Dániel Berzsenyi was a Hungarian poet. Berzsenyi was one of the most contradictory poets of Hungarian literature, he lived the life of a farmer, wished to be close to the events of Hungarian literature. This contradiction, which he believed he could solve, made him a lonesome and bitter poet, his works show signs of classicism and romanticism. Berzsenyi was born the only child of an old noble family. Although his father had a degree in law, he didn't practise as a lawyer; the father believed that his weak and sickly son must first get physically strong working on the farm. In his opinion, teaching children is only acceptable after the age of ten. In the autumn of 1788, the 12-year-old Berzsenyi began his studies at the evangelical lyceum in Sopron, he spent seven years there, with longer interruption. Due to his over-age, he had a hard time conforming himself to the discipline of the school and came up against the customs. In 1793, he left Sopron without finishing his studies and enlisted into the army, but he stayed there only for less than a year.
Although he never finished his studies, the years spent in Sopron left a deep impression in him. He read many books, acquired outstanding knowledge of the main subjects of that age, of the Latin and German language, his works point to the fact, that he knew the Roman mythology well, that his ideal was the Roman Horace. His father found Berzsenyi's behavior in Sopron unacceptable, the relationship of son and father got worse and worse. Due to his frequent conflicts with his father, he didn't return home from Sopron, but travelled to Nikla, to his uncle, he returned to his father for a few years, but the situation became worse with the death of his mother in the autumn of 1794, a lightning rod of some kind between the two men. As an "escape" from his father, he married the 14-year-old Zsuzsanna Dukai Takács, the daughter of a wealthy noble and settled with her on her farm near Sömjén. Berzsenyi became a outstanding farmer. In 1804, they moved to Somogy county. On the outside, he seemed to be satisfied.
On one hand, he was satisfied with his achievements as a farmer. On the other hand, he suffered from the lack of people he could converse with about literature or sciences. Berzsenyi hid them from his friends and family. In 1803, János Kis, an evangelic cleric and the godfather of one of his children, caught him while he was writing. Kis discovered the poet in Berzsenyi, sent three of his works to Ferenc Kazinczy, rather enthusiastic about them. In 1808, he sent János Kis a whole book of verse with 77 poems, he didn't date the poems, making it impossible to tell the exact time he wrote them. Kis sent them on to Ferenc Kazinczy to support their printed publishment. Kazinczy sent Berzsenyi his first, enthusiastic mail. Berzsenyi sent his reply, their long mailing began, he left Nikla rarely, he didn't like going away from home. He only visited Pest only twice: in March 1810, at the end of May 1813; the first time he met Kazinczy's poet friends. In 1812, he spent a week in Vienna. Here, he had a picture painted of himself in preparation for the front cover of his book.
After 1810, he had a rather unproductive era due to the matters of farming and quarrels with his family. His loneliness, his mood, prone to melancholy, versatile health made him vulnerable. From 1816 on, he had problems with his health every year, he read Kölcsey's strict, sometimes unfair recension in this unlucky state of mind. The recension was published in the issue of Tudományos Gyűjtemény in July, 1817. Berzsenyi felt the criticism degrading and unfounded, he believed that it was Ferenc Kazinczy behind the recension. Their mailing was suspended for three years. After Kölcsey's recension Berzsenyi wrote only a few more poems, his greatest wish was to give Kölcsey an appropriate answer. In his first indignation he wrote his anti-recension without any scientific preparation, as - until this time - he didn't study aesthetics. Although he sent it to the editors of Tudományos Gyűjtemény, but it was never published, he never got the manuscript back, despite his pressing requests. In the next years, the place of poetic creation was taken by scientific works and the study of aesthetics and literature: he tried to make up for the gaps in his knowledge.
The "appropriate" answer was published in 1825 with the title "Észrevételek Kölcsey recenziójára" in the September issue of the Tudományos Gyűjtemény - he spent eight years making it. He refused Kölcsey's pretensions based on the aesthetics of classicism in the name of romanticism: he is a poet who cannot be judged by the rules of hellenism. Berzsenyi spent most of his time on sciences, the numerous essays show this, he published "A versformákról". Between 1829 and 1834, he wrote "Kriticai levelek" as well. In 1830 he became the first provincial member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, his inaugural was published in 1833 with the title "Poetai harmonistica". In this essay he favored the aesthetic the
Gergely Csiky was a Hungarian dramatist. Csiky was born in the county of Arad, he studied Roman Catholic theology at Pest and Vienna, was professor in the Priests College at Timișoara from 1870 to 1878. In the latter year, however, he joined the Evangelical Church, took up literature. Beginning with novels and works on ecclesiastical history, which met with some recognition, he devoted himself to writing for the stage. Here his success was immediate. In his Az ellenállhatatlan, which obtained a prize from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he showed the distinctive features of his talent: directness, realistic vigor, individual style. In rapid succession he enriched Magyar literature with realistic genre pictures, such as A Proletárok, Buborékok, Két szerelem, A szégyenlős, etc. in all of which he seized on one or another feature or type of modern life, dramatizing it with unusual intensity, qualified by chaste and well-balanced diction. Of the latter, his classical studies may, no doubt, be taken as the inspiration, his translation of Sophocles and Plautus will long rank with the most successful of Magyar translations of the ancient classics.
