A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
University of Santo Tomas Central Seminary Building
The University of Santo Tomas Central Seminary Building houses the Santisimo Rosario Parish Church, the Central Seminary, the Faculties of Ecclesiastical Studies of the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas in Manila. The Parish was canonically inaugurated on April 26, 1942 by Michael J. O'Doherty, the Archbishop of Manila. In January 25 2010, the National Museum of the Philippines formally declared the Central Seminary Building as a National Cultural Treasure; the Central Seminary of the University of Santo Tomas was designed by Fernando Ocampo. It was built in the 1930s; the plan of the seminary was configured in the form of the letter E, with courtyards bisecting the wings. The boxy building had an elongated frontage assembling a continuous band of balconies and windows on the second and third level; the structure’s horizontally-oriented massing was broken by an engaged central section at the main entrance and two other similar treatments at the end portions. An art deco relief, bud-like finials, a tableau embellished the stepped pylon at the entrance.
Section 3 of “The Cultural Properties Preservation and Protection Act” states that a “National Cultural Treasure is a unique object found locally, possessing outstanding historical, artistic and/or scientific value, significant and important to this country and nation.” This prestigious recognition marks the first inclusion of an educational institution among the ranks of National Cultural Treasures, with the majority of structures being churches and the rest being terrestrial landmarks, intangible cultural property and movable objects.” As heritage sites, they will be accorded protection and recognition, giving importance to their witness of 400 years of tumultuous Philippine history. UST Central Seminary Building Santisimo Rosario Parish Church Website of Central Seminary
An academic library is a library, attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school's curriculum, to support the research of the university faculty and students. It is unknown. An academic and research portal maintained by UNESCO links to 3,785 libraries. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, there are an estimated 3,700 academic libraries in the United States; the support of teaching and learning requires material for student papers. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves. In the period before electronic resources became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles. Academic libraries must determine a focus for collection development since comprehensive collections are not feasible. Librarians do this by identifying the needs of the faculty and student body, as well as the mission and academic programs of the college or university.
When there are particular areas of specialization in academic libraries, these are referred to as niche collections. These collections are the basis of a special collection department and may include original papers and artifacts written or created by a single author or about a specific subject. There is a great deal of variation among academic libraries based on their size, resources and services; the Harvard University Library is considered to be the largest strict academic library in the world, although the Danish Royal Library—a combined national and academic library—has a larger collection. Another notable example is the University of the South Pacific which has academic libraries distributed throughout its twelve member countries; the University of California operates the largest academic library system in the world, it manages more than 34 million items in 100 libraries on ten campuses. The first colleges in the United States were intended to train members of the clergy; the libraries associated with these institutions consisted of donated books on the subjects of theology and the classics.
In 1766, Yale had 4,000 volumes, second only to Harvard. Access to these libraries was restricted to faculty members and a few students: the only staff was a part-time faculty member or the president of the college; the priority of the library was to protect the books. In 1849, Yale was open 30 hours a week, the University of Virginia was open nine hours a week, Columbia University four, Bowdoin College only three. Students instead created literary societies and assessed entrance fees in order to build a small collection of usable volumes in excess of what the university library held. Around the turn of the century, this approach began to change; the American Library Association was formed in 1876, with members including Melvil Dewey and Charles Ammi Cutter. Libraries re-prioritized in favor of improving access to materials, found funding increasing as a result of increased demand for said materials. Academic libraries today vary in regard to the extent to which they accommodate those who are not affiliated with their parent universities.
Some offer borrowing privileges to members of the public on payment of an annual fee. The privileges so obtained do not extend to such services as computer usage, other than to search the catalog, or Internet access. Alumni and students of cooperating local universities may be given discounts or other consideration when arranging for borrowing privileges. On the other hand, access to the libraries of some universities is restricted to students and staff. In this case, they may make it possible for others to borrow materials through inter-library loan programs. Libraries of land-grant universities are more accessible to the public. In some cases, they are official government document repositories and so are required to be open to the public. Still, members of the public are charged fees for borrowing privileges, are not allowed to access everything they would be able to as students. Academic libraries in Canada are a recent development in relation to other countries; the first academic library in Canada was opened in 1789 in Windsor, Nova Scotia.
Academic libraries were small during the 19th century and up until the 1950s, when Canadian academic libraries began to grow as a result of greater importance being placed on education and research. The growth of libraries throughout the 1960s was a direct result of many overwhelming factors including inflated student enrollments, increased graduate programs, higher budget allowance, general advocacy of the importance of these libraries; as a result of this growth and the Ontario New Universities Library Project that occurred during the early 1960s, 5 new universities were established in Ontario that all included catalogued collections. The establishment of libraries was widespread throughout Canada and was furthered by grants provided by the Canada Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, which sought to enhance library collections. Since many academic libraries were constructed after World War Two, a majority of the Canadian academic libraries that were built before 1940 that have not been updated to modern lighting, air conditioning, etc. are either no longer in use or are on the verge of decline.
