Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States. In 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a rumored Northeast Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle. In 1609 he landed in North America and explored the region around the modern New York metropolitan area, looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia on behalf of the Dutch East India Company, he sailed up the Hudson River, named after him, thereby laid the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region. Hudson discovered the Hudson Strait and the immense Hudson Bay on his final expedition, while still searching for the Northwest Passage. In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied; the mutineers cast Hudson, his son, seven others adrift. Besides being the namesake of numerous geographical features, Hudson is the namesake of the Hudson's Bay Company that explored and traded in the vast Hudson Bay watershed in the following centuries.
Details of Hudson's birth and early life are unknown. Some sources have identified Henry Hudson as having been born in about 1565, but others date his birth to around 1570. Other historians assert less certainty. Mancall, for instance, states that " was born in the 1560s," while Piers Pennington gives no date at all. Hudson is thought to have spent many years at sea, beginning as a cabin boy and working his way up to ship's captain. In 1607, the Muscovy Company of England hired Hudson to find a northerly route to the Pacific coast of Asia. At the time, the English were engaged in an economic battle with the Dutch for control of northwest routes, it was thought that, because the sun shone for three months in the northern latitudes in the summer, the ice would melt and a ship could make it across the "top of the world". On 1 May 1607, Hudson sailed with a crew of a boy on the 80-ton Hopewell, they reached the east coast of Greenland on 14 June. Here the party named a headland "Young's Cape", a "very high mount, like a round castle" near it "Mount of God's Mercy" and land at 73° north latitude "Hold-with-Hope".
After turning east, they sighted "Newland" on the 27th, near the mouth of the great bay Hudson simply named the "Great Indraught". On 13 July and his crew estimated that they had sailed as far north as 80° 23' N, but more only reached 79° 23' N; the following day they entered what Hudson in the voyage named "Whales Bay", naming its northwestern point "Collins Cape" after his boatswain, William Collins. They sailed north the following two days. On the 16th they reached as far north as Hakluyt's Headland at 79° 49' N, thinking they saw the land continue to 82° N when it trended to the east. Encountering ice packed along the north coast, they were forced to turn back south. Hudson wanted to make his return "by the north of Greenland to Davis his Streights, so for Kingdom of England," but ice conditions would have made this impossible; the expedition returned to Tilbury Hope on the Thames on 15 September. Hudson reported large numbers of whales in Spitsbergen waters during this voyage. Many authors credit his reports as the catalyst for several nations sending whaling expeditions to the islands.
This claim is contentious- others have pointed to strong evidence that it was Jonas Poole's reports in 1610 that led to the establishment of English whaling, voyages of Nicholas Woodcock and Willem Cornelisz. Van Muyden in 1612 which led to the establishment of Dutch and Spanish whaling. In 1608, English merchants of the East India and Muscovy Companies again sent Hudson in the Hopewell to attempt to locate a passage to the Indies, this time to the east around northern Russia. Leaving London on 22 April, the ship traveled 2,500 miles, making it to Novaya Zemlya well above the Arctic Circle in July, but in the summer they found the ice impenetrable and turned back, arriving at Gravesend on 26 August. According to Thomas Edge, "William Hudson" in 1608 discovered an island he named "Hudson's Tutches" at 71° N, the latitude of Jan Mayen. However, records of Hudson's voyages suggest that he could only have come across Jan Mayen in 1607 by making an illogical detour, historians have pointed out that Hudson himself made no mention of it in his journal.
