Romantic literature in English
Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century. Various dates are given for the Romantic period, but here the publishing of William Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads in 1798 is taken as the beginning, the crowning of Queen Victoria in 1837 as its end. Romanticism arrived in other parts of the English-speaking world, such as America; the Romantic period was one of major social change in England, because of the depopulation of the countryside and the rapid development of overcrowded industrial cities, that took place in the period between 1798 and 1832. The movement of so many people in England was the result of two forces: the Agricultural Revolution, that involved the enclosure of the land and drove workers off the land, the Industrial Revolution which provided them employment, "in the factories and mills, operated by machines driven by steam-power". Indeed, Romanticism may be seen in part as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, though it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, as well as a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.
The French Revolution was an important influence on the political thinking of many at this time. The Romantic movement in English literature of the early 19th century has its roots in 18th-century poetry, the Gothic novel and the novel of sensibility; this includes the graveyard poets, who were a number of pre-Romantic English poets, writing in the 1740s and whose works are characterised by their gloomy meditations on mortality, "skulls and coffins and worms" in the context of the graveyard. To this was added, by practitioners, a feeling for the'sublime' and uncanny, an interest in ancient English poetic forms and folk poetry, they are considered precursors of the Gothic genre. The poets include Thomas Gray, whose Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard is "the best known product of this kind of sensibility". Other precursors of Romanticism are the poets James James Macpherson; the sentimental novel or "novel of sensibility" is a genre which developed during the second half of the 18th century.
It celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment and sensibility. Sentimentalism, to be distinguished from sensibility, was a fashion in both poetry and prose fiction which began in the 18th century in reaction to the rationalism of the Augustan Age. Sentimental novels relied both from their readers and characters, they feature scenes of distress and tenderness, the plot is arranged to advance emotions rather than action. The result is a valorization of "fine feeling", displaying the characters as a model for refined, sensitive emotional effect; the ability to display feelings was thought to show character and experience, to shape social life and relations. Among the most famous sentimental novels in English are Samuel Richardson's Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded, Oliver Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy, Sentimental Journey, Henry Brooke's The Fool of Quality, Henry Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling and Maria Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent. Significant foreign influences were the Germans Goethe and August Wilhelm Schlegel and French philosopher and writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful is another important influence. The changing landscape, brought about by the industrial and agricultural revolutions, with the expansion of the city and depopulation of the countryside, was another influence on the growth of the Romantic movement in Britain; the poor condition of workers, the new class conflicts and the pollution of the environment led to a reaction against urbanism and industrialization and a new emphasis on the beauty and value of nature. In the late 18th century, Horace Walpole's 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto created the Gothic fiction genre, that combines elements of horror and romance; the pioneering gothic novelist Ann Radcliffe introduced the brooding figure of the gothic villain which developed into the Byronic hero. Her most popular and influential work The Mysteries of Udolpho is cited as the archetypal Gothic novel. Vathek by William Beckford, The Monk by Matthew Lewis, were further notable early works in both the gothic and horror literary genres.
The first short stories in the United Kingdom were gothic tales like Richard Cumberland's "remarkable narrative" The Poisoner of Montremos. The physical landscape is prominent in the poetry of this period—the Romantics, Wordsworth, are described as'nature poets'. However, these'nature poems' have wider concerns in that they are meditations on "an emotional problem or personal crisis"; the poet and printmaker William Blake was an early writer of this kind. Disconnected from the major streams of the literature of the time, Blake was unrecognised during his lifetime, but is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. Considered mad by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views, Blake is held in high regard by critics for his expressiveness and creativity, for the philosophical and mysti
Stanko Vraz was a Slovenian-Croatian poet. He Slavicized his name to Stanko Vraz in 1836. Born in the village of Cerovec in Lower Styria, Austrian Empire, Vraz was one of the most important figures of the Illyrian Movement in the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, he was the first Croatian to earn his living as a professional writer. He collected folk poems, he translated foreign literature into Croatian. While in Samobor, he met Julijana "Ljubica" Cantilly, the niece of his friend and colleague, Ljudevit Gaj, she served as his muse, he wrote and dedicated many poems and works to her. Stanko Vraz died in Zagreb in 1851. In 1842, he and two of his other contributors founded Kolo, one of Croatia's first literary magazines; the magazine, as well as his works, were influenced by national romanticism. Regarding the Slovene language, Vraz's most notable work is the work Narodne pesmi ilirske, koje se pevaju po Štajerskoj, Koruškoj i zapadnoj strani Ugarske, it contains folk songs and art songs in Slovene, accompanied by comments in Croatian.