The total number of college and university libraries increased from 31 in 1959-1960 to 105 in 1969-1970. Following the growth of academic libraries in Canada during the 1960s, there was a br
A decree is a rule of law issued by a head of state, according to certain procedures. It has the force of law; the particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country. The executive orders made by the President of the United States, for example, are decrees. In non-legal English usage, the term refers to any authoritarian decision. Documents or archives in the format of royal decrees or farming were issued by rulers. In Belgium, a decree is a law of regional parliament, e.g. the Flemish Parliament. The word décret "decree", is an old legal usage in France and is used to refer to executive orders issued by the French President or Prime Minister. Any such order must not violate the French Constitution or Civil Code, a party has the right to request an order be annulled in the French Council of State. Orders must be ratified by Parliament. Special orders known as décret-loi "decree-act" or "decree-law" considered an illegal practice under the 3rd and 4th Republic, were abolished and replaced by the ordinances under the 1958 Constitution.
Except for the reserve powers of the President, the executive can issue decrees in areas that the Constitution grants as the responsibility of Parliament only if a law authorizes it to do so. In other cases, orders are illegal and, should anyone sue for the order's annulment, it would be voided by the Council of State. There exists a procedure for the Prime Minister to issue ordinances in such areas, but this procedure requires Parliament's express consent. Orders issued by the Prime Minister take two forms: Orders. Sometimes, people refer to décrets en Conseil d'État improperly as décrets du Conseil d'État; this would imply that it is the Council of State that takes the decree, whereas the power of decreeing is restricted to the president or prime minister. Decrees may be classified into: Regulations, which may be: Application decrees, each of which must be authorized by one or more statutes to determine some implementation conditions of this or these statutes. Only the prime minister may issue regulatory or application decrees.
Presidential decrees are nominations or exceptional measures where law mandates a presidential decree, such as the dissolution of the French National Assembly and the calling of new legislative elections. Decrees are published in the Journal Officiel de la République Française or "French Gazette". A decree in the usage of the canon law of the Catholic Church has various meanings. Any papal bull, brief, or motu proprio is a decree inasmuch as these documents are legislative acts of the pope. In this sense the term is quite ancient; the Roman Congregations were empowered to issue decrees in matters which come under their particular jurisdiction, but were forbidden from continuing to do so under Pope Benedict XV in 1917. Each ecclesiastical province and each diocese may issue decrees in their periodical synods within their sphere of authority. While in a general sense all documents promulgated by an ecumenical council can be called decrees. in a specific sense some of these documents, as at the Second Vatican Council, were called more constitutions or declarations.
Canon 29 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law offers a definition of general decrees: General decrees, by which a competent legislator makes common provisions for a community capable of receiving a law, are true laws and are regulated by the provisions of the canons on laws. The Holy See uses decrees from the pope such as papal bull, papal brief or motu proprio as legislative acts. According clause 77 of the Italian Constitution, "The Government may not, without an enabling act from the Houses, issue decrees having the force of ordinary law; when in extraordinary cases of necessity and urgency the Government adopts provisional measures having the force of law, it must on the same day present said measures for confirmation to the Houses which if dissolved, shall be summoned for this purpose and shall convene within five days. The decrees lose effect from their inception if they are not confirmed within sixty days from their publication; the Houses may however regulate by law legal relationships arising out of not confirmed decrees."
The effectiveness for sixty days produces the effects giving rights or expectations whose legal basis was in fact precarious when the conversion law never intervened. In Portugal, there are several types of decrees issued by the various bodies of sovereignty or by the bodies of self-government of autonomous regions. There are the following types of decrees: Decree-law: is a legislative act issued by the Government of Portugal under its legislative powers defined by Article 198 of the Portuguese Constitution.
University of Santo Tomas Main Building
The Main Building of the University of Santo Tomas in Manila, Philippines functions as the university's administrative center, home of the Faculty of Civil Law, Faculty of Pharmacy, the College of Science. The Main Building is the home of the Museum of Arts and Sciences; the building, designed by Fr. Roque Ruaño, O. P. is the first earthquake-resistant building in the Philippines. Ruaño was influenced by Tokyo. In 1920, Roque Ruaño was assigned to draw up plans for the UST Main Building to be constructed at the Sulucan property of the Dominican Order. During the years 1922 and 1923, the plans were completed. However, some fine tunings may have been made on the design criteria as a result of the new lessons learned from the Great Kantō earthquake of September 1, 1923 which flattened Tokyo and Yokohama. Construction began in 1924; the structure is a rectangular building having a dimension of 86 meters long and 74 meters wide with two interior courtyards or patios. The most significant feature is the fact that it is made up of 40 separate structures independent from one another with the only opportunity provided by pre-cast stab flooring.