Among the best known of his novels are Arnold, Az Atlasz család. He died in Budapest on 19 November 1891; the Csiky Gergely Theatre of Kaposvár and the Hungarian Theatre of Timişoara bear his name. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Csiky, Gregor". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 592. Works by Gergely Csiky at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Gergely Csiky at Internet Archive
Ferenc Kazinczy was a Hungarian author, translator, the most indefatigable agent in the regeneration of the Hungarian language and literature at the turn of the 19th century. Today his name is connected with the extensive Language Reform of the 19th century, when thousands of words were coined or revived, enabling the Hungarian language to keep up with scientific progress and become an official language of the nation in 1844. For his linguistic and literary works he is regarded as one of the cultural founders of the Hungarian Reform Era along with Dávid Baróti Szabó, Ferenc Verseghy, György Bessenyei, Mátyás Rát and János Kis. Ferenc Kazinczy was born in Érsemjén, Kingdom of Hungary, his father, József Kazinczy de Kazincz came from an old noble family and worked as a magistrate at Abaúj County. His mother was Zsuzsanna Bossányi de Nagybossány. Ferenc had four sisters; until the age of eight he was brought up by his maternal grandfather, Ferenc Bossányi, the notary of Bihar County and parliamentary ambassador, where he did not hear any foreign word during his first seven years.
He wrote his first letters in December 1764 to his parents. In 1766 his aunt got sick, therefore they moved to Debrecen for three months for the healing treatment. Kazinczy studied during that time at the College of Debrecen. After the death of his aunt he returned to his parents where he learnt Latin and German from a student of the College of Késmárk, his well educated and enlightened father, experiencing rare susceptibility, was delighted with his son, so he taught him and communicated with him in Latin and German. Kazinczy continued his language studies in Késmárk in 1768 in a preparatory class, his father, József Kazinczy wanted Ferenc to become a soldier, but Ferenc's resistance and the development of his other literary talents diverged him from his intent, he wanted to see his son as a writer. However the father, as a pietistic educator, understood under the profession of a writer a religious one, therefore ordered his fourteen-year-old son to translate Christian Fürchtegott Gellert's dissertations on religion from Latin to Hungarian.
Otherwise, the father provided his son advanced education: Ferenc was educated in foreign languages, could practice fine art and music, for seeing the world, he brought him to county assemblies and for the lunch of the emperor, Joseph II when the ruler visited Sárospatak. In 1774 the father urged his son to continue his translations, but Ferenc preferred to spend time reading György Bessenyei's Ágis tragédiája, Ignác Mészáros's Kártigám and other belles-lettres works, he broadened his knowledge with the idylls of Salomon Gessner and the poems of Vergilius, Anacreon. He did not neglect his theological studies, at home they debated over theological topics during lunch and dinner. After his father's death in 1774, he continued to pursue the translation of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert's De religione until his teacher of theology dismissed him to do it because he found Gellert's works too difficult to interpret. Ferenc turned from theological to more secular and national topics and prepared a short geographical description of the country.
István Losonczi Hányoki's Three Small Mirrors served as an example for his work. It was a childish compilation with the title Geography of Hungary... which he described as "suddenly scribbled" and was published in Kassa, Hungary at his mother's expense in 1775. On September 11, 1769, he became a student at the College of Sárospatak where he taught himself Ancient Greek, he studied law during his first years. In 1773 he started to learn rhetoric. In the same year December he greeted General Count Miklós Beleznay as a member of the thanksgiving delegation of the college in Bugyi on a special reception for donating money toward the construction of the college. Kazinczy saw Pest for the first time; until 1775 he attended the theology courses at the college and from a French soldier who came to Sárospatak learnt French. He translated György Bessenyei's short story written in German, Die Amerikaner, to Hungarian and published it in 1776 in Kassa with the title Az amerikai Podoc és Kazimir keresztyén vallásra való megtérése.
He recommended his translation to his mother. This work informed him about the principle of religious tolerance. In his translation Kazinczy used the word világosság the first time in the history of the Hungarian language. Bessenyei welcomed it and his response was inspirational for Kazinczy. Kazinczy understood Bessenyei's response as a liberating letter for the profession of an author, he was happy finding the contact with one of the most prominent authors in Hungarian literature of that time. But Kazinczy did not become a follower of Bessenyei, because Bessenyei as a culture politician and philosopher did not mature his works so much so that he could create a literary school. Ferenc's uncle was a member of the delegation of Zemplén County in Vienna at the royal court and he took the young Kazinczy along; this travel made a huge impact on him. It was the first time that Kazinczy saw the emperor's city, whose magnificent collections his pictures enthralled him. At that time Kazinczy followed the thoughts of Salomon Gessner, Christoph Martin Wieland and Dávid Baróti Szabó.
