Neanderthal extinction began around 40,000 years ago in the Paleolithic Europe, after anatomically modern humans had reached the continent. This date, based on research published in Nature in 2014, is much earlier than previous estimates, it was established through improved radio carbon dating methods analyzing 40 sites from Spain to Russia; the survey did not include sites in Asia. Evidence for continued Neanderthal presence in the Iberian Peninsula at 37,000 years ago was published in 2017. Hypotheses on the fate of the Neanderthals include violence from encroaching anatomically modern humans and pathogens, competitive replacement, competitive exclusion, extinction by interbreeding with early modern human populations, natural catastrophes, failure or inability to adapt to climate change, it is unlikely. In research published in Nature in 2014, an analysis of radiocarbon dates from forty Neanderthal sites from Spain to Russia found that the Neanderthals disappeared in Europe between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago with 95% probability.
The study found with the same probability that modern humans and Neanderthals overlapped in Europe for between 2,600 and 5,400 years. Modern humans reached Europe between 43,000 years ago. Improved radiocarbon dating published in 2015 indicates that Neanderthals disappeared around 40,000 years ago, which overturns older carbon dating which indicated that Neanderthals may have lived as as 24,000 years ago, including in refugia on the south coast of the Iberian peninsula such as Gorham's Cave. Zilhão et al. argue for pushing this date forward to 37,000 years ago. Inter-stratification of Neanderthal and modern human remains is disputed; some authors have discussed the possibility that Neanderthal extinction was either precipitated or hastened by violent conflict with Homo sapiens. Conflict and warfare are ubiquitous features of hunter-gatherer societies, including conflicts over limited resources, such as prey and water, it is therefore plausible to suggest that violence, including primitive warfare, would have transpired between the two human species.
The hypothesis that early humans violently replaced Neanderthals was first proposed by French palaeontologist Marcellin Boule in 1912. Several finds in both Homo-sapiens and Neanderthal bones indicate inter-species aggression from injuries that could only have come from spear or other projectile tips crafted with prevalent tool-making methods contemporary to the time. Another possibility is the spread among the Neanderthal population of pathogens or parasites carried by Homo sapiens. Neanderthals would have limited immunity to diseases they had not been exposed to, so diseases carried into Europe by Homo sapiens could have been lethal to them if Homo sapiens were resistant. If it were easy for pathogens to leap between these two similar species because they lived in close proximity Homo sapiens would have provided a pool of individuals capable of infecting Neanderthals and preventing the epidemic from burning itself out as Neanderthal population fell. On the other hand, the same mechanism could work in reverse, the resistance of Homo sapiens to Neanderthal pathogens and parasites would need explanation.
An examination of human and Neanderthal genomes and adaptations regarding pathogens or parasites may shed light on this issue. Slight competitive advantage on the part of modern humans has accounted for Neanderthals' decline on a timescale of thousands of years. Small and widely-dispersed fossil sites suggest that Neanderthals lived in less numerous and more isolated groups than contemporary Homo sapiens. Tools such as Mousterian flint stone flakes and Levallois points are remarkably sophisticated from the outset, yet they have a slow rate of variability and general technological inertia is noticeable during the entire fossil period. Artifacts are of utilitarian nature, symbolic behavioral traits are undocumented before the arrival of modern humans in Europe around 40,000 to 35,000 years ago. Jared Diamond, supporter of competitive replacement, points out in his book The Third Chimpanzee that the genocidal replacement of Neanderthals by modern humans is comparable to patterns of behavior that occur whenever people with advanced technology clash with less advanced people.