There is no cartographical proof of this supposed discovery. Jonas Poole in 1611 and Robert Fotherby in 1615 both had possession of Hudson's journal while searching for his elusive Hold-with-Hope, but neither had any knowledge of any discovery of Jan Mayen, an achievement, only attributed to Hudson. Fotherby stumbled across Jan Mayen, thinking it a new discovery and naming it "Sir Thomas Smith's Island", though the first verifiable records of the discovery of the island had been made a year earlier, in 1614. In 1609 Hudson was chosen by merchants of the Dutch East India Company in the Netherlands to find an easterly passage to Asia. While awaiting orders and supplies in Amsterdam, he heard rumors of a northwest route to the Pacific through North America. Hudson had been told to sail through the Arctic Ocean north of Russia, into the Pacific and so to the Far East. Huds
William Parry (explorer)
Rear-Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was an English explorer of the Arctic, known for his 1819 expedition through the Parry Channel the most successful in the long quest for the Northwest Passage. In 1827 he attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole, he reached 82°45′N, setting the record for human exploration Farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′N by Sir Albert Hastings Markham in 1875. Parry was born in Bath, the son of Caleb Hillier Parry and Sarah Rigby, he was educated at King Edward's School. At the age of thirteen he joined the flagship of Admiral Sir William Cornwallis in the Channel fleet as a first-class volunteer, in 1806 became a midshipman, in 1810 received promotion to the rank of lieutenant in the frigate Alexander, which spent the next three years in the protection of the Spitsbergen whale fishery, he took advantage of this opportunity for the study and practice of astronomical observations in northern latitudes, afterwards published the results of his studies in a small volume on Nautical Astronomy by Night.
From 1813 to 1817 he served on the North American station. In 1818 he received command of the brig Alexander in the Arctic expedition under Captain John Ross; this expedition followed the coast of Baffin Bay without making any new discoveries. Parry and many others thought that Ross was wrong to turn back after entering Lancaster Sound at the north end of Baffin Island; as a result Parry was given command of a new expedition in HMS Hecla accompanied by the slower HMS Griper under Matthew Liddon. Others on the expedition were science officer and Frederick William Beechy. For protection from ice the ships were clad with 3-inch oak, had iron plates on their bows and internal cross-beams, they carried food in tin cans, an invention so new that there were as yet no can openers. Instead of taking Ross's easy route anti-clockwise around Baffin Bay he headed straight for Lancaster Sound. Fighting his way through ice he headed for Lancaster Sound, he kept going. Blocked by heavy ice, they went south for more than 100 miles into Prince Regent Inlet before turning back.
Continuing west they passed 110 ° W. Blocked by ice they turned back to a place Parry called Winter Harbour on the south shore of Melville Island, somewhere near 107- or 108° W. Cutting their way through new ice the ships reached anchorage on 26 September. Here they were frozen in for the next 10 months. There were three months of total darkness and in the new year the temperature reached −54 °F; the men were kept busy with regular exercise while the officers put on plays and produced a newspaper. The first case of scurvy was reported in January and by March fourteen men were on the sick list, about half with mild scurvy. Parry planted them in his cabin; the leaves seemed to help. There was some excitement in early March when the first melt water appeared, but by the end of the month the ice was still 6 feet thick. In June Parry led a group of men dragging a wooden cart to the north shore of the island which he named Hecla and Griper Bay, it was the first of August. They got as far west as 113°46'W before turning back.
It was too late in the season and new ice was beginning to form. They reached England in October 1820 having lost only one man. Parry's voyage, which had taken him through the Parry Channel three quarters of the way across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was the single most productive voyage in the quest for the Northwest Passage. Luck had been on their side. A narrative of the expedition, entitled Journal of a Voyage to discover a North-west Passage, appeared in 1821, publisher John Murray paying 1,000 guineas for it. Upon his return Lieutenant Parry received promotion to the rank of commander, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in February 1821. In April 1821 he again left for the Arctic commanding HMS Fury accompanied by HMS Hecla under George Francis Lyon. Others with him were George Fisher and chaplain, William Hooper and diarist, lieutenants Francis Crozier and Henry Parkyns Hoppner and James Clark Ross a midshipman. Experience from the previous voyage led to improvements; the two vessels were nearly identical.