But some locations of the separations are now difficult to determine because of the numerous cosmetic changes the interior of the building which has undergone over the years. According to an article written by the former dean of Faculty of Engineering, Manuel Mañosa, this is how it is divided: four corner units two midsection units one tower one entrance canopy a total of 26 units seven units for P. Noval side seven units for Gov. Forbes side six units for Dapitan side six units for España side four middle section two stair section adjacent to tower and elevator core Standing on the pedestals of the fourth floor of the building are statues symbolizing the spiritual and intellectual aspiration of the University. Designed by the Italian Francesco Monti, faculty member of the College of Architecture, they were installed between 1949 and 1953. Surrounding the clock, the so-called "Tria Haec" are three statues representing, from left to right: Hope Faith Charity To the right of the Tria Haec are theologians and historians: Saint Augustine Raymond of Peñafort, O.
P. Vincent of Beauvais, O. P To the right of the theologians and historians, facing Padre Noval Street are the tragedians: Pedro Calderón de la Barca Sophocles William Shakespeare To the left of the Tria Haec are the philosophers: Aristotle Saint Albert the Great Plato To the left of the philosophers and facing Arsenio Lacson Avenue are the playwrights: Lope de Vega Aristophanes Molière Construction began on 1924 and first classes were held on July 2, 1927; the faculties of Philosophy and Letters, Liberal Arts, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Engineering, the College of Education were the first occupants who transferred to the new building. Since the Main Building has been the focal point of the campus, it is. After the invasion and occupation of the Philippines by the Japanese during World War II, the Japanese converted the university into the Santo Tomas Internment Camp for Americans and other non-Filipinos starting on January 4, 1942. Three floors of the building were occupied by the internees.
Several internees were located in other buildings. On February 3, 1945, during the Battle for Manila the university was liberated by the 1st Cavalry Division, tanks from the 44th Tank Battalion and Filipino guerrillas. On February 4, Japanese commander Toshio Hayashi took some of the internees hostage in the nearby Education Building and negotiated for the Japanese soldiers to rejoin Japanese forces in the south of the city in exchange for the internees. A plaque dedicated in 1954 commemorates the event. After the war, UST resumed holding classes in the building; the university and the building was visited by Pope Paul VI in 1970 and Pope John Paul II in 1995 when UST hosted World Youth Day 1995. List of University of Santo Tomas buildings
University of Santo Tomas
The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines, or the University of Santo Tomas, is a private, Roman Catholic research university in Manila, Philippines. Founded on April 28, 1611 by Miguel de Benavides, Archbishop of Manila, it has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and in Asia, is one of the world's largest Catholic universities in terms of enrollment found on one campus; the university is run by the Order of Preachers. UST is the only university to have been visited by three popes four times: once by Pope Paul VI on November 28, 1970, twice by Pope John Paul II on February 18 1981 and January 13, 1995, once by Pope Francis on January 18, 2015; the patron of the university is St. Thomas Aquinas, while St. Catherine of Alexandria is the patroness; the university is composed of several autonomous faculties, colleges and institutes, each conferring undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, the basic education units. Several degree programs have been accredited by the Commission on Higher Education as Centers of Excellence and Centers of Development.
Moreover, it was awarded with an Institutional Accreditation by the CHED through the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines. In December 2013, the university was recognized to have the highest number of accredited programs in the country by the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities' Commission on Accreditation. Prominent Thomasians include saints, Filipino presidents, artists, scientists and religious figures, who have figured prominently in the history of the Philippines; the athletic teams are the Growling Tigers, who are members of the University Athletic Association of the Philippines and are consistent winners of the Overall Championship. The university campus is listed as one of the most viable sites in the Philippines to be included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, while the Archives of the University of Santo Tomas is listed as one of the most viable documentary heritage to be included in the UNESCO Memory of the World Programme; the foundation of the University is ascribed to Miguel de Benavides, O.