In 2006, two anthropologists of the University of Arizona proposed an efficiency explanation for the demise of the Neanderthals. In an article titled "What's a Mother to Do? The Division of Labor among Neanderthals and Modern Humans in Eurasia", it was posited that Neanderthal division of labor between the sexes was less developed than Middle paleolithic Homo sapiens. Both male and female Neanderthals participated in the single occupation of hunting big game, such as bison, deer and wild horses; this hypothesis proposes that the Neanderthal's relative lack of labor division resulted in less efficient extraction of resources from the environment as compared to Homo sapiens. Researchers such as Karen L. Steudel of the University of Wisconsin have highlighted the relationship of Neanderthal anatomy and the ability to run and the requirement of energy. In the recent study, researchers Martin Hora and Vladimir Sladek of Charles University in Prague show that Neanderthal lower limb configuration the combination of robust knees, long heels and short lower limbs, i
The Mousterian is a techno-complex of flint lithic tools associated with the earliest anatomically modern humans in North Africa and West Asia, as well as with the Neanderthals in Europe. The Mousterian defines the latter part of the Middle Paleolithic, the middle of the West Eurasian Old Stone Age, it lasted from 160,000 to 40,000 BP. If its predecessor, known as Levallois or "Levallois-Mousterian" is included, the range is extended to as early as c. 300,000–200,000 BP. The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier, three superimposed rock shelters in the Dordogne region of France. Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe and the Near East and North Africa. Handaxes and points constitute the industry; the European Mousterian is the product of Neanderthals. It existed from 160,000 to 40,000 BP; some assemblages, namely those from Pech de l'Aze, include exceptionally small points prepared using the Levallois technique among other prepared core types, causing some researchers to suggest that these flakes take advantage of greater grip strength possessed by Neanderthals.
In North Africa and the Near East, Mousterian tools were produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Levant, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans; the Mousterian industry in North Africa is estimated to be 315,000 years old. Possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian named after the Charente region and the Acheulean Tradition - Type-A and Type-B; the industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian industry during the 45,000-40,000 BP period. Mousterian artifacts have been found in Haua Fteah in Cyrenaica and other sites in Northwest Africa, as well as in Bambata cave, Zimbabwe, in Southern Africa. Contained within a cave in the Syria region, along with a Neanderthaloid skeleton. Located in the Haibak valley of Afghanistan. Zagros and Central Iran The archaeological site of Atapuerca, contains Mousterian objects. Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar contains Mousterian objects. Uzbekistan has sites including Teshik-Tash.
Turkmenistan has Mousterian relics. Siberia has many sites with eg Denisova Cave. Israel is one of the places where remains of both Neandertals and Homo sapiens sapiens have been found in association with Mousterian artifacts. Lynford Quarry near near Mundford, England has yielded Mousterian tools The archaeological cave site of Azykh contains Mousterian relics in the overlying strata. In this cave low jaw of hominid named “Azykhantrop” has been found, it is supposed that this finding belongs to “pre-neanderthal” species Neanderthal extinction hypotheses Levallois technique Neanderthals’ Last Stand Is Traced — New York Times article
Juan Luis Arsuaga
Juan Luis Arsuaga Ferreras is a Spanish paleoanthropologist and author known for his work in the Atapuerca Archaeological Site. He obtained a master's degree and a doctorate in Biological Sciences at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, where he is professor in the Paleontology Department of the Faculty of Geological Sciences; as a child he showed a great interest in prehistory after reading The Quest for Fire and visiting a dig in nearby Bilbao. Arsuaga is a visiting professor of the Department of Anthropology at the University College of London and since 1982 he has been a member of the Research Team investigating Pleistocene deposits in the Atapuerca Mountains, he has been a co-director since 1991 with José María Bermúdez de Castro and Eudald Carbonell Roura of the Atapuerca Team, awarded the Prince of Asturias Prize in "Scientific and Technical Research" category and the Castilla León Prize in "Social Sciences and Humanities" category, both in 1997. The finds at Atapuerca have shed new light on the first humans in Europe.
This contrasts with the secretive atmosphere surrounding the digs to near Orce, in southern Spain, which has yielded tools indicating human presence that predate the finds at Atapuerca. In 2013, Arsuaga co-authored a paper which reported the finding of the oldest human DNA dating back 400,000 years; the mitochondrial DNA that stemmed from a fossil found in a cave in Sima de los Huesos had similarities to mitochondrial genomes found in the extinct Denisovans in Siberia. A member of the Musée de l'Homme from Paris, of the International Association for the Study of Human Paleontology, he is vice-president of the Commission of Human Paleontology and Paleoecology of the International Union for Quaternary Research, he has been a lecturer at the universities of London, Zurich, Arizona, Berkeley, New York, Tel Aviv, among others. He authored and/or published several scientific publications in Nature, Journal of Archaeological Science, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Journal of Human Evolution.