They had cork insulation, cork plugs for the portholes and a coal-burning stove in the lowest deck to deal with condensation. The men were issued better clothing and lemon juice was stored in kegs rather than glass bottles; the goal this time was to find a passage near the northwest end of Hudson Bay. After working through the ice of Hudson Strait he headed directly west to Frozen Strait which Christopher Middleton had found impassable in 1742, he passed Frozen Strait in a fog and found himself in Repulse Bay which he re-checked and found land-locked. He ran northeast and mapped the coast of the Melville Peninsula and wintered at the southeast corner of Winter Island. From the Inuit he learned. In March and May Lyon led two sledging expeditions into the interior. Freed from the ice in July he went north and found the Fury and Hecla Strait, ice-filled, they waited for the ice to clear. In September Lieutenant Ried trekked 100 miles west along the Strait to the ice-filled Gulf of Boothia, the north end of which Parry had app
Charles Francis Hall
Charles Francis Hall was an American explorer of the Arctic, best known for the suspicious circumstances surrounding his death while leading the American-sponsored Polaris expedition in an attempt to be the first to reach the North Pole. The expedition was marred by insubordination and poor leadership. Hall returned to the ship from an exploratory sledging journey, promptly fell ill. Before he died, he accused members of the crew of poisoning him. An exhumation of his body in 1968 revealed that he had ingested a large quantity of arsenic in the last two weeks of his life. Little is known of Hall's early life, he was either born in Rochester, New Hampshire, or in the state of Vermont before moving to Rochester at a young age, where he was apprenticed to a blacksmith at a young age. In the 1840s, he married and drifted westward, arriving in Cincinnati in 1849, where he went into business making seals and engraving plates, he published his own newspaper. Around 1857, Hall became interested in the Arctic and spent the next few years studying the reports of previous explorers and trying to raise money for an expedition intended to learn the fate of Franklin's lost expedition.
Hall went on his first expedition by gaining passage on the George Henry, a whaler commanded by Captain Sidney O. Budington out of New Bedford, they got as far as Baffin Island. Local Inuit told Hall about relics of Martin Frobisher's mining venture at Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island, to which Hall travelled to inspect these items up close, he was assisted by his newly recruited Inuit guides and wife "Joe" Ebierbing and "Hannah" Tookoolito. Hall found what he took to be evidence of the fact that some members of Franklin's lost expedition might still be alive. On his return to New York, Hall arranged for the Harper Brothers to publish his account of the expedition: Arctic Researches and Life Among the Esquimaux, it was edited by William Parker Snow obsessed by Franklin's fate. The two came to a disagreement—mostly due to Snow's slow editing. Snow claimed Hall had used his ideas for the search of Franklin without giving him due credit. During the course of 1863, Hall planned a second expedition to seek more clues on the fate of Franklin, including efforts to find any of the rumoured survivors or their written records.
The first attempt using the 95-ton schooner Active was abandoned due to lack of finances caused by the American Civil War and a troubled relationship with his intended second-in-command Parker Snow. In July 1864, a much smaller expedition departed in the whaler Monticello. During this second expedition to King William Island, he found remains and artifacts from the Franklin expedition, made more inquiries about their fate from natives living there. Hall realized that the stories of survivors were unreliable, either by the Inuit or his own readiness to give them overly optimistic interpretations, he became disillusioned with the Inuit by the discovery that the remnants of Franklin's expedition had deliberately been left to starve. He failed to consider that it would have been impossible for the local population to support such a large group of supernumeraries. Hall's third expedition was of an different character, he received a grant of $50,000 from the U. S. Congress to command an expedition to the North Pole on the USS Polaris.
The party of 25 included Hall's old friend Budington as sailing master, George Tyson as navigator, Emil Bessels as physician and chief of scientific staff. The expedition was troubled from the start as the party split into rival factions. Hall's authority over the expedition was resented by a large portion of the party, discipline broke down. Polaris sailed into Thank God Harbor—present-day Hall Bay—on September 10, 1871, anchored for the winter on the shore of northern Greenland; that fall, upon returning to the ship from a sledging expedition with an Inuit guide to a fjord which he named Newman Bay, Hall fell ill after drinking a cup of coffee. He collapsed in. For the next week he suffered from vomiting and delirium seemed to improve for a few days. At that time, he accused several of the ship's company, including Bessels, of having poisoned him. Shortly thereafter, Hall began suffering the same symptoms, died on November 8. Hall was given a formal burial. Command of the expedition devolved on Budington, who reorganized to try for the Pole in June 1872.