He got Sándor Báróczi's translation of Jean-François Marmontel's Contes Moraux from the librarian of Sárospatak, which became
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Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
Gáspár Heltai was a Transylvanian Saxon writer and printer. His name derives from the village Heltau. Despite being a German native speaker he published many books in Hungarian from his print-shop; the brother of his son-in-law was Ferenc Dávid and Unitarian preacher and the founder of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania.. He studied at Wittenberg University and he established the first print shop in Kolozsvár, he founded a public bath, a paper mill and the first brewery in the town. He was at the same time a pastor, printer, publisher and businessman, he is considered the first religious reformer of Kolozsvár. He was a great spirit of Hungarian Unitarian Reformation. Together with a group of scholars he produced an complete translation of the New Testament into Hungarian, his work marked the first buds of a secular literature in Hungary. Heltai's most voluminous work is his reworking and translation of Antonio Bonfini's Rerum Hungaricum Decades, which Heltai published in 1575 as Chronica az magyaroknak dolgairól.
The work was printed in Kolozsvár. Works by Gáspár Heltai at Post-Reformation Digital Library The text of the New Testament translation of Heltai in its original orthographic form is available and searchable in the Old Hungarian Corpus
Baron Bálint Balassi de Kékkő et Gyarmat was a Hungarian Renaissance lyric poet. He wrote in Hungarian, but was proficient in further eight languages: Latin, German, Turkish, Slovak and Romanian, he is the founder of erotic poetry. Balassi was born at Zólyom in the Kingdom of Hungary, he was educated by the reformer Péter Bornemisza and by his mother, the gifted Protestant zealot, Anna Sulyok. His first work was a translation of Michael Bock's Wurlzgertlein für die krancken Seelen, to comfort his father while in Polish exile. On his father's rehabilitation, Bálint accompanied him to court, was present at the coronation diet in Pressburg, capital of Royal Hungary in 1572, he joined the army and fought the Turks as an officer in the fortress of Eger in North-Eastern Hungary. Here he fell violently in love with Anna Losonczi, the daughter of the captain of Temesvár, evidently, from his verses, his love was not unrequited, but after the death of her first husband she gave her hand to Kristóf Ungnád.
Balassi only began to realize how much he loved Anna when he had lost her. He pursued her with gifts and verses, but she remained true to her pique and to her marriage vows, he could only enshrine her memory in immortal verse. In 1574 Bálint was sent to the camp of Gáspár Bekes to assist him against Stephen Báthory, his not rigorous captivity lasted for two years, during which he accompanied Báthory where the latter was crowned as King of Poland. He returned to Hungary soon after the death of János Balassi. In 1584 married his cousin, Krisztina Dobó, the daughter of the valiant commandant, István Dobó of Eger; this became the cause of many of his subsequent misfortunes. His wife's greedy relatives nearly ruined him by legal processes, when in 1586 he turned Catholic to escape their persecutions they slandered him that he and his son had embraced Islam, his desertion of his wife and legal troubles were followed by some years of uncertainty, but in 1589 he was invited to Poland to serve there in the impending war with Turkey.
This did not take place and after a spell in the Jesuit College of Braunsberg, somewhat disappointed, returned to Hungary in 1591. In the 15 years war he joined the Army, died at the siege of Esztergom-Víziváros the same year as the result of a severe leg wound caused by a cannonball, he is buried in Hybe in today's Slovakia. Balassi's poems fall into four divisions: hymns and martial songs, original love poems, adaptations from the Latin and German, they are all most original, exceedingly objective and so excellent in point of style that it is difficult to imagine him a contemporary of Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos and Péter Ilosvay. But his erotics are his best productions, they circulated in manuscript for generations and were never printed until 1874, when Farkas Deák discovered a perfect copy of them in the Radványi library. For beauty and transporting passion. There is nothing like them in Magyar literature until we come to the age of Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Sándor Petőfi. Balassi was the inventor of the strophe which goes by his name.
It consists of nine lines a b c c b d d b, or three rhyming pairs alternating with the rhyming third and ninth lines. The family tree of the Balassi family: Hungarian literary award that bears the name of Balassi: Balint Balassi Memorial Sword Award. Founded by: Pal Molnar. Balassi Institute Balint Balassi Memorial Sword Award Pal Molnar, founder of the Balint Balassi Memorial Sword Award Homepage of Balassi Sword www.balassi.eu