Amalur, 2002 Atapuerca, un millón de años de historia, 1999 El enigma de la esfinge, 2001 El collar del neandertal, 1999 The Neanderthal's Necklace: In Search of the First Thinkers, 2009 La especie elegida, 1998 with Ignacio Martínez El primer viaje de nuestra vida, 2012 Atapuerca Website Biography at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Neanderthals are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived within Eurasia from circa 400,000 until 40,000 years ago. The earliest fossils of Neanderthals in Europe are dated between 450,000 and 430,000 years ago, thereafter Neanderthals expanded into Southwest and Central Asia, they are known from numerous fossils, as well as stone tool assemblages. All assemblages younger than 160,000 years are of the so-called Mousterian techno-complex, characterised by tools made out of stone flakes; the type specimen is Neanderthal 1, found in Neander Valley in the German Rhineland, in 1856. Compared to modern humans, Neanderthals were stockier, with bigger bodies. In conformance with Bergmann's rule, as well as Allen's rule, this was was an adaptation to preserve heat in cold climates. Male and female Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1,600 cm3 and 1,300 cm3 within the range of the values for anatomically modern humans. Average males stood around females 152 to 156 cm tall.
There has been growing evidence for admixture between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans, reflected in the genomes of all modern non-African populations but not in the genomes of most sub-Saharan Africans. This suggests that interbreeding between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans took place after the recent "out of Africa" migration, around 70,000 years ago. Recent admixture analyses have added to the complexity, finding that Eastern Neanderthals derived up to 2% of their ancestry from anatomically modern humans who left Africa some 100,000 years ago. Neanderthals are named after one of the first sites where their fossils were discovered in the mid-19th century in the Neander Valley, just east of Düsseldorf, at the time in the Rhine Province of the Kingdom of Prussia; the valley itself was named for Joachim Neander, Neander being the graecicized form of the surname Neumann. The German spelling of Thal "Valley" was current in the 19th century. Neanderthal 1 was known as the "Neanderthal cranium" or "Neanderthal skull" in anthropological literature, the individual reconstructed on the basis of the skull was called "the Neanderthal man".
The binomial name Homo neanderthalensis—extending the name "Neanderthal man" from the individual type specimen to the entire group—was first proposed by the Anglo-Irish geologist William King in a paper read to the British Association in 1863, although in the following year he stated that the specimen was not human and rejected the name. King's name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Homo stupidus. Popular English usage of "Neanderthal" as shorthand for "Neanderthal man", as in "the Neanderthals" or "a Neanderthal", emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. Since the historical spelling -th- in German represents the phoneme /t/ or /tʰ/, not the fricative /θ/, standard British pronunciation of "Neanderthal" is with /t/; because of the usual sound represented by digraph ⟨th⟩ in English, "Neanderthal" is pronounced with the voiceless fricative /θ/, at least in "layman's American English". The spelling Neandertal is seen in English in scientific publications. Since "Neanderthal", or "Neandertal", is a common name, there is no authoritative prescription on its spelling, unlike the spelling of the binominal name H. neanderthalensis, predicated by King 1864.
The common name in German is always invariably Neandertaler, not Neandertal, but the spelling of the name of the Neander Valley itself has been affected by the species name, the names of the Neanderthal Museum and of Neanderthal station persisting with pre-1900 orthography. Since the discovery of the Neanderthal fossils, expert opinion has been divided as to whether Neanderthals should be considered a separate species or a subspecies relative to modern humans. Pääbo described such "taxonomic wars" as unresolveable in principle, "since there is no definition of species describing the case." The question depends on the definition of Homo sapiens as a chronospecies, in flux throughout the 20th century. Authorities preferring classification of Neanderthals as subspecies have introduced the subspecies name Homo sapiens sapiens for the anatomically modern Cro-Magnon population which lived in Europe at the same time as Neanderthals, while authorities preferring classification as separate species use Homo sapiens as equivalent to "anatomically modern humans".
During the early 20th century, a prevailing view of Neanderthals as "simian", influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, tended to exaggerate the anatomical differences between Neanderthals and Cro Magnon. Beginning in the 1930s, revised reconstructions of Neanderthals emphasized the similarity rather than differences from modern humans. From the 1940s throughout the 1970s, it was common to use the subspecies classification of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis vs. Homo sapiens sapiens; the hypothesis of "multiregional origin" of modern man was formulated in the 1980s on such grounds, arguing for the presence of an unbroken succession of fossil sites in both Europe and Asia. Hybridization between Neanderthals and Cro Magnon had been suggested on skeletal and craniological grounds since the early 20th century, found increasing support in the 20th century, until Neanderthal admixture was found to be present in modern populations genet
Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, which radiated in the Middle Pleistocene from about 700,000 to 300,000 years ago, known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe. African H. heidelbergensis has several subspecies. The subspecies are Homo heidelbergensis heidelbergensis, Homo heidelbergensis daliensis, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis steinheimensi; the derivation of Homo sapiens from Homo rhodesiensis has been proposed, but is obscured by a fossil gap from 400–260 kya. The species was named Homo heidelbergensis due to the skeleton's first discovery near Heidelberg, Germany; the first discovery—a mandible—was made in 1907 by Otto Schoetensack. The skulls of this species share features with both Homo erectus and the anatomically modern Homo sapiens; the Sima de los Huesos cave at Atapuerca in northern Spain holds rich layers of deposits where excavations were still in progress as of 2018. H. Heidelbergensis was dispersed throughout Southern Africa as well as Europe.