This was unsuccessful and Polaris turned south. On October 12, the ship was on the verge of being crushed. Nineteen of the crew and the Inuit guides abandoned ship for the surrounding ice while 14 remained aboard. Polaris was run aground near Etah and crushed on October 24. After wintering ashore, the crew sailed south in two boats and were rescued by a whaler, returning home via Scotland; the following year, the remainder of the party attempted to extricate Polaris from the pack and head south. A group, including Tyson, became separated as the pack broke up violently and threatened to crush the ship in the fall of 1872; the group of 19 drifted over 1,500 miles on an ice floe for the next six months, before being rescued off the coast of Newfoundland by the sealer Tigress on April 30, 1873, would have all perished had the group not included several Inuit who were able to hunt for the party. The official investigation that followed ruled. However, in 1968, Hall's biographer, Chauncey C. Loomis, a professor at Dartmouth College, made an expedition to Greenland to exhume Hall's body.
To the benefit of the
Adolphus Washington Greely was a United States Army officer, polar explorer, recipient of the Medal of Honor. He began his long and distinguished military career shortly after the outbreak of the American Civil War. On 26 July 1861, he enlisted in the 19th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment at the age of 17, after having been rejected twice before. Over the next two years he worked his way up the enlisted ranks to 1st sergeant. On 18 March 1863, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 81st United States Colored Infantry, he was promoted to 1st lieutenant on 26 April 1864 and to captain on 4 April 1865. After the war he received a brevet promotion to major to rank from 13 March 1865 for "faithful and meritorious service during the war", he was mustered out of the Volunteer Army on 22 March 1867. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 36th Infantry Regiment of the Regular Army on 7 March 1867 and was reassigned to the 5th Cavalry Regiment on 14 July 1869 after the 36th Infantry was disbanded.
He was promoted to first lieutenant on 27 May 1873. In 1881, First Lieutenant Greely was given command of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition on the ship Proteus. Promoted by Henry W. Howgate, its purpose was to establish one of a chain of meteorological-observation stations as part of the First International Polar Year; the expedition was commissioned by the US government to collect astronomical and polar magnetic data, carried out by the astronomer Edward Israel, part of Greely's crew. Another goal of the expedition was to search for any clues of the USS Jeannette, lost in the Arctic two years earlier. Greely was without previous Arctic experience, but he and his party were able to discover many hitherto unknown miles along the coast of northwest Greenland; the expedition crossed Ellesmere Island from east to west and Lt. James B. Lockwood and Sgt. David Legge Brainard achieved a new "farthest north" record of 83°23'8" on Lockwood Island. In 1882, Greely sighted a mountain range during a dog sledding exploration to the interior of northern Ellesmere Island and named them the Conger Range.
He sighted the Innuitian Mountains from Lake Hazen. Two consecutive supply parties failed to reach Greely's party encamped at Fort Conger on Ellesmere Island in 1882 and 1883. In accordance with his instructions for this case, Greely decided in August 1883 to abandon Fort Conger and retreat south with his team, they reached Cape Sabine expecting to find food and equipment depots from the supply ships, but these had not been provided. With winter setting in Greely and his men were forced to winter at Cape Sabine with inadequate rations and little fuel. A rescue expedition, led by Capt. Winfield Scott Schley on the USRC Bear, was sent to rescue the Greely party. By the time Bear and ships Thetis and Alert arrived on June 22, 1884, to rescue the expedition, nineteen of Greely's 25-man crew had perished from starvation, hypothermia, and, in the case of Private Henry, gunshot wounds from an execution ordered by Greely. Greely and the other survivors were themselves near death; the returning survivors were venerated as heroes, though the heroism was tainted by sensational accusations of cannibalism during the remaining days of low food.
An exhibition on the "Greely expedition" was part of the Columbian Exposition in 1893 and was captured on stereoscopic images. In June 1886, Greely was promoted to captain after serving twenty years as a lieutenant and, in March 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed him as Chief Signal Officer of the U. S. Army with the rank of brigadier general. During his tenure as Chief Signal Officer of the Army, the following military telegraph lines were constructed and maintained during the Spanish–American War: Puerto Rico, 800 miles. In connection with Alaska General Greely had constructed under adverse conditions a telegraph system of nearly 4,000 mi, consisting of submarine cables, land cables and wireless telegraphy, the latter covering a distance of 107 mi, which at the time of installation was the longest commercial system working in the world. In 1906, he served as military commander over the emergency situation created by the San Francisco earthquake. On February 10, 1906, he was promoted to major general and on March 27, 1908, he retired, having reached the mandatory retirement age of 64.