P. the third Archbishop of Manila. He came to the Philippines with the first Dominican mission in 1587, he went on to become bishop of Nueva Segovia, was promoted archbishop of Manila in 1601. Upon his death in July 1605, Benavides bequeathed his library and personal property worth 1,500 pesos to be used as the seed fund for the establishment of an institution of higher learning. Fr. Bernardo de Santa Catalina carried out Benavides's wishes and was able to secure a building near the Dominican church and convent in Intramuros for the College. In 1609, permission to open the College was requested from King Philip III of Spain, which only reached Manila in 1611. On April 28, 1611, notary Juan Illian witnessed the signing of the act of foundation by Baltasar Fort, OP, Bernardo Navarro, OP, Francisco Minayo, OP. Fort, appointed that year to the post of Father Provincial, became the rector in 1619; the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario, was established on April 28, 1611, from the Benavides's library.
Renamed Colegio de Santo Tomas, it was elevated by Pope Innocent X to a university on November 20, 1645 in his brief, In Supreminenti. This makes the institution the first in the islands to be formally elevated to the status of university, its complete name is The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines. It was given the title "Royal," by King Charles III of Spain in 1785; this makes the UST the first and only formally declared royal and pontifical university in the Philippines. The university was located within the walled city of Intramuros in Manila, it was started by the Spanish Archbishop of Manila in the early 17th century as a seminary for aspiring young priests, taking its name and inspiration from Saint Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican theologian. The first courses offered by the Colegio de Santo Tomas were canon law, philosophy, grammar, the arts, civil law. In 1871, it began offering degrees in the first in colonized Asia. At the beginning of the 20th century, with the growing student population, the Dominicans were given a 21.5 hectare land at the Sulucan Hills in Sampaloc and built its 215,000 square meter campus there in 1927 with the inauguration of its Main Building.
That year, it began accepting female enrollees. In the last four decades, the university grew into a full-fledged institution of higher learning, conferring degrees in law and various academic letters; the university has graduated Philippine national heroes and saints. The Medicine and Civil Law courses were retained in Intramuros at that time. During World War II, the Japanese forces converted the Sampaloc campus into an internment camp for enemy aliens Americans, living in the Philippines; the original Intramuros campus was destroyed in 1944 by an arson created by the Japanese Kempeitai. More than 4,000 foreigners survived under difficult conditions in the internment camp for 37 months from January 1942 until February 1945 when the camp was liberated by American soldiers. Since its establishment in 1611, the University's academic life was interrupted only twice: from 1898 to 1899, during the Philippine Revolution against Spain, from 1942 to 1945, during the Japanese occupation of the country.
In its long history, the university has been under the leadersh
Archives of the University of Santo Tomas
The Archives of the University of Santo Tomas known as the Archivo de la Universidad de Santo Tomas, is located at the Miguel de Benavides Library in Manila. The AUST is the central repository of historical and rare documents pertaining to, but not to the history of the University of Santo Tomas, one of the oldest existing universities in Asia, the oldest institution of higher learning in the Philippines; the collections consist of historical documents such as Papal bulls, royal decrees, rare Filipiniana prints, historical treatises, sermons, catechisms in many Philippine dialects, national periodicals, academic records of all educational institutions in the Philippines during the Spanish period. The archives is home to the only incunabula, or books printed before 1500, in the country. Aside from having one of the largest collection of 15th-, 16th-, 17th-, 18th-century European manuscripts in Asia, the archives boasts of possessing the biggest collection of extant ancient baybayin scripts in the world.
The oldest book is translated into Spanish. Josefo Flavio's La Guerra Judaica recounted the Jewish wars with the Romans. Other books in the collection include numerous existing samples of the ancient Tagalog script baybayin written on paper, including the only two known complete long texts handwritten in Baybayin, covering real estate transactions in 1615 and 1635 known as the UST Baybayin Documents which were declared National Treasures in August 2014, a first edition 16th Century copy of Nicholas Copernicus' groundbreaking book on the revolution of celestial bodies, the rare Plantin Polyglot Bible, printed between 1569 and 1573 under the support of King Philip II of Spain. To mark the 400th anniversary of the University of Santo Tomas, the Archives department for the first time released to the public some of its rare collections in the university's exhibit entitled Lumina Pandit: An Exhibition of Historical Treasures. Among the exhibited manuscripts is one of the first dictionaries in the country, the Arte de la Lengua of Fr.
Francisco Blancas OP, as well as a similar Tagalog dictionary by the Franciscan Fr. Juan de Plasencia. Displayed were the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas of Antonio de Morga, the first history book of the Philippines. Services are made available to the faculty and students of UST as well as to outsiders. UST students are required to present his/her library card and a letter from the adviser or Department Head. Research fee of P20.00 per visit is charged for researchers. Microfilm reader fee is P2.00 per hour, while a fee of P4.00 per page is charged for the microfilm printer. The microfilm section is open to researchers every Tuesdays to Fridays at 9:00 to 12:00 PM, 1:00 to 5:00 PM