Its exact relation both to the earlier Homo antecessor and Homo ergaster, to the lineages of Neanderthals and modern humans is unclear. Homo sapiens has been proposed as derived from H. heidelbergensis via Homo rhodesiensis, present in East and North Africa from around 400,000 years ago. The correct assignment of many fossils to a particular chronospecies is difficult and differences in opinion ensue among paleoanthropologists due to the absence of universally accepted dividing lines between Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis and Neanderthals, it is uncertain whether H. heidelbergensis is ancestral to Homo sapiens, as a fossil gap in Africa between 400,000 and 260,000 years ago obscures the presumed derivation of H. sapiens from H. rhodesiensis. Genetic analysis of the Sima de los Huesos fossils seems to suggest that H. heidelbergensis in its entirety should be included in the Neanderthal lineage, as "pre-Neanderthal" or "archaic Neanderthal" or "early Neanderthal", while the divergence time between the Neanderthal and modern lineages has been pushed back to before the emergence of H. heidelbergensis, to about 600,000 to 800,000 years ago, the approximate time of disappearance of Homo antecessor.
The delineation between early H. heidelbergensis and H. erectus is unclear. Given the evidence, it means there is no direct evidence that suggest the Homo heidelbergensis is related to modern-day humans. H. heidelbergensis is thought to be derived from Homo antecessor, around 800,000 to 700,000 years ago. The oldest-known fossil classified as H. heidelbergensis dates to around 600,000 years ago, but the flint tools found in 2005 at Pakefield near Lowestoft in Suffolk with teeth from the water vole Mimomys savini, a key dating species, suggest human presence in England at 700,000 years ago, assumed to correspond to a transitional form between H. antecessor and H. heidelbergensis. Fifty prehistoric hominid footprints up to nearly one million years old were discovered in Happisburgh, England, they are members of Homo antecessor that lived from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago. In Europe, H. heidelbergensis is taken to have given rise to H. neanderthalensis at 240,000 years ago. Homo sapiens most derived from H. rhodesiensis after around 300,000 years ago.
A morphological separation of a European and an African branch of H. heidelbergensis during the Wolstonian Stage and Ipswichian Stage, the last of the prolonged Quaternary glacial periods, has been argued based on the evidence of the Atapuerca skull in Spain and the Kabwe skull in modern-day Zambia. Neither the derivation of H. heidelbergensis from H. erectus, nor the derivation of anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals from H. heidelbergensis, are clear-cut and are the object of debate. Both H. erectus and H. heidelbergensis are described as polytypic species, which went through a number of population bottlenecks and associated In the summary of Hublin, Middle Pleistocene humans in Eurasia underwent a succession of population bottlenecks due to glaciations. The "Western Eurasian clade" derived form H. rhodesiensis or H. heidelbergensis sensu lato diverge at MIS 12 but coalesce as late as MIS 5, suggesting a division between Eurasian H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis before MIS 11.
A fossil gap in Africa between 400 and 260 kya obscures the presumed derivation of H. sapiens from H. rhodesiensis. Chris Stringer argues for Homo heidelbergensis as an independent chronospecies. A 2013 genetic study on the Sima de los Huesos fossils classified them as H. heidelbergensis or "early Neanderthal". For more than half a century, many experts were reluctant to accept Homo heidelbergensis as a separate taxon due to the rarity of specimens, which prevented sufficient informative morphological comparisons and the distinction of H. heidelbergensis from other known human species. The species name "heidelbergensis" only experienced a renaissance with the many discoveries of Middle Pleistocene fossils since the 1990s; the paleontology institute at Heidelberg University, where the type specimen is kept since 1908, as late as 2010 still classified it as Homo erectus heidelbergensis, i.e. categorizing it as a Homo erectus subspecies. This was changed to Homo heidelbergensis, accepting the categorization as separate species, in 2015."Rhodesian Man" (Kab
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Interbreeding between archaic and modern humans
There is evidence for interbreeding between archaic and modern humans during the Middle Paleolithic and early Upper Paleolithic. The interbreeding happened in several independent events that included Neanderthals, Denisovans, as well as several unidentified hominins. In Eurasia, interbreeding between Neanderthals and Denisovans with modern humans took place several times; the introgression events into modern humans is estimated to have happened about 47,000–65,000 years ago with Neanderthals and about 44,000–54,000 years ago with Denisovans. Neanderthal-derived DNA was found in the genome of contemporary populations in Asia, it accounted for 1 -- 4 % of modern genomes. Neanderthal-derived ancestry is absent from most modern populations in sub-Saharan Africa, while Denisovan-derived ancestry is absent from modern populations in Western Eurasia and Africa. However, in Africa, archaic alleles consistent with several independent admixture events in the subcontinent have been found, it is unknown who these archaic African hominins were.
The highest rates of Denisovan admixture has been found in Oceanian and certain Southeast Asian populations, with an estimated 4–6% of the genome of modern Melanesians being derived from Denisovans for example. In addition, Denisovan-derived ancestry has been found in low trace amounts in mainland Asia, with a relative elevated Denisovan ancestry in South Asian populations. Regarding Neanderthal admixture, it is found in all non-African groups but varies between populations, it is highest in East Asians, intermediate in Europeans, lower in Southeast Asians. According to some evidence, it is lower in Melanesians compared to both East Asians and Europeans. However, some research finds higher Neanderthal admixture in Oceanians, as well as in Native American groups, than in Europeans. Although the narratives of human evolution are contentious, DNA evidence shows that human evolution should not be seen as a simple linear or branched progression, but a mix of related species. In fact, genomic research has shown that hybridization between diverged lineages is the rule, not the exception, in human evolution.
Furthermore, it is argued that hybridization was an essential driving force in the emergence of modern humans. On 7 May 2010, following the genome sequencing of three Vindija Neanderthals, a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome was published and revealed that Neanderthals shared more alleles with Eurasian populations than with sub-Saharan African populations. According to Green et al. the observed excess of genetic similarity is best explained by recent gene flow from Neanderthals to modern humans after the migration out of Africa. They estimated the proportion of Neanderthal-derived ancestry to be 1–4% of the Eurasian genome. Prüfer et al. estimated the proportion to be 1.5–2.1% for non-Africans, revised in 2017 to a higher 1.8–2.6% for non-Africans outside Oceania. Lohse and Frantz infer a higher rate of 3.4–7.3% in Eurasia. Prüfer et al. noted. About 20% of the Neanderthal genome has been found introgressed or assimilated in the modern human population, but the figure has been estimated at about a third.
A higher Neanderthal admixture was found in East Asians than in Europeans, estimated to be about 20% more introgression into East Asians. This could be explained by the occurrence of further admixture events in the early ancestors of East Asians after the separation of Europeans and East Asians, dilution of Neanderthal ancestry in Europeans by populations with low Neanderthal ancestry from migrations, or natural selection that may have been lower in East Asians than in Europeans. Studies simulating admixture models indicate that a reduced efficacy of purifying selection against Neanderthal alleles in East Asians could not account for the greater proportion of Neanderthal ancestry of East Asians, thus favoring more-complex models involving additional pulses of Neanderthal introgression into East Asians; such models show a pulse to ancestral Eurasians, followed by separation and an additional pulse to ancestral East Asians. It is observed that there is a small but significant variation of Neanderthal admixture rates within European populations, but no significant variation within East Asian populations.
Genomic analysis suggests that there is a global division in Neanderthal introgression between Sub-Saharan African populations and other modern human groups rather than between African and non-African populations. North African groups share a similar excess of derived alleles with Neanderthals as do non-African populations, whereas Sub-Saharan African groups are the only modern human populations that did not experience Neanderthal admixture; the Neanderthal genetic signal among North African populations was found to vary depending on the relative quantity of autochthonous North African, Near Eastern and Sub-Saharan ancestry. Using f4 ancestry ratio statistical analysis, the Neanderthal inferred admixture was observed to be: highest among the North African populations with maximal autochthonous North African ancestry such as Tunisian Berbers, where it was at the same level or higher than that of Eurasian populations. Quinto et al. therefore post