Baja is a city in Bács-Kiskun County, southern Hungary. It is the second largest city in the county, after the county seat at Kecskemét, is home to some 37,000 people. Baja is the seat of the Baja municipality; the environs of Baja have been continuously inhabited since the end of the Iron Age, but there is evidence of human presence since prehistoric times. The settlement itself was most established in the 14th century. After the Ottoman Empire conquered Hungary, it grew to prominence more than other nearby settlements, was granted town rights in 1696. Today, Baja plays an important role in the life of Northern Bácska as a local commercial centre and the provider of public services such as education and healthcare, it has several roads and a railway connection to other parts of the country, offers local Public transport for its residents. Being close to the Danube and the forest of Gemenc, as well as having its own cultural sights, makes it a candidate for tourism, but this is not well established yet.
The city's Hungarian name is derived from a Turkic language. The name means "bull"; the Latin name of the town is Francillo. Baja used to have a German name: Frankenstadt; the South Slavs and Serbs, who live in the city call Baja by the same name as Magyars do, but with a different pronunciation. Its spelling in Serbian Cyrillic writing is Баја; the city is first mentioned in 1308. The Bajai family was first known owner of the town. In 1474 the settlement was given to the Czobor family by Matthias Corvinus. During the Turkish Conquest in the 16th and 17th centuries it was the official center for the region and it possessed a fortification; this era saw the immigration of Serbs into the town. There was an active Franciscan mission with monks from Bosnia. In the 18th century, Hungary with its regained territories was a part of the Habsburg Empire. Germans and Jews migrated into the town. Due to its location on the Danube, it became a transportation and commercial hub for the region; this was where grain and wine was loaded onto boats to be transported upriver to Austria and Germany.
In 1727 the Czobor family regained its ownership. Until 1765, the inhabitants belonged to three nations. Following this, according to a government decree the Natio Dalmatica was changed into the Natio Hungarica, but in 1768, the elected mayor swore the oath in the Bunjevac language in the Franciscan Church. In 1699, Baja was Bács-Bodrog county's most "industrialized" city. In the 19th century Baja became a minor railway hub, but its importance declined as the railway to Fiume was built in order to get Hungarian grain seaborne; the city was still a commercial and service center for the region. In 1918, after World War I, the ceasefire line placed the city under administration of the newly formed Kingdom of Yugoslavia. By the Treaty of Trianon from 1920, the city was assigned to Hungary, became the capital of the reduced county of Bács-Bodrog. After World War II the city became known for its textile mill and because of its important bridge crossing the Danube, its importance is still evident as people from the Bácska region of Hungary come for higher education and business services.
The city's population was growing in the 20th century, but in the last decade, it declined. The demographic evolution of Baja is the following: Serbian-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic The city has 37,707 residents as of 1 January 2009. In the 2001 Census, the larger population of 38,360 reported its ethnicity thus: 93.5% Hungarians. As of 1 January 2009, there are 15,969 houses. Baja is located about 150 km south of Budapest and 108 km southwest of Kecskemét, at the crossing of Road 55 and Road 51, on the river Danube. Baja's main river is Sugovica. Baja is at the meeting point of two large regions: Transdanubia; the River Danube separates the two regions. West of the city, the Gemencforest spreads. Gemenc is part of the Danube-Drava National Park, it can be discovered from Baja via a narrow gauge railway. Baja is located on the Great Hungarian Plain. However, Baja is more similar to the cities of Transdanubia. To the east, arable crops such as maize and barley are grown. Baja is at the meeting of the mediterranean region of Hungary.
The summers are dry, while the winters are cold and snowy. It rains in the spring; the city plays an important role in Hungary's water transport, with the international harbour. Baja gives home to two extensive corporations: to DÉLHÚS Co.. Axiál sells agricultural machines all over eastern Europe. Gemenc Forest and Game Co. Ltd. is managing Gemenc. There are numerous commercial structures in the city, which prove important to the people living in and around Baja. A few years ago, a TESCO supermarket opened; the city has most of them with permanent exhibitions. These include the István Türr Museum, the István Nagy Gallery, the Bunjevci House; the annual Fisherman's Soup Boiling Festival is a famous event in Europe, which comprises a great fish soup boiling contest, other cultural occurrences. There are 15 churches in the city, representing the
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
Gáspár Heltai was a Transylvanian Saxon writer and printer. His name derives from the village Heltau. Despite being a German native speaker he published many books in Hungarian from his print-shop; the brother of his son-in-law was Ferenc Dávid and Unitarian preacher and the founder of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania.. He studied at Wittenberg University and he established the first print shop in Kolozsvár, he founded a public bath, a paper mill and the first brewery in the town. He was at the same time a pastor, printer, publisher and businessman, he is considered the first religious reformer of Kolozsvár. He was a great spirit of Hungarian Unitarian Reformation. Together with a group of scholars he produced an complete translation of the New Testament into Hungarian, his work marked the first buds of a secular literature in Hungary. Heltai's most voluminous work is his reworking and translation of Antonio Bonfini's Rerum Hungaricum Decades, which Heltai published in 1575 as Chronica az magyaroknak dolgairól.
The work was printed in Kolozsvár. Works by Gáspár Heltai at Post-Reformation Digital Library The text of the New Testament translation of Heltai in its original orthographic form is available and searchable in the Old Hungarian Corpus
Újpest is the 4th District in Budapest, Hungary. It is located on the left bank of the Danube River; the name Újpest means "new Pest" because the city was formed on the border of the city of Pest, Hungary in 1838. Újpest was a village for 6 decades until 1907. In 1950, the town was unified with Budapest. Since 1950, Újpest is the 4th District of Budapest; the football club Újpest FC is named after the area, since they were formed in the district in 1885, have played there since. The district is composed of six parts. Újpest is the largest, but the district includes Megyer, Káposztásmegyer, Istvántelek, Székesdűlő and the northern tip of the island Népsziget. Isaac Lowy owned a shoe factory that he wanted to move to Pest but was unable to attain a settlement permit because he was Jewish. In 1835, he decided to create a new town. North of Pest, there was an empty tract of land, owned by the Károlyi nobles. Lowy bought the land. By 1838, 13 Jewish families lived in Újpest. Famous statues, like Wesselényi Monument, Matthias Corvinus Monument, were cast in bronze by the workshops of Alexander Matthias Beschorner from Újpest.
Újpest is twinned with: Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Germany Chalcis, Greece Tyresö, Sweden Újpest FC, football team Újpesti Törekvés SE, football team Újpesti MTE, football team Újpesti TE Újpesti TE Julius Dessauer and writer. Lipa Goldman chief rabbi of the Orthodox Jewish Community. Yosef Goldman scholar and bookdealer. Olivér Halassy, water polo player and freestyle swimmer. Isaac Lowy, Hungarian industrialist and founder of Újpest. Alexander Rado, Soviet spy. Ferenc Szusza Ludwig Venetianer and writer. List of districts in Budapest Ujpest Synagogue Official Homepage of the district Aerial photographs of Újpest
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings spoken in the first person. The term derives from a form of Ancient Greek literature, the lyric, defined by its musical accompaniment on a stringed instrument known as a lyre; the term owes its importance in literary theory to the division developed by Aristotle between three broad categories of poetry: lyrical and epic. Much lyric poetry depends on regular meter based either on stress; the most common meters are as follows: Iambic – two syllables, with the short or unstressed syllable followed by the long or stressed syllable. Trochaic – two syllables, with the long or stressed syllable followed by the short or unstressed syllable. In English, this metre is found entirely in lyric poetry. Pyrrhic – Two unstressed syllables Anapestic – three syllables, with the first two short or unstressed and the last long or stressed. Dactylic – three syllables, with the first one long or stressed and the other two short or unstressed.
Spondaic – two syllables, with two successive long or stressed syllables. Some forms have a combination of meters using a different meter for the refrain. For the ancient Greeks, lyric poetry had a precise technical meaning: verse, accompanied by a lyre, cithara, or barbitos; because such works were sung, it was known as melic poetry. The lyric or melic poet was distinguished from the writer of plays, the writer of trochaic and iambic verses, the writer of elegies and the writer of epic; the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria created a canon of nine lyric poets deemed worthy of critical study. These archaic and classical musician-poets included Sappho, Alcaeus and Pindar. Archaic lyric was characterized by live musical performance; some poets, like Pindar extended the metrical forms to a triad, including strophe and epode. Among the major extant Roman poets of the classical period, only Catullus and Horace wrote lyric poetry, which however was no longer meant to be sung but instead read or recited.
What remained were the forms, the lyric meters of the Greeks adapted to Latin. Catullus was influenced by both archaic and Hellenistic Greek verse and belonged to a group of Roman poets called the Neoteroi who spurned epic poetry following the lead of Callimachus. Instead, they composed brief polished poems in various thematic and metrical genres; the Roman love elegies of Tibullus and Ovid, with their personal phrasing and feeling, may be the thematic ancestor of much medieval, Renaissance and modern lyric poetry, but these works were composed in elegiac couplets and so were not lyric poetry in the ancient sense. During China's Warring States period, the Songs of Chu collected by Qu Yuan and Song Yu defined a new form of poetry that came from the exotic Yangtze Valley, far from the Wei and Yellow River homeland of the traditional four-character verses collected in the Book of Songs; the varying forms of the new Chu ci provided greater latitude of expression. Originating in 10th-century Persian, a ghazal is a poetic form consisting of couplets that share a rhyme and a refrain.
Formally, it consists of a short lyric composed in a single meter with a single rhyme throughout. The central subject is love. Notable authors include Hafiz, Amir Khusro, Auhadi of Maragheh, Alisher Navoi, Obeid e zakani, Khaqani Shirvani, Farid al-Din Attar, Omar Khayyam, Rudaki; the ghazal was introduced to European poetry in the early 19th century by the Germans Schlegel, Von Hammer-Purgstall, Goethe, who called Hafiz his "twin". Lyric in European literature of the medieval or Renaissance period means a poem written so that it could be set to music—whether or not it was. A poem's particular structure, function, or theme might all vary; the lyric poetry of Europe in this period was created by the pioneers of courtly poetry and courtly love without reference to the classical past. The troubadors, travelling composers and performers of songs, began to flourish towards the end of the 11th century and were imitated in successive centuries. Trouvères were poet-composers who were contemporary with and influenced by the troubadours but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France.
The first known trouvère was Chrétien de Troyes. The dominant form of German lyric poetry in the period was the minnesang, "a love lyric based on a fictitious relationship between a knight and his high-born lady". Imitating the lyrics of the French troubadours and trouvères, minnesang soon established a distinctive tradition. There was a large body of medieval Galician-Portuguese lyric. Hebrew singer-poets of the Middle Ages included Yehuda Halevi, Solomon ibn Gabirol, Abraham ibn Ezra. In Italy, Petrarch developed the sonnet form pioneered by Dante's Vita Nuova. In 1327, according to the poet, the sight of a woman called Laura in the church of Sainte-Claire d'Avignon awoke in him a lasting passion, celebrated in the Rime sparse. Renaissance poets who copied Petrarch's style named this collection of 366 poems Il Canzoniere. Laura is in many ways both the culmination of medieval courtly love poetry and the beginning of Renaissance love lyric. A bhajan or kirtan is a Hindu devotional song. Bhajans are simple songs in lyrical language expressing emotions of love for the Divine.
Hungarian Soviet Republic
The Hungarian Soviet Republic or Republic of Councils in Hungary was a short-lived communist rump state. When the Republic of Councils in Hungary was established in 1919, it controlled only 23% of the territory of Hungary's classic borders, it was the successor of the first Hungarian People's Republic and lasted only from 21 March to 1 August 1919. Though the de jure leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic was president Sándor Garbai, the de facto power was in the hands of foreign minister Béla Kun, who maintained direct contact with Lenin via radiotelegraph, it was Lenin who gave the direct orders and advice to Béla Kun via constant radio communication with the Kremlin. It was the second socialist state in the world to be formed, only preceded by the October Revolution in Russia which brought the Bolsheviks to power; the Hungarian Republic of Councils had military conflicts with the Kingdom of Romania, the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes and the evolving Czechoslovakia. It ended on 1 August 1919 when Hungarians sent representatives to negotiate their surrender to the Romanian forces.
As the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy collapsed in 1918, an independent Hungarian People's Republic was formed after the Aster Revolution. The official proclamation of the republic was on 16 November 1918 and its president became Mihály Károlyi. Károlyi struggled to control the country. An initial nucleus of a Hungarian communist party had been organized in a Moscow hotel on 4 November 1918, when a group of Hungarian prisoners of war and other communist proponents formed a Central Committee. Led by Béla Kun, the first members returned to Hungary, on 24 November created the Party of Communists from Hungary; the name was chosen instead of "The Hungarian Communist Party" because the vast majority of supporters were from the urban industrial working class in Hungary which at the time was made up of people from non-Hungarian ethnic backgrounds, with ethnic Hungarians only a minority in the new party itself. The party recruited members while propagating its ideas, radicalising many members of the Social Democratic Party of Hungary in the process.
By February 1919, the party numbered 30,000 to 40,000 members, including many unemployed ex-soldiers, young intellectuals and ethnic minorities. The party came to power as the only group with an organized fighting force and promised Hungary would be able to defend its territory without conscription. Kun promised military help and intervention of the Soviet Red Army, which never came, against noncommunist Romanian, Czechoslovak and Yugoslav forces. Kun founded a newspaper, called Vörös Újság and concentrated on attacking Károlyi's liberal government. During the following months, the Communist Party's power-base expanded, its supporters began to stage aggressive demonstrations against the media and against the Social Democratic Party. The Communists considered the Social Democrats as their main rivals, because the Social Democrats recruited their political supporters from the same social class: the industrial working class of the cities. In one crucial incident, a demonstration turned violent on 20 February and the protesters attacked the editorial office of the Social Democratic Party of Hungary' official paper, Népszava.
In the ensuing chaos, seven people, some policemen, were killed. The government arrested the leaders of the Communist Party, banned Vörös Újság and closed down the party's buildings; the arrests were violent, with police officers beating the communists. This resulted in a wave of public sympathy for the party among the masses of Budapester proletariat. On 1 March, Vörös Újság was given permission to publish again, the Communist Party's premises were re-opened; the leaders were permitted to receive guests in prison, which allowed them to keep up with political affairs. On 20 March, president Mihály Károlyi announced. On 21 March, Károlyi informed the Council of Ministers that only Social Democrats could form a new government, as they were the party with the highest public support in the largest cities and in Budapest. In order to form a governing coalition, Social Democrats started secret negotiations with the Communist leaders – who were still imprisoned – and decided to merge their two parties under the name of Hungarian Socialist Party.
President Károlyi, an outspoken anti-Communist, was not informed about the fusion of the Communist and Social Democrat parties. Thus, while believing to have appointed a Social Democratic government, he found himself faced with one dominated by Communists. Mihály Károlyi resigned on 21 March. Béla Kun and his communist friends were released from the Margit Ring prison on the night of 20 March 1919. For the Social Democrats, an alliance with the KMP not only increased their standing with the industrial working class, but gave them a potential link to the powerful Russian Communist Party, as Kun had strong ties with prominent Russian Bolsheviks. Following Lenin's model, but without the direct participation of the workers' councils from which it took its name, the newly united Socialist Party created a government called the Revolutionary Governing Council, which proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic and dismissed President Károlyi on 21 March; the liberal president Károlyi was arrested by the new Communist government on the first day.
On 23 March, Lenin gave an order to Béla Kun, that Social Democrats must be removed from the power, thereby Hungary will
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t