecca, the result was the eventual formation of a united community in Medina, as well as the political supremacy of Muhammad. Muhammad participated in agreements and pledges such as Pledges of al-Aqaba, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, and he reportedly used a silver seal on letters sent to other notable leaders who were requested to convert to Islam.
Hilf al-Fudul was a created by Muhammad in the pre-Islamic era. Muhammads commencement of public preaching brought him opposition from the leading tribe of Mecca. Although Muhammad himself was safe from persecution due to protection from his uncle, Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, a number of Muslims were mistreated by the Quraysh, some reportedly beaten, imprisoned, or starved. It was then, in 615, that Muhammad resolved to send fifteen Muslims to emigrate to Axum to receive protection under the Christian ruler, the Negus, Aṣḥama ibn Abjar. Emigration was a means through which some of the Muslims could escape the difficulties and persecution faced at the hands of the Quraysh, it opened up new trading prospects. The Quraysh, on hearing the attempted emigration, dispatched a group led by Amr ibn al-As and they were unsuccessful in their chase however as the Muslims had already reached safe territory, and so approached the Negus, appealing to him to return the Muslim migrants. Jafar ibn Abī Tālib is quoted according to Islamic tradition as follows, for this reason, our people have risen against us, have persecuted us in order to make us forsake the worship of Allah and return to the worship of idols and other abominations.
They have tortured and injured us, until finding no safety among them, we have come to your country, the Negus, seemingly impressed, consequently allowed the migrants to stay, sending back the emissaries of Quraysh. It is thought that the Negus may have converted to Islam, in early June 619, Muhammad set out from Mecca to travel to the town of Taif in order to convene with its chieftains, and mainly those of Banu Thaqif. The reason for Muhammad directing his efforts towards Taif may have due to the lack of positive response from the people of Mecca to his message until then. Having been beset and pursued out of Taif, the wounded Muhammad sought refuge in a nearby orchard, resting under a grape vine, it is here that he invoked God, seeking comfort and protection. Muhammad is said to have rejected the proposition, saying that he would pray in the hopes of succeeding generations of Taif coming to accept Islamic monotheism, in the summer of 620 during the pilgrimage season, six men travelling from Medina came into contact with Muhammad
Muhammad is the prophet of Islam. From a secular historical perspective he was a religious, from an Islamic perspective, he was Gods Messenger sent to confirm the essential teachings of monotheism preached previously by Adam, Moses and other prophets. He is viewed as the prophet of God in all branches of Islam. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity and ensured that his teachings, born approximately 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at an early age, he was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib. Muhammad gained few early followers, and met hostility from some Meccan tribes, to escape persecution, Muhammad sent some followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, in Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent conflict with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts, the attack went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed.
In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill, before his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. The revelations, which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the Word of God and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammads teachings and practices, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are upheld by Muslims. The name Muhammad means praiseworthy and appears four times in the Quran, Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address, thus he is referred to as the enwrapped in Quran 73,1 and the shrouded in Quran 74,1. In Sura Al-Ahzab 33,40 God singles out Muhammad as the Seal of the Prophets, the Quran refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad more praiseworthy. The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, the Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe it represents the words of God revealed by the archangel Gabriel to Muhammad, the Quran, provides minimal assistance for Muhammads chronological biography, most Quranic verses do not provide significant historical context.
An important source may be found in the works by writers of the 2nd. These include the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which additional information about Muhammads life. The earliest surviving written sira is Ibn Ishaqs Life of Gods Messenger written c.767 CE, although the work was lost, this sira was used verbatim at great length by Ibn Hisham and Al-Tabari. Another early history source is the history of Muhammads campaigns by al-Waqidi, many scholars accept the earliest biographies as accurate, though their accuracy is unascertainable
Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. With its capital at Asmara, it is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, the northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has an area of approximately 117,600 km2. Its toponym Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea, Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups in its population of around six million. Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches, among these communities, the Tigrinya make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities, most people in the territory adhere to Christianity or Islam. In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri kingdom, the creation of modern-day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent, distinct kingdoms and sultanates eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea.