These songs are the first Slovene texts in Gaj's Latin Alphabet. This orthography was used at the time by Croats and spread among Slovenes a few years later. Vraz created numerous poems in Slovene but for the most part they have never been published, he translated works of Lord Byron and Adam Mickiewicz. Illyrian Movement Works by or about Stanko Vraz at Internet Archive Poems by Stanko Vraz Media related to Stanko Vraz at Wikimedia Commons
Swedish Romantic literature
Swedish Romantic literature denotes Swedish literature between 1809 and 1830. In Europe, the period from circa 1805–1840 is known as Romanticism, it was strongly featured in Sweden, based on German influences. During this short period, there were so many great Swedish poets, that the era is referred to as the Golden Age of Swedish poetry; the period started around 1810 when several periodicals were published that contested the literature of the 18th century. An important society was the Gothic Society, their periodical Iduna, a romanticised retrospect to Gothicismus. One significant reason was. Four of the main romantic poets that made significant contributions to the movements were: the professor of history Erik Gustaf Geijer, the loner Erik Johan Stagnelius, professor of Greek language Esaias Tegnér and professor of aesthetics and philosophy P. D. A. Atterbom. Geijer was one of most prominent members of the neo-gothicist Gothic Society; as a professor he published two cultural-historical works: "Svea rikes hävder" and "Svenska folkets historia", where he gave support to the idea of the Viking Age being a cultural height, suppressed during the Middle Ages.
Stagnelius spent his short adult years living as an outsider in Stockholm. Many of his poems deal with the beauty in nature, encompassing the loneliness of the soul, it is both for his beauty and his mysticism that Stagnelius's works were to attain recognition; the fame of Atterbom comes from his flower poetry: Lycksalighetens ö, 1824–1827, a collection of poetry called Blommorna. Esaias Tegnér has been described as the first modern Swedish man, in the sense that much is known about both his life and his person, that he left an extensive correspondence, his great success lies on Frithiof's Saga, a romanticized version of the Icelandic sagas but in a modern dress. The work was translated into several languages, put to music in Sweden, where it had status of a national epos until the realism of the 1880s obsoleted it. Fredrika Bremer was the first writer of realism novel, in the spirit of Jane Austen, her most important contribution is that she introduced the novel in Swedish on a large scale.
Her most important novel was her last: Hertha, in 1856. Hertha is not so much. Viktor Rydberg was a key figure in the Swedish culture between 1855 and the modern breakthrough in 1879. In the spirit of Dickens, Rydberg wrote adventurous novels and stories that in reality were dealing with the poor and exposed people of society. Several works tried to define a world where Christianity became integrated with humanistic ideals of ancient Greece. Rydberg was noted for groundbreaking historical and theological works; when Sweden lost Finland in 1809, Finnish literature moved in its own direction. For the remainder of the 19th century however, it was still the educated Swedish speaking minority in Finland that authored most of Finland's literature. A key figure was the Swedish speaking Johan Ludvig Runeberg, was established himself as Finlands national poet, a distinction he has kept into modern times, his most important work was The Tales of Ensign Stål, an epic poem about the Finnish War, the first verse of which became Finland's national anthem.
After Runeberg, it was to be Zacharius Topelius. Although he wrote both novels and poetry, his most important contributions were children's books, with Läsning för barn. Algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature, published by the Swedish Institute, 1989. ISBN 91-520-0239-X Gustafson, Alrik A History of Swedish Literature, 1961. Tigerstedt, E. N. Svensk litteraturhistoria
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
The Counter-Enlightenment was a term that some 20th-century commentators have used to describe multiple strains of thought that arose in the late-18th and early-19th centuries in opposition to the 18th-century Enlightenment. Though the first known use of the term in English was in 1949 and there were several uses of it, including one by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, Counter-Enlightenment is associated with Isaiah Berlin, credited for re-inventing it; the starting point of discussion on this concept in English started with Isaiah Berlin's 1973 Essay, The Counter-Enlightenment. He published about the Enlightenment and its challengers and did much to popularise the concept of a Counter-Enlightenment movement that he characterized as relativist, anti-rationalist and organic, which he associated most with German Romanticism. Despite criticism of the Enlightenment being a discussed topic in twentieth-century thought, the term'Counter-Enlightenment' was underdeveloped, it was first mentioned in English in William Barrett's 1949 article "Art and Reason" in Partisan Review.
He used the term again in his 1958 book on Irrational Man. In Germany, the expression "Gegen-Aufklärung" has a longer history, it was coined by Friedrich Nietzsche in "Nachgelassene Fragmente" in 1877. Lewis White Beck used this term in his Early German Philosophy, a book about Counter-Enlightenment in Germany. Beck claims that there is a counter-movement arising in Germany in reaction to Frederick II's secular authoritarian state. On the other hand, Johann Georg Hamann and his fellow philosophers believe that a more organic conception of social and political life, a more vitalistic view of nature, an appreciation for beauty and the spiritual life of man have been neglected by the eighteenth century. Isaiah Berlin established this term's place in the history of ideas, he used it to refer to a movement that arose in late 18th- and early 19th-century Germany against the rationalism and empiricism, which are associated with the Enlightenment. Berlin's essay "The Counter-Enlightenment" was first published in 1973, reprinted in a collection of his works, Against the Current, in 1981.
The term has been more used since. Berlin argues that, while there were opponents of the Enlightenment outside of Germany and before the 1770s, Counter-Enlightenment thought did not start until the Germans'rebelled against the dead hand of France in the realms of culture and philosophy, avenged themselves by launching the great counter-attack against the Enlightenment.' This German reaction to the imperialistic universalism of the French Enlightenment and Revolution, forced on them first by the francophile Frederick II of Prussia by the armies of Revolutionary France and by Napoleon, was crucial to the shift of consciousness that occurred in Europe at this time, leading to Romanticism. The consequence of this revolt against the Enlightenment was pluralism; the opponents to the Enlightenment played a more crucial role than its proponents, some of whom were monists, whose political and ideological offspring have been terreur and totalitarianism. In his book Enemies of the Enlightenment, historian Darrin McMahon extends the Counter-Enlightenment back to pre-Revolutionary France and down to the level of'Grub Street,' thereby marking a major advance on Berlin's intellectual and Germanocentric view.
McMahon focuses on the early opponents to the Enlightenment in France, unearthing a long-forgotten'Grub Street' literature in the late 18th and early 19th centuries aimed at the philosophes. He delves into the obscure world of the'low Counter-Enlightenment' that attacked the encyclopédistes and fought to prevent the dissemination of Enlightenment ideas in the second half of the century. Many people from earlier times attacked the Enlightenment for undermining religion and the social and political order, it became a major theme of conservative criticism of the Enlightenment. After the French Revolution, it appeared to vindicate the warnings of the anti-philosophes in the decades prior to 1789. Cardiff University professor Graeme Garrard claims that historian William R. Everdell was the first to situate Rousseau as the "founder of the Counter-Enlightenment" in his 1971 dissertation and in his 1987 book, Christian Apologetics in France, 1730–1790: The Roots of Romantic Religion. In his 1996 article, "the Origin of the Counter-Enlightenment: Rousseau and the New Religion of Sincerity", in the American Political Science Review, Arthur M. Melzer corroborates Everdell's view in placing the origin of the Counter-Enlightenment in the religious writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, further showing Rousseau as the man who fired the first shot in the war between the Enlightenment and its opponents.
Graeme Garrard follows Melzer in his "Rousseau's Counter-Enlightenment". This contradicts Berlin's depiction of Rousseau as a philosophe who shared the basic beliefs of his Enlightenment contemporaries, but similar to McMahon, Garrard traces the beginning of Counter-Enlightenment thought back to France and prior to the German Sturm und Drang movement of the 1770s. Garrard's book Counter-Enlightenments broadens the term further, arguing against Berlin that there was no single'movement' called'The Counter-Enlightenment'. Rather, there have been many Counter-Enlightenments, from the middle of the 18th century to 20th-century Enlightenment among critical theorists and feminists; the Enlightenment has opponents on all points of its ideological compass
Danish Golden Age
The Danish Golden Age covers a period of exceptional creative production in Denmark during the first half of the 19th century. Although Copenhagen had suffered from fires and national bankruptcy, the arts took on a new period of creativity catalysed by Romanticism from Germany; the period is most associated with the Golden Age of Danish Painting from 1800 to around 1850 which encompasses the work of Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg and his students, including Wilhelm Bendz, Christen Købke, Martinus Rørbye, Constantin Hansen and Wilhelm Marstrand, as well as the sculpture of Bertel Thorvaldsen. It saw the development of Danish architecture in the Neoclassical style. Copenhagen, in particular, acquired a new look, with buildings designed by Christian Frederik Hansen and Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll. In relation to music, the Golden Age covers figures inspired by Danish romantic nationalism including J. P. E. Hartmann, Hans Christian Lumbye, Niels W. Gade and the ballet master August Bournonville.
Literature centred on Romantic thinking, introduced in 1802 by the Norwegian-German philosopher Henrik Steffens. Key contributors were Adam Oehlenschläger, Bernhard Severin Ingemann, N. F. S. Grundtvig and, last but not least, Hans Christian Andersen, the proponent of the modern fairytale. Søren Kierkegaard furthered philosophy while Hans Christian Ørsted achieved fundamental progress in science; the Golden Age thus had a profound effect not only on life in Denmark but, with time, on the international front too. The origins of the Golden Age can be traced back to around the beginning of the 19th century, a rough period for Denmark. Copenhagen, the centre of the country's intellectual life, first experienced huge fires in 1794 and 1795 which destroyed both Christiansborg Palace and large areas of the inner city. In 1801, as a result of the country's involvement in the League of Armed Neutrality, the British fleet inflicted serious damage on the city during the Battle of Copenhagen. In 1807, on rumours that the French might force Denmark to close the Baltic to their shipping, the British once again bombarded Copenhagen, this time targeting the city and its civilian population.
In 1813, as a result of the country's inability to support the costs of war, Denmark declared a State bankruptcy. To make matters worse, Norway ceased to be part of the Danish realm when it was ceded to Sweden the following year. Copenhagen's devastation provided new opportunities. Architects and planners widened the streets, constructing beautifully designed Neoclassical buildings offering a brighter yet intimate look. At the time, with a population of only 100,000, the city was still quite small, built within the confines of the old ramparts; as a result, the leading figures of the day met sharing their ideas, bringing the arts and the sciences together. Henrik Steffens was the most effective proponent of the Romantic idea. In a series of lectures in Copenhagen, he conveyed the ideas behind German romanticism to the Danes. Influential thinkers, such as Oehlenschläger and Grundtvig were quick to take up his views, it was not long before Danes from all branches of the arts and sciences were involved in a new era of Romantic nationalism known as the Danish Golden Age.
In the field of painting, change became apparent. While art had served to uphold the monarchy and the establishment, Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg and his students realized that, with the arrival of industrialization, the middle classes were gaining power and influence. Grand historical art gave way to more appealing but less pretentious genre paintings and landscapes; the Golden Age is believed to have lasted until about 1850. Around that time, Danish culture suffered from the outbreak of the First Schleswig War. In addition, political reforms involving the end of the absolute monarchy in 1848 and the adoption of the Danish constitution the following year signalled the beginning of a new era; the extension of Copenhagen beyond the old ramparts during the 1850s opened up new horizons for urban expansion. It was not until 1890 that the Danish philosopher Valdemar Vedel first used the term Guldalderen or Golden Age to describe the period. In 1896, author Vilhelm Andersen saw the Golden Age initiated by Henrich Steffens as the richest period in the cultural history of Denmark.
Around the beginning of the 19th century, the Golden Age of Danish Painting emerged to form a distinct national style for the first time since the Middle Ages. It has a style drawing on Dutch Golden Age painting its landscape painting, depicting northern light, soft but allows strong contrasts of colour; the treatment of scenes is an idealized version of reality, but unpretentiously so, appearing more realist than is the case. Interior scenes small portrait groups, are common, with a similar treatment of humble domestic objects and furniture of the artist's circle of friends. Little Danish art was seen outside the country although the Danish-trained leader of German Romantic painting Caspar David Friedrich was important in spreading its influence in Germany. A crucial figure was Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, who had studied in Paris with Jacques-Louis David and was further influenced towards Neo-Classicism by the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. Eckersberg taught at the Academy from 1818 to 1853, becoming director from 1827 to 1828, was an important influence on the following generation, in which landscape painting came to the fore.
He taught most of the leading artists of the period, including: Wilhel
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus