Principality of Serbia
The Principality of Serbia was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Its creation was negotiated first through an unwritten agreement between Miloš Obrenović, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising and Ottoman official Marashli Pasha, it was followed by the series of legal documents published by the Porte in 1828, 1829 and 1830 — the Hatt-i Sharif. Its de facto independence ensued in 1867, following the expulsion of all Ottoman troops from the country. In 1882 the country was elevated to the status of kingdom; the Serbian revolutionary leaders — first Karađorđe and Miloš Obrenović — succeeded in their goal of liberating Serbia from centuries-long Turkish rule. Turkish authorities acknowledged the state in 1830 by the charter known as the Hatt-i Sharif, Miloš Obrenović became a hereditary prince of the Serbian Principality. At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831–33 it expanded to the east and west.
In 1866 Serbia began campaign of forging The First Balkan Alliance by signing the series of agreements with other Balkan entities in period 1866-68. On 18 April 1867 the Ottoman government ordered the Ottoman garrison, since 1826 the last representation of Ottoman suzerainty in Serbia, withdrawn from the Belgrade fortress; the only stipulation was that the Ottoman flag continue to fly over the fortress alongside the Serbian one. Serbia's de facto independence dates from this event. A new constitution in 1869 defined Serbia as an independent state. Serbia was further expanded to the southeast in 1878, when its independence from the Ottoman Empire won full international recognition at the Treaty of Berlin; the Principality would last until 1882. 1835 Sretenje Constitution, in effect 1835 1838 Constitution of Serbia, in effect 1838–69 1869 Constitution of Serbia, in effect 1869–88 Akkerman Convention, treaty between the Russian Empire and Ottoman Empire, had article 5 on Serbia: autonomy, return of lands removed in 1813, Serbs were granted freedom of movement through the Ottoman Empire.
Rejected by Mahmud II in 1828. 1829 hatt-i sharif 1830 hatt-i sharif 1833 hatt-i sharif This is ethnic and religious composition of Principality of Serbia in 1866 and after that population by year. The Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty, except for a period under Prince Aleksandar of the Karađorđević dynasty. Princes Miloš and Mihailo Obrenović. History of Serbia Kingdom of Serbia Principality of Serbia in 1833 Principality of Serbia in 1878 Balkan Peninsula in 1878 Map Map
Paul Painlevé was a French mathematician and statesman. He served twice as Prime Minister of the Third Republic: 12 September – 13 November 1917 and 17 April – 22 November 1925, his entry into politics came in 1906 after a professorship at the Sorbonne that began in 1892. His first term as prime minister lasted only nine weeks but dealt with weighty issues, such as the Russian Revolution, the American entry into the war, the failure of the Nivelle Offensive, quelling the French Army Mutinies and relations with the British. In the 1920s as Minister of War he was a key figure in building the Maginot Line. In his second term as prime minister he dealt with the outbreak of rebellion in Syria's Jabal Druze in July 1925 which had excited public and parliamentary anxiety over the general crisis of France's empire. Painlevé was born in Paris. Brought up within a family of skilled artisans Painlevé showed early promise across the range of elementary studies and was attracted by either an engineering or political career.
However, he entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1883 to study mathematics, receiving his doctorate in 1887 following a period of study at Göttingen, Germany with Felix Klein and Hermann Amandus Schwarz. Intending an academic career he became professor at Université de Lille, returning to Paris in 1892 to teach at the Sorbonne, École Polytechnique and at the Collège de France and the École Normale Supérieure, he was elected a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1900. He married Marguerite Petit de Villeneuve in 1901. Marguerite died during the birth of their son Jean Painlevé in the following year. Painlevé's mathematical work on differential equations led him to encounter their application to the theory of flight and, as his broad interest in engineering topics fostered an enthusiasm for the emerging field of aviation. In 1908, he became Wilbur Wright's first airplane passenger in France and in 1909 created the first university course in aeronautics; some differential equations can be solved using elementary algebraic operations that involve the trigonometric and exponential functions.
Many interesting special functions arise as solutions of linear second order ordinary differential equations. Around the turn of the century, Painlevé, É. Picard, B. Gambier showed that of the class of nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations with polynomial coefficients, those that possess a certain desirable technical property, shared by the linear equations can always be transformed into one of fifty canonical forms. Of these fifty equations, just six require'new' transcendental functions for their solution; these new transcendental functions, solving the remaining six equations, are called the Painlevé transcendents, interest in them has revived due to their appearance in modern geometry, integrable systems and statistical mechanics. In 1895 he gave a series of lectures at Stockholm University on differential equations, at the end stating the Painlevé conjecture about singularities of the n-body problem. In the 1920s, Painlevé turned his attention to the new theory of gravitation, general relativity, introduced by Albert Einstein.
In 1921, Painlevé proposed the Gullstrand–Painlevé coordinates for the Schwarzschild metric. The modification in the coordinate system was the first to reveal that the Schwarzschild radius is a mere coordinate singularity; this essential point was not appreciated by physicists until around 1963. In his diary, Harry Graf Kessler recorded that during a visit to Berlin, Painlevé discussed pacifist international politics with Einstein, but there is no reference to discussions concerning the significance of the Schwarzschild radius. Between 1915 and 1917, Painlevé served as French Minister for Public Inventions. In December 1915, he requested a scientific exchange agreement between France and Britain, resulting in Anglo-French collaboration that led to the parallel development by Paul Langevin in France and Robert Boyle in Britain of the first active sonar. Painlevé took his aviation interests, along with those in naval and military matters, with him when he became, in 1906, Deputy for Paris's 5th arrondissement, the so-called Latin Quarter.
By 1910, he had vacated his academic posts and World War I led to his active participation in military committees, joining Aristide Briand's cabinet in 1915 as Minister for Public Instruction and Inventions. On his appointment as War Minister in March 1917 he was called upon to give his approval, albeit with some misgivings, to Robert Georges Nivelle's wildly optimistic plans for a breakthrough offensive in Champagne. Painlevé reacted to the disastrous public failure of the plan by dismissing Nivelle and controversially replacing him with Henri Philippe Pétain, he was responsible for isolating the Russian Expeditionary Force in France in the La Courtine camp, located in a remote spot on the plateau of Millevaches. On 7 September 1917, Prime Minister Alexandre Ribot lost the support of the Socialists and Painlevé was called upon to form a new government. Painlevé was a leading voice at the Rapallo conference that led to the establishment of the Supreme Allied Council, a consultative body of Allied powers that anticipated the unified Allied command established in the following year.
He appointed Ferdinand Foch as French representative knowing that he was the natural Allied commander. On Painlevé's return to Paris he was defeated and resigned on 13 November 1917 to be succeeded by Georges Cl
An analog computer or analogue computer is a type of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved. In contrast, digital computers represent varying quantities symbolically, as their numerical values change; as an analog computer does not use discrete values, but rather continuous values, processes cannot be reliably repeated with exact equivalence, as they can with Turing machines. Unlike machines used for digital signal processing, analog computers do not suffer from the discrete error caused by quantization noise. Instead, results from analog computers are subject to continuous error caused by electronic noise. Analog computers were used in scientific and industrial applications where digital computers of the time lacked sufficient performance. Analog computers can have a wide range of complexity. Slide rules and nomograms are the simplest, while naval gunfire control computers and large hybrid digital/analog computers were among the most complicated.
Systems for process control and protective relays used analog computation to perform control and protective functions. The advent of digital computing made simple analog computers obsolete as early as the 1950s and 1960s, although analog computers remained in use in some specific applications, like the flight computer in aircraft, for teaching control systems in universities. More complex applications, such as synthetic aperture radar, remained the domain of analog computing well into the 1980s, since digital computers were insufficient for the task. Setting up an analog computer required scale factors to be chosen, along with initial conditions—that is, starting values. Another essential was creating the required network of interconnections between computing elements. Sometimes it was necessary to re-think the structure of the problem so that the computer would function satisfactorily. No variables could be allowed to exceed the computer's limits, differentiation was to be avoided by rearranging the "network" of interconnects, using integrators in a different sense.
Running an electronic analog computer, assuming a satisfactory setup, started with the computer held with some variables fixed at their initial values. Moving a switch released the holds and permitted the problem to run. In some instances, the computer could, after a certain running time interval return to the initial-conditions state to reset the problem, run it again; this is a list of examples of early computation devices which are considered to be precursors of the modern computers. Some of them may have been dubbed as'computers' by the press, although they may fail to fit the modern definitions; the south-pointing chariot, invented in ancient China during the first millennium BC, can be considered the earliest analog computer. It was a mechanical-geared wheeled vehicle used to discern the southern cardinal direction; the Antikythera mechanism was an orrery and is claimed to be an early mechanical analog computer, according to Derek J. de Solla Price. It was designed to calculate astronomical positions.
It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, has been dated to circa 100 BC. Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use; the planisphere was a star chart invented by Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century. The astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world in either the 1st or 2nd centuries BC and is attributed to Hipparchus. A combination of the planisphere and dioptra, the astrolabe was an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy. An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer and gear-wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan, Persia in 1235. Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the first mechanical geared lunisolar calendar astrolabe, an early fixed-wired knowledge processing machine with a gear train and gear-wheels, circa 1000 AD.
The castle clock, a hydropowered mechanical astronomical clock invented by Al-Jazari in 1206, was the first programmable analog computer. The sector, a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry and division, for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in the late 16th century and found application in gunnery and navigation; the planimeter was a manual instrument to calculate the area of a closed figure by tracing over it with a mechanical linkage. The slide rule was invented around 1620–1630, shortly after the publication of the concept of the logarithm, it is a hand-operated analog computer for doing division. As slide rule development progressed, added scales provided reciprocals and square roots and cube roots, as well as transcendental functions such as logarithms and exponentials and hyperbolic trigonometry and other functions. Aviation is one of the few fields where slide rules are still in widespread use for solving time–distance problems in light aircraft.
Mathematician and engineer Giovanni Plana devised a Perpetual Calendar machine which, though a system of pulleys and cylinders and over, could predict the perpetual calendar for every year from 0AD to 4000AD, keeping track of leap years and varying day length. The tide-predicting machine invented by Sir William Thomson in 1872 was of great utility to navigation in shallow waters, it used a system of pulleys and wires to automatically calculate predicted tide levels for a set period at a particular location. The di
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Jules Henri Poincaré was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher of science. He is described as a polymath, in mathematics as "The Last Universalist," since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime; as a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, celestial mechanics. He was responsible for formulating the Poincaré conjecture, one of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics until it was solved in 2002–2003 by Grigori Perelman. In his research on the three-body problem, Poincaré became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern chaos theory, he is considered to be one of the founders of the field of topology. Poincaré made clear the importance of paying attention to the invariance of laws of physics under different transformations, was the first to present the Lorentz transformations in their modern symmetrical form.
Poincaré discovered the remaining relativistic velocity transformations and recorded them in a letter to Hendrik Lorentz in 1905. Thus he obtained perfect invariance of all of Maxwell's equations, an important step in the formulation of the theory of special relativity. In 1905, Poincaré first proposed gravitational waves emanating from a body and propagating at the speed of light as being required by the Lorentz transformations; the Poincaré group used in physics and mathematics was named after him. Poincaré was born on 29 April 1854 in Cité Ducale neighborhood, Meurthe-et-Moselle into an influential family, his father Leon Poincaré was a professor of medicine at the University of Nancy. His younger sister Aline married the spiritual philosopher Emile Boutroux. Another notable member of Henri's family was his cousin, Raymond Poincaré, a fellow member of the Académie française, who would serve as President of France from 1913 to 1920, he was raised in the Roman Catholic faith. During his childhood he was ill for a time with diphtheria and received special instruction from his mother, Eugénie Launois.
In 1862, Henri entered the Lycée in Nancy. He spent eleven years at the Lycée and during this time he proved to be one of the top students in every topic he studied, he excelled in written composition. His mathematics teacher described him as a "monster of mathematics" and he won first prizes in the concours général, a competition between the top pupils from all the Lycées across France, his poorest subjects were music and physical education, where he was described as "average at best". However, poor eyesight and a tendency towards absentmindedness may explain these difficulties, he graduated from the Lycée in 1871 with a bachelor's degree in sciences. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, he served alongside his father in the Ambulance Corps. Poincaré entered the École Polytechnique in 1873 and graduated in 1875. There he studied mathematics as a student of Charles Hermite, continuing to excel and publishing his first paper in 1874. From November 1875 to June 1878 he studied at the École des Mines, while continuing the study of mathematics in addition to the mining engineering syllabus, received the degree of ordinary mining engineer in March 1879.
As a graduate of the École des Mines, he joined the Corps des Mines as an inspector for the Vesoul region in northeast France. He was on the scene of a mining disaster at Magny in August 1879, he carried out the official investigation into the accident in a characteristically thorough and humane way. At the same time, Poincaré was preparing for his Doctorate in Science in mathematics under the supervision of Charles Hermite, his doctoral thesis was in the field of differential equations. It was named Sur les propriétés des fonctions. Poincaré devised a new way of studying the properties of these equations, he not only faced the question of determining the integral of such equations, but was the first person to study their general geometric properties. He realised that they could be used to model the behaviour of multiple bodies in free motion within the solar system. Poincaré graduated from the University of Paris in 1879. After receiving his degree, Poincaré began teaching as junior lecturer in mathematics at the University of Caen in Normandy.
At the same time he published his first major article concerning the treatment of a class of automorphic functions. There, in Caen, he met his future wife, Louise Poulin d'Andesi and on 20 April 1881, they married. Together they had four children: Jeanne, Henriette, Léon. Poincaré established himself among the greatest mathematicians of Europe, attracting the attention of many prominent mathematicians. In 1881 Poincaré was invited to take a teaching position at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris. During the years of 1883 to 1897, he taught mathematical analysis in École Polytechnique. In 1881–1882, Poincaré created a new branch of mathematics: qualitative theory of differential equations, he showed how it is possible to derive the most important information about the behavior of a family of solutions without having to solve the equation. He used this approach to problems in celestial mechanics and mathematical physics, he never aban
Peter I of Serbia
Peter I reigned as the last King of Serbia and as the first King of the Serbs and Slovenes. Since he was the king of Serbia during a period of great Serbian military success, he was remembered by Serbian people as King Peter the Liberator, known as Old King. Peter was Karađorđe's grandson and third son of Persida Nenadović and Prince Alexander Karađorđević, forced to abdicate. Peter lived with his family in exile, he fought with the French Foreign Legion in the Franco-Prussian War. He joined as volunteer under the alias Peter Mrkonjić in the Herzegovina Uprising against the Ottoman Empire, he married Princess Zorka of Montenegro, daughter of King Nicholas, in 1883. She gave birth including Prince Alexander. After the death of his father in 1885, Peter became head of the Karađorđević dynasty. After a military coup d'état and the murder of King Alexander I Obrenović in 1903, Peter became King of Serbia; as king, he advocated a constitutional setup for the country and was famous for his libertarian politics.
King Peter was the supreme commander of the Serbian army in the Balkan wars. Because of his age, on 24 June 1914, he proclaimed his son, heir-apparent to the throne, as regent. In the First World War he and his army retreated across Albania. Peter was born in Belgrade on 11 July 1844, the fifth of Prince Alexander Karađorđević and his consort Persida Nenadović's ten children, he was the grandson of Karađorđe, the leader of the First Serbian Uprising and the founder of the Karađorđević dynasty. Peter was not born in the Royal Court, undergoing renovations at the time, but at the home of merchant Miša Anastasijević, his birth was not met with much celebration because he was his parents' third son and his older brother Svetozar was the heir to the throne. His parents' oldest son, had died three years prior to Peter's birth, aged five, at which point Svetozar became heir. Peter did not become heir until Svetozar's death in 1847 at the age of six. Besides Belgrade, Peter spent much of his childhood in the town of Topola, from where the Karađorđević dynasty originated.
He received his elementary education in Belgrade. In 1858, just as the fourteen-year-old Peter was preparing to depart for Geneva to attend high school, his father was forced to abdicate the throne; the Karađorđević dynasty's rivals, the Obrenović dynasty, were reinstated, an Obrenović prince, claimed the throne. The two dynasties had been vying for power since 1817, when Karađorđe was assassinated on the orders of Miloš Obrenović, the founder of the Obrenović dynasty. Peter left Geneva for Paris in 1861 and enrolled in the Collège Sainte-Barbe, located in the heart of the city's Latin Quarter; the following year, Peter enrolled in France's most prestigious military academy. He graduated from the academy in 1864, continued living in Paris for some time thereafter. During this period, he pursued interests such as photography and painting, read works of political philosophy, learning about liberalism and democracy. In 1866, he entered the Higher Military School in Metz. Two years his Serbian-language translation of John Stuart Mill's On Liberty was published.
At the outbreak of the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War, Peter joined the French Foreign Legion under the pseudonym Petar Kara, together with relative Nikola Nikolajević. During his service, Peter held the rank of either lieutenant or second lieutenant, depending on the source, fought with the 1st Foreign Regiment, he participated in the Second Battle of Orléans on 3–4 December 1870, as well as the Battle of Villersexel on 9 January 1871. He was awarded the Legion of Honour for his conduct during the two battles, but was captured by the Prussians shortly thereafter, he returned to the front. Peter was involved in the Paris Commune in the spring of 1871, together with close friend and relative Vladimir Ljotić, though the exact nature of his involvement remains unknown. With the outbreak of the Great Eastern Crisis of 1875–78, which erupted after Bosnian Serb rebels in Nevesinje staged a revolt against the Ottoman Empire, Peter returned to the Balkans and fought the Ottomans in northwestern Bosnia.
He adopted the nom de guerre of Petar Mrkonjić, upon reaching the regions of Banija and Kordun in Austria-Hungary, took control of guerilla unit of about 200 men. He received a cold welcome, he discovered that Prince Milan of Serbia was plotting to assassinate him fearing that Peter would attempt to wrest back the throne from the Obrenović dynasty. This revelation, combined with a string of battlefield defeats, compelled Peter and his followers to leave Bosnia and withdraw to Austria-Hungary, they were subsequently detained by the Austro-Hungarian Army near Glina. Peter returned to Bosnia and organized another band of rebels. Once again, his involvement in the fighting aroused suspicion in Belgrade, by May 1876, his presence proved divisive; the rebels split into three separate camps: one that supported Peter, another that supported Milan and a third that advocated Austro-Hungarian arbitration. Not wishing to cause further divisions among the rebels, Peter agreed to leave Bosnia. Prior to his departure, he wrote a letter to Milan explaining why he was leaving the battlefield and offering to make peace with the Obrenović dynasty.
Despite his attempts to make peace with Milan, accusations of treason continued to be levelled against Peter. He decided to travel to Kragujevac, the seat of the Royal Serbian Government, address the National Assembly in an attempt to c