In 1911 he represented the United States Army at the coronation of King George V. On March 21, 1935, a special act of Congress awarded Greely the Medal of Honor in recognition of his long and distinguished career, he is the second person to be awarded the Medal of Honor for "lifetime achievement" rather than for acts of physical courage at the risk of one's own life. His was the last award of the Medal of Honor by the Army for non-combat service. General Greely died on October 20, 1935, in Washington, D. C. and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia. Greely attended the First Presbyterian Church and married Henrietta Nesmith in 1878 and with her had six children: Antoinette in 1879, Adola in 1881, John in 1885, Rose in 1887, Adolphus in 1889, Gertrude in 1891. Henrietta was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution and one of the founding vice presidents general of the Children of the American Revolution. After the Civil War, Greely became a companion of the District of Columbia Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States - a military society composed of Union officers
Nansen's Fram expedition
Nansen's Fram expedition of 1893–96 was an attempt by the Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen to reach the geographical North Pole by harnessing the natural east–west current of the Arctic Ocean. In the face of much discouragement from other polar explorers, Nansen took his ship Fram to the New Siberian Islands in the eastern Arctic Ocean, froze her into the pack ice, waited for the drift to carry her towards the pole. Impatient with the slow speed and erratic character of the drift, after 18 months Nansen and a chosen companion, Hjalmar Johansen, left the ship with a team of dogs and sledges and made for the pole, they did not reach it, but they achieved a record Farthest North latitude of 86°13.6′N before a long retreat over ice and water to reach safety in Franz Josef Land. Meanwhile, Fram continued to drift westward emerging in the North Atlantic Ocean; the idea for the expedition had arisen after items from the American vessel Jeannette, which had sunk off the north coast of Siberia in 1881, were discovered three years off the south-west coast of Greenland.
The wreckage had been carried across the polar ocean across the pole itself. Based on this and other debris recovered from the Greenland coast, the meteorologist Henrik Mohn developed a theory of transpolar drift, which led Nansen to believe that a specially designed ship could be frozen in the pack ice and follow the same track as Jeannette wreckage, thus reaching the vicinity of the pole. Nansen supervised the construction of a vessel with a rounded hull and other features designed to withstand prolonged pressure from ice; the ship was threatened during her long imprisonment, emerged unscathed after three years. The scientific observations carried out during this period contributed to the new discipline of oceanography, which subsequently became the main focus of Nansen's scientific work. Fram's drift and Nansen's sledge journey proved conclusively that there were no significant land masses between the Eurasian continents and the North Pole, confirmed the general character of the north polar region as a deep, ice-covered sea.
Although Nansen retired from exploration after this expedition, the methods of travel and survival he developed with Johansen influenced all the polar expeditions and south, which followed in the subsequent three decades. In September 1879, Jeannette, an ex-Royal Navy gunboat converted by the US Navy for Arctic exploration, commanded by George W. De Long, entered the pack ice north of the Bering Strait, she remained ice-bound for nearly two years, drifting to the area of the New Siberian Islands, before being crushed and sunk on 13 June 1881. Her crew made for the Siberian coast. Three years relics from Jeannette appeared on the opposite side of the world, in the vicinity of Julianehaab on the southwest coast of Greenland; these items, frozen into the drifting ice, included clothing bearing crew members' names and documents signed by De Long. In a lecture given in 1884 to the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters Dr. Henrik Mohn, one of the founders of modern meteorology, argued that the finding of the Jeannette relics indicated the existence of an ocean current flowing from east to west across the entire Arctic Ocean.
The Danish governor of Julianehaab, writing of the find, surmised that an expedition frozen into the Siberian sea might, if its ship were to prove strong enough, cross the polar ocean and land in South Greenland. These theories were read with interest by the 23-year-old Fridtjof Nansen working as a curator at the Bergen Museum while completing his doctoral studies. Nansen was captivated by the frozen north. An expert skier, Nansen was making plans to lead the first crossing of the Greenland icecap, an objective delayed by the demands of his academic studies, but triumphantly achieved in 1888–89. Through these years Nansen remembered the east–west Arctic drift theory and its inherent possibilities for further polar exploration, shortly after his return from Greenland he was ready to announce his plans. In February 1890 Nansen addressed a meeting of the Norwegian Geographical Society in Oslo. After drawing attention to the failures of the many expeditions which had approached the North Pole from the west, he considered the implications of the discovery of the Jeannette items, along with further finds of driftwood and other debris from Siberia or Alaska, identified along the Greenland coast.
"Putting all this together," Nansen said, "we are driven to the conclusion that a current flows... from the Siberian Arctic Sea to the east coast of Greenland," passing across the Pole. It seemed that the obvious thing to do was "to make our way into the current on that side of the Pole where it flows northward, by its help to penetrate into those regions which all who have hitherto worked against have sought in vain to reach."Nansen's plan required a small and manoeuvrable ship, powered by sail and an engine, capable of carrying fuel and provisions for twelve men for five years. The vessel would follow Jeannette's route to the New Siberian Islands, in the approximate position of Jeannette's sinking, when ice conditions were right "we shall plough our way in amongst the ice as far as we can." The ship would drift with the ice towards the pole and reach the sea between Greenland and Spitsbergen. Should the ship founder, a possibility which Nansen thought unlikely, the party would camp on a floe and al
Jason was a Norwegian whaling vessel laid down in 1881 by Rødsverven in Sandefjord, the same shipyard which built Ernest Shackleton's ship Endurance. The ship, financed by Christen Christensen, an entrepreneur from Sandefjord, was noted for her participation in an 1892-1893 Antarctic expedition led by Carl Anton Larsen; the vessel reached 68°10'S, set a new record for distance travelled south along the eastern Antarctic Peninsula. The ship's first mate during the expedition was Søren Andersen of Sandefjord. Jason was rechristened Stella Polare. In 1888, Fridtjof Nansen captained Jason to Greenland in order to attempt the first documented crossing of the island. From 1892 to 1894, the ship was used on scientific whaling expeditions to the Antarctic, funded by A/S Oceana; the purpose of these expeditions were to map the presence of seals in the area. During this mission, Jason achieved a record of going the longest south in the area, reaching 68°10'S. Jason Peninsula Jason Harbour 54°12′S 36°35′W South Georgia Jason Island 54°11′S 36°29.5′W South Georgia Jason Peak 54°11.5′S 36°37′W South Georgia Cape Framnes Christensen Island: 65°5'S, 58°40'W Foyn's Land Larsen Ice Shelf Mount Jason: 65°44'S, 60°45'W Norway Sound Robertson Island: 65°10′S 59°37′W Seal Islands Veier Head: 66°26'S, 60°45'W In 1898 the Italian prince and explorer Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi wanted to do polar expeditions.
He travelled to Norway and consulted the famous polar explorer Fridtjof Nansen that had sailed the furthest north with the Colin Archer built polar ship Fram in 1893-96. In 1899 Amedo renamed her Stella Polare and took her to Colin Archer's shipyard; the interior was stripped out and beams and knees strengthened the ship. At the same time, Colin Archer fitted out Southern Cross for polar expeditions and the two ships lay side by side at the yard in Larvik. Amedeo gathered an expeditionary crew of Italian and Norwegian civilians and sailed from Christiana on 12 June of that year. By the 30th, they had reached Russia to load sled dogs onto the ship. Leaving Russia, they headed for Franz Josef Land, they landed in Teplitz Bay in Rudolf Island, with a hope to establish a winter camp for the expedition. From here, they established a string of camps designed to supply each other with food and men. During the expedition, Amedeo lost two fingers to frostbite, had to hand command of the voyage over to Captain Umberto Cagni.