In 1947 Eritrea became part of a federation with Ethiopia, the Federation of Ethiopia, subsequent annexation into Ethiopia led to the Eritrean War of Independence, ending with Eritrean independence following a referendum in April 1993. Hostilities between Eritrea and Ethiopia persisted, leading to the Eritrean–Ethiopian War of 1998–2000 and further skirmishes with both Djibouti and Ethiopia, Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have been repeatedly postponed. According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean governments human rights record is considered among the worst in the world, the Eritrean government has dismissed these allegations as politically motivated. The compulsory military service requires lengthy, indefinite conscription periods, which some Eritreans leave the country in order to avoid, since all local media is state-owned, Eritrea was ranked as having the least press freedom in the global Press Freedom Index. Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, and IGAD, during the Middle Ages, the Eritrea region was known as Medri Bahri.
The name Eritrea is derived from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea and it was first formally adopted in 1890, with the formation of Italian Eritrea. The territory became the Eritrea Governorate within Italian East Africa in 1936, Eritrea was annexed by Ethiopia in 1953 and an Eritrean Liberation Front formed in 1960. Eritrea gained independence following the 1993 referendum, and the name of the new state was defined as State of Eritrea in the 1997 constitution. At Buya in Eritrea, one of the oldest hominids representing a link between Homo erectus and an archaic Homo sapiens was found by Italian scientists. Dated to over 1 million years old, it is the oldest skeletal find of its kind, during the last interglacial period, the Red Sea coast of Eritrea was occupied by early anatomically modern humans. It is believed that the area was on the out of Africa that some scholars suggest was used by early humans to colonize the rest of the Old World
Mecca or Makkah is a city in the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia that is capital of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km inland from Jeddah in a valley at a height of 277 m above sea level. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although more than triple this number every year during the hajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhu al-Hijjah. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islams holiest site, Mecca was long ruled by Muhammads descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925, during this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj, as a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world, despite the fact that non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the spelling in the 1980s. The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means Mecca the Honored, the ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure, the form Bakkah is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3,96, while the form Mecca is used in 48,24. In South Arabic, the language in use in the portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call it Umm al-Qurā, another name of Mecca is Tihamah. Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah, yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was an arabized Hebrew word. One of the names of Mecca mentioned in the Torah, Mecca is governed by the Municipality of Mecca, a municipal council of fourteen locally elected members headed by a mayor appointed by the Saudi government. As of May 2015, the mayor of the city was Dr.
Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar, Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region, which includes neighboring Jeddah. The provincial governor was prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud from 2000 until his death in 2007, on 16 May 2007, prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud was appointed as the new governor. The early history of Mecca is still disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam. The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejaz in 106 AD, ruling cities such as Hegra, even though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca. The first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 AD in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, claims have been made this could be a reference to the Kaaba in Mecca
Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north and northeast and Somalia to the east and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With nearly 100 million inhabitants, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and it occupies a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres, and its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa. Some of the oldest evidence for modern humans has been found in Ethiopia. It is widely considered as the region from modern humans first set out for the Middle East. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations settled in the Horn region during the ensuing Neolithic era, tracing its roots to the 2nd millennium BC, Ethiopia was a monarchy for most of its history. During the first centuries AD, the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region, many African nations adopted the colors of Ethiopias flag following their independence.
It was the first independent African member of the 20th-century League of Nations, Ethiopias ancient Geez script, known as Ethiopic, is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world. The Ethiopian calendar, which is seven years and three months behind the Gregorian calendar, co-exists alongside the Borana calendar. A slight majority of the population adheres to Christianity, while around a third follows Islam, the country is the site of the Migration to Abyssinia and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. A substantial population of Ethiopian Jews, known as Bete Israel, resided in Ethiopia until the 1980s, Ethiopia is a multilingual nation with around 80 ethnolinguistic groups, the four largest of which are the Oromiffa, Amhara and Tigrayans. Most people in the country speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches, Omotic languages are spoken by ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by the nations Nilotic ethnic minorities.