On 25 April 1900, Cagni planted the Italian flag at 86°34'N, claiming the title of "Farthest North." Amedo's uncle was murdered and the widow made a silver replica of Stella Polare at a cost of 12.000 lire and placed it at the virgin Marias wonder working picture in the cathedral of Torino, Italy. In July 1909 the Stella Polare was given as training ship for an association in Rome, she was taken under tow from the arsenal in Spezia and anchored at Ripa Grande in river Tiber, a little upstream of the Aventinerhights. There she caught fire. Larsen, C. A. "The Voyage of the "Jason" to the Antarctic Regions." The Geographical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4. Pp. 333–344
The Corte-Real are a Portuguese family of noble origins in the 14th century, from Tavira. The family is famous for its involvement in the Portuguese discoveries during the Age of Exploration, in the 16th century. During this time, João Vaz Corte-Real and his sons Gaspar Corte-Real and Miguel Corte-Real, notably participated in exploratory voyages to Newfoundland, in Canada. For their discoveries in service of the Portuguese Crown, the family was given the islands of Terceira and São Jorge, in the Azores, charged with their development and colonization; the family integrated itself well into the Portuguese nobility in the 17th century through a series of successful marriages and acquisition of several titles, notably Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo. The origins of the Corte-Real family lie in the 14th century, when Vasco Anes da Costa, a Portuguese knight from Tavira, was one of the supporters of the pretensions of John Master of Aviz to the portuguese throne and after him, his homonym son, who participated on the conquest of Ceuta, being one the first warriors to cross the wall of the moor city.
Besides being selected as Alcaide of Tavira and Silves, he served as Algarve's fronteiro-mor. King John I's heir, Edward I of Portugal granted him the use of the surname Corte-Real for his descendants. From him and his brother, Gil Vaz da Costa, the first members of the Corte-Real family descend. João Vaz Corte-Real was Vasco Anes da Costa Corte-Real oldest son. He, alongside his two of his four sons, participated in various exploratory voyages sponsored jointly by the Portuguese and Danish Crowns; these voyages are said to have been some of the first to reach Newfoundland and other parts of northeastern Canada. For the family's service to the crown, João Vaz was made Captain-Donatário of the islands of Terceira and São Jorge, in the Azores. Gaspar and Miguel's young brother, Vasco Anes II Corte-Real, was nominated like his homonym grandfather, alcaide-mor of Tavira, in the early 16th century, accumulating the title with the one herded from his father as capitain-donatário; this Vasco Anes II Corte-Real had four sons, one of them, Manuel Corte-Real, was heir to the position of capitain-donatário of Angra, another one, Bernardo Corte-Real, succeeded him in the position of Alcaide de Tavira.
Another one of the other Vasco Anes II's sons, Jerónimo Corte-Real served in various places in Asia and Africa across the Portuguese Empire before retiring back to Portugal as a court painter and poet to King Sebastian I of Portugal. His works were contemporary of Luís Vaz de Camões and said to rival them, gaining Jerónimo the epithet of the Portuguese Virgil. Through Manuel Corte-Real descents, this Corte-Real branch continued administration of the family's Azorean islands, while integrating into the administration of the Algarve. By 1581, the family was headed by Margarida Corte-Real; as the heiress to the Corte-Real family's wealth and titles in both the Azores and the Algarve, Margarida was an attractive bride for members of the Portuguese nobility. She married Cristóvão de Moura e Távora, 1st Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo and several times a Viceroy of Portugal, during the Philippine Dynasty; as Margarida was richer and had more extensive notability and power, the children of her marriage would carry her name more prominently than her husbands.
Margarida's son, Manuel de Moura Corte Real, 2nd Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo, amplified the family's position under the Habsburg monarchs of Portugal. Both he and his son, Francisco de Moura Corte Real, 3rd Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo, served as Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands and became loyal subjects to the House of Habsburg. Francisco, who served as Viceroy of Sardinia, however was the last of the Moura Corte-Real branch of the family before it was exiled from the country due to the Portuguese Restoration War, which saw the Habsburgs deposed in Portugal in lieu of House of Braganza, which expelled supporters of the previous dynasty. João Vaz Corte-Real, Portuguese explorer Miguel Corte-Real, Portuguese explorer Gaspar Corte-Real, Portuguese explorer and brother of Miguel Jerónimo Corte-Real, Portuguese epic poet Manuel de Moura Corte Real, 2nd Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo, Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands Francisco de Moura Corte Real, 3rd Marquis of Castelo Rodrigo, Viceroy of Sardinia, Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands Diogo de Mendonça Corte-Real, Prime-Minister during the reigns of King Pedro II and King João V Manuel Inácio Martins Pamplona Corte Real, 1st Count of Subserra and Minister of the Kingdom during the reign of King João VI José de Almeida Corte Real, Brazilian revolutionary José Luciano de Castro Pereira Corte Real, Prime-Minister during the reigns of King Luís I and King Carlos I