Ethiopia is the place of origin for the coffee bean which originated from the place called Kefa and it is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile West and numerous rivers, and the worlds hottest settlement of Dallol in its north. The Ethiopian Highlands are Africas largest continuous mountain ranges, and Sof Omar Caves contain Africas largest cave, Ethiopia has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. Ethiopia is one of the members of the UN, the Group of 24, the Non-Aligned Movement, G-77. In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethiopia suffered from civil wars, the country has begun to recover recently however, and now has the largest economy in East Africa and Central Africa. According to Global Fire Power, Ethiopia has the 42nd most powerful military in the world, the origin of the word Ethiopia is uncertain
'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf
Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. His original name was Abdul Amr and it was Muhammad who renamed him Abd al-Rahman. His name has transliterated as Abdel Rahman Ibn Auf. Abu Bakr spoke to Abd al-Rahman about Islam, invited him to meet Muhammad and this was before the Muslims had entered the house of Al-Arqam, Abd al-Rahman was one of the first eight men to accept Islam. From about 614 the pagan Quraysh in Mecca showed their enmity to all those who followed the apostle, the usual threat to Muslim merchants was, We will boycott your goods and reduce you to beggary. Abd al-Rahman was one of a party of fifteen Muslims who emigrated to Abyssinia in 615. Other Muslims joined them later, forming a group of over a hundred and they were safely ensconced there and grateful for the protection of the Negus, could serve God without fear, and the Negus had shown them every hospitality. In late 619 or early 620 they heard that the Meccans had accepted Islam and this probably refers to the Gharaniq episode.
Abd al-Rahman was one of forty who set out for the homeland, but when they got near Mecca they learned that the report was false, so that they entered the town under the protection of a citizen or by stealth. In 622 Abd al-Rahman joined the emigration of Muslims to Medina. Abd al-Rahman was friends with Umayyah ibn Khalaf, an opponent of Islam. When Abd al-Rahman wanted to sign the document, Umayyah protested, saying I do not know Ar-Rahman and requested that the pre-Islamic name Abdu Amr should be used, the two met again in the Battle of Badr in March 624. A narration attributed to Abd-al-Rahman ibn Awf reports, On the day of Badr, Bilal saw him and went to a gathering of Ansar and said, Umaiya bin Khalaf. So, a group of Ansar went out with Bilal to follow us, being afraid that they would catch us, I left Umaiyas son for them to keep them busy but the Ansar killed the son and insisted on following us. Do not be deceitful with the spoil, do not be treacherous, nor mutilate and this is God’s ordinance and the practice of His prophet among you.
”Muhammad instructed him on the correct way to wind a turban. Abd al-Rahman defeated the Kalbites and extracted from them their declaration of Islam and he sealed the alliance by marrying the chiefs daughter Tamadur bint Al-Asbagh and bringing her back to Medina. In August 634 the dying Caliph Abu Bakr called in Abd al-Rahman and Uthman to inform them that he had designated Umar ibn al-Khattab as successor, in 644, the dying Umar nominated a board of six members to elect one of themselves as the next caliph. The group consisted of Sad Ibn Abi Waqqas, Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf, Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Talha ibn Ubayd Allah, Ali ibn Abi Talib, Uthman was chosen as the third caliph by Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf
A caliphate is an area containing an Islamic steward known as a caliph —a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet, and a leader of the entire Muslim community. During the history of Islam after the Rashidun period, many Muslim states, the Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a caliph should be elected by Muslims or their representatives. Followers of Shia Islam, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt, before the advent of Islam, Arabian monarchs traditionally used the title malik, or another from the same root. The term caliph, derives from the Arabic word khalīfah, which means successor, however, studies of pre-Islamic texts suggest that the original meaning of the phrase was successor selected by God. There was no specified procedure for this shura or consultation, candidates were usually, but not necessarily, from the same lineage as the deceased leader. Capable men who would lead well were preferred over an ineffectual heir, Sunni Muslims believe that Abu Bakr was chosen by the community and that this was the proper procedure.
Sunnis further argue that a caliph should ideally be chosen by election or community consensus, the Shia believe that Ali, the son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad, was chosen by Muhammad as his spiritual and temporal successor as the Mawla of all Muslims in the event of Ghadir Khumm. The caliph was often known as Amir al-Muminin, Muhammad established his capital in Medina, after he died, it remained the capital during the Rashidun Caliphate, before Kufa was reportedly made the capital by Caliph Ali. At times there have been rival claimant caliphs in different parts of the Islamic world, according to Sunni Muslims, the first caliph to be called Amir al-Muminin was Abu Bakr, followed by Umar, the second of the Rashidun. Uthman and Ali were called by the title, while the Shia consider Ali to have been the only truly legitimate caliph. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk officially abolished the system of Caliphate in Islam as part of his secular reforms, the Kings of Morocco still label themselves with the title Amir al-Muminin for the Moroccans, but lay no claim to the Caliphate.
Some Muslim countries, including Somalia and Malaysia, were never subject to the authority of a Caliphate, with the exception of Aceh, these countries had their own, sultans or rulers who did not fully accept the authority of the Caliph. Abu Bakr, the first successor of Muhammad, nominated Umar as his successor on his deathbed, the second caliph, was killed by a Persian named Piruz Nahavandi. His successor, was elected by a council of electors, Uthman was killed by members of a disaffected group. Ali took control but was not universally accepted as caliph by the governors of Egypt and he faced two major rebellions and was assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Khawarij. Alis tumultuous rule lasted only five years and this period is known as the Fitna, or the first Islamic civil war. The followers of Ali became the Shia minority sect of Islam, the followers of all four Rashidun Caliphs became the majority Sunni sect. Under the Rashidun each region of the Caliphate had its own governor, Muawiyah, a relative of Uthman and governor of Syria, succeeded Ali as Caliph
Ja'far ibn Abi Talib
Ja’far ibn Abi Talib, known as Ja’far al-Tayyar, was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and an older brother of Ali. Jafar was the son of Abu Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib and Fatima bint Asad. His older brothers were Talib and Aqil, his brothers were Ali and Tulayq. When there was a drought in Mecca, Abu Talib could not afford to support his family and his brother Abbas therefore took charge of the young Jafar. Jafar was a convert to Islam. He married Asma bint Umays, who converted to Islam in 614-615, when the Muslims were harassed in Mecca, several of them migrated to Abyssinia. Ja’far joined the flight in 616. There they obtained the protection of the Negus, Ashama ibn Abjar, Ja’far and Asma lived in Abyssinia for about twelve years. Three sons were born to them there, Muhammad, the Quraysh, suspicious of their motives for leaving Arabia, sent Abdullah ibn Abi Rabiah and Amr ibn al-As to negotiate with the Negus to bring the emigrants back to Mecca. They gave presents of leather-goods to the Negus and his officials, the Negus replied that he had promised protection to the Muslims and therefore could not hand them over without hearing their side of the story.
When the Muslims were called to answer to the Negus, Ja’far was their spokesman, the Negus asked them what was the religion for which they had forsaken their people, without entering into his religion or any other. Ja’far replied, “We were an uncivilised people, God sent us an apostle who commanded us to speak the truth, be faithful to our engagements, mindful of the ties of kinship and kindly hospitality, and to refrain from crimes and bloodshed. He forbade us to commit abominations and to speak lies, and to devour the property of orphans and he commanded us to worship God alone and not to associate anything with Him, and he gave us orders about prayer and fasting. So we believed in him and what he brought to us from Allah, Ja’far recited for him the first portion of Surah Maryam, which narrates the story of Jesus and his mother Mary. On hearing the words of the Quran, “the Negus wept until his beard was wet, the two Quraysh delegates alleged that the Muslims called Jesus a created being, so the Negus asked Ja’far what he thought of Jesus.
Ja’far answered, “Our prophet says he is God’s slave, apostle and word and he accompanied Sad ibn Abi Waqqas and others in their mission to the Chittagong-Manipur-Tibet-Khotan-China region. The Muslims of the oasis-city of Khotan trace their origin to Ja’far, arnold claims that “there is not the slightest historical base for this legend. ”In summer 628 the last of the Muslim immigrants departed from Abyssinia to join the Muslim community in Medina. Ja’far and his family were among them, on arriving at Medina, Ja’far heard that Muhammad was in Khaybar
Jerusalem is a city located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is considered a city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, the part of Jerusalem called the City of David was settled in the 4th millennium BCE. In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent, today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger, Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old Citys boundaries. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, the sobriquet of holy city was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times. The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesuss crucifixion there, in Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina.
As a result, despite having an area of only 0, outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, one of Israels Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the countrys undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israels capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies. Jerusalem is home to some non-governmental Israeli institutions of importance, such as the Hebrew University. In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, a city called Rušalim in the Execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is widely, but not universally, identified as Jerusalem.
Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba, the name Jerusalem is variously etymologized to mean foundation of the god Shalem, the god Shalem was thus the original tutelary deity of the Bronze Age city. The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Bible, in the Book of Joshua, according to a Midrash, the name is a combination of Yhwh Yireh and the town Shalem. The earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem is dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE and was discovered in Khirbet Beit Lei near Beit Guvrin in 1961. The inscription states, I am Yahweh thy God, I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem, or as other scholars suggest, the mountains of Judah belong to him, to the God of Jerusalem
Leone Caetani, Duke of Sermoneta, was an Italian scholar and historian of the Middle East. He emigrated to Canada in 1927 with Ofelia Fabiani and they brought with them their daughter Sveva, who after an appalling childhood emerged as a highly talented painter. Caetani was born in Rome into the prominent and wealthy Caetani family and his paternal grandfather, had married the Polish countess Calixta Rzewuski, whose ancestor Wacław Seweryn Rzewuski had been a well-known Polish orientalist. Caetani developed an interest in languages at an early age. At 15 he began to study Sanskrit and Arabic on his own, he studied Oriental languages at the University of Rome, under Ignazio Guidi and Giacomo Lignana, with an intensive study of Arabic, Persian and Syriac languages. Later, one of his disciples was Giorgio Levi Della Vida and he had become a corresponding member of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in 1911 and a full member in 1919. Later on, he left his library to the Lincei to create the Caetani foundation for Muslim studies.
Leone Caetani served as a deputy of the Italian Parliament and he had married Vittoria Colonna, daughter of Marcantonio VI prince of Paliano, from which he separated, since 1917 he had succeeded his father as Prince of Teano and Duke of Sermoneta. He become a Canadian citizen, in 1935 the Fascist regime stripped him of his Italian citizenship and expelled him from the Accademia dei Lincei, he died soon afterwards in the same year in Vancouver. It is still regarded today as a milestone in Islamic studies, Caetani claimed that most of the early traditions of Islam could be dismissed as fabrications by generations of authors. He suggested that the Arab conquests during the era of Islam were driven not by religion but by material want. Caetani was not a Muslim and he did not believe in the truth of the Quran. Instead his views about its origins were as follows, as long as Muhammad was alive, he could answer any doctrinal questions that arose, so there was little attention paid to written documents.
The reign of his successor Abu Bakr was characterized by increasing confusion as multiple written, to his great credit, Uthman understood the danger of this situation, he had an official version of the Quran developed and ordered the destruction of all unapproved versions. One of Leone Caetanis studies and the Recension of the Koran, is included as a chapter in The Origins of The Koran, Classic Essays on Islam’s Holy Book edited by Ibn